Angeles National Forest
Angelesnationalforest.jpg
The San Gabriel Mountains, part of the Angeles National Forest. The southwest view from Islip Saddle shows Bear Creek, a tributary of the San Gabriel River that lies within the San Gabriel Wilderness, and Twin Peaks 7,761 feet (2,366 m).
Map showing the location of Angeles National Forest
Map showing the location of Angeles National Forest
LocationLos Angeles, San Bernardino, and Ventura counties, California, United States
Nearest cityLos Angeles
Coordinates34°20′N 118°08′W / 34.333°N 118.133°W / 34.333; -118.133Coordinates: 34°20′N 118°08′W / 34.333°N 118.133°W / 34.333; -118.133
Area655,387 acres (2,652.26 km2)
EstablishedJuly 1, 1908
Governing bodyU.S. Forest Service
WebsiteAngeles National Forest
Reference no.717[1]
Monument
Monument

The Angeles National Forest (ANF) of the U.S. Forest Service is located in the San Gabriel Mountains and Sierra Pelona Mountains, primarily within Los Angeles County in southern California. The ANF manages a majority of the San Gabriel Mountains National Monument.

The national forest was established in 1908, incorporating the first San Bernardino National Forest and parts of the former Santa Barbara and San Gabriel National Forests. Angeles National Forest headquarters are located in Arcadia, California.

Geography

The Angeles National Forest covers a total of 700,176 acres (1,094.0 sq mi; 2,833.5 km2), protecting large areas of the San Gabriel Mountains and Sierra Pelona Mountains. It is located just north of the densely inhabited metropolitan area of Greater Los Angeles.

While primarily within Los Angeles County, a small part extends eastward into southwestern San Bernardino County, in the Mount San Antonio ("Mount Baldy") area, and a tiny section also extends westward into northeastern Ventura County, in the Lake Piru area.

The San Gabriel Mountains National Monument, established in 2014 and managed by the U.S. Forest Service, is largely within the Angeles National Forest.

The John D. Dingell Jr. Conservation, Management, and Recreation Act of 2019 established the Saint Francis Dam Disaster National Memorial and Saint Francis Dam Disaster National Monument at and around the ruins of the St. Francis Dam in the Forest's San Francisquito Canyon.[2]

Wilderness areas

The Angeles National Forest contains five nationally designated wilderness areas. Two of these also extend into neighboring San Bernardino National Forest:

Climate

Climate data for Angeles National Forest (at San Gabriel Canyon)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 68.5
(20.3)
69.1
(20.6)
70.0
(21.1)
73.3
(22.9)
77.9
(25.5)
84.0
(28.9)
91.5
(33.1)
91.7
(33.2)
87.5
(30.8)
80.9
(27.2)
75.5
(24.2)
68.5
(20.3)
78.2
(25.7)
Average low °F (°C) 47.2
(8.4)
47.3
(8.5)
47.8
(8.8)
49.7
(9.8)
53.1
(11.7)
55.8
(13.2)
58.7
(14.8)
59.9
(15.5)
58.7
(14.8)
55.1
(12.8)
52.7
(11.5)
47.9
(8.8)
52.8
(11.6)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 4.40
(112)
5.06
(129)
3.50
(89)
1.69
(43)
0.62
(16)
0.19
(4.8)
0.04
(1.0)
0.11
(2.8)
0.39
(9.9)
0.86
(22)
1.92
(49)
3.49
(89)
22.28
(566)
Source: [3]
Climate data for Angeles National Forest (at Hughes Lake)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 51
(11)
55
(13)
59
(15)
64
(18)
71
(22)
80
(27)
89
(32)
89
(32)
84
(29)
73
(23)
60
(16)
53
(12)
68
(20)
Average low °F (°C) 35
(2)
37
(3)
39
(4)
44
(7)
50
(10)
59
(15)
66
(19)
66
(19)
60
(16)
51
(11)
41
(5)
35
(2)
48
(9)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 4.20
(107)
1.30
(33)
3.11
(79)
0.80
(20)
0.18
(4.6)
0
(0)
0.01
(0.25)
0.03
(0.76)
0.15
(3.8)
0.26
(6.6)
1.81
(46)
2.48
(63)
14.32
(364)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 0
(0)
0.5
(1.3)
0.1
(0.25)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1.5
(3.8)
2.1
(5.3)
Source: [4]
Climate data for Angeles National Forest (at Mt. Baldy Notch)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 42.7
(5.9)
42.3
(5.7)
41.7
(5.4)
48.0
(8.9)
59.1
(15.1)
67.7
(19.8)
75.3
(24.1)
77.4
(25.2)
68.1
(20.1)
59.8
(15.4)
48.3
(9.1)
42.2
(5.7)
56.0
(13.3)
Average low °F (°C) 26.4
(−3.1)
25.7
(−3.5)
25.2
(−3.8)
29.4
(−1.4)
37.3
(2.9)
43.2
(6.2)
53.2
(11.8)
52.6
(11.4)
46.3
(7.9)
40.2
(4.6)
30.9
(−0.6)
26.0
(−3.3)
36.4
(2.4)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 8.45
(215)
7.80
(198)
3.70
(94)
4.62
(117)
0.81
(21)
0.07
(1.8)
0.37
(9.4)
0.35
(8.9)
1.24
(31)
0.65
(17)
5.71
(145)
6.58
(167)
40.36
(1,025)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 11.9
(30)
20.5
(52)
29.5
(75)
44.6
(113)
3.2
(8.1)
0.3
(0.76)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.5
(1.3)
0.9
(2.3)
6.3
(16)
13.5
(34)
131.3
(334)
Source: [5]

History

The San Gabriel Forest Reserve was established on December 20, 1892, the San Bernardino Forest Reserve was established on February 25, 1893, and the Santa Barbara Forest Reserve was established on December 22, 1903. Together, they became National Forests on March 4, 1907, and they were combined on July 1, 1908, with all of the San Bernardino forest and portions of San Gabriel forest and Santa Barbara forest composing the new Angeles National Forest. In 1916, there was a movement to create the Sierra Madre National Park, but that never occurred.[6]

On September 30, 1925, portions of the Angeles National Forest and the Cleveland National Forest were detached to re-establish the San Bernardino National Forest.[7]

Angeles National Forest is registered as California Historical Landmark #717, for being the first National Forest in the state.[1]

The campgrounds at Broken Blade, Twisted Arrow and Pima Loops were closed on July 26, 2013, after squirrel infected with bubonic plague was discovered.[8]

Wildfires

2014, new growth emerges after the fires of 2012
2014, new growth emerges after the fires of 2012

Loop Fire

Main article: Loop Fire

On 1 November 1966, a fire started at 5:19 a.m. on the Los Pinetos Nike Site (LA-94). The fire spread, threatening medical facilities and residential areas south edge of the national forest. 12 firefighters with United States Forest Service's El Cariso "Hot Shot" crew were killed they were caught in a flare up in a canyon. 11 more firefighters were seriously burned in the incident.[9] The fire was brought under control on at 1:00 p.m. on 2 November, having burned 2,028 acres (8.21 km2).[9]

Station Fire

Main article: Station Fire (2009)

In the Station Fire, more than 161,000 acres (650 km2) of the forest were burned by an arson fire that began on August 26, 2009, near Angeles Crest Highway in La Cañada and quickly spread, fueled by dry brush that had not burned for over 150 years. The fire burned for more than a month and was the worst in Los Angeles County history, charring 250 square miles (650 km2), approximately one-fourth of the forest; displacing wildlife, and destroying 91 homes, cabins and outbuildings and the family-owned Hidden Springs Cafe.

During the fire, two firefighters died after driving off the Mt. Gleason County Road looking for an alternate route to get the inmates out at Camp 16. The Station Fire threatened the Mount Wilson Observatory atop Mt. Wilson . The site includes two telescopes, two solar towers, and transmitters for 22 television stations, several FM radio stations, and police and fire department emergency channels. Although the fire scorched one side of the outhouse at amateur-owned Stony Ridge Observatory, six miles northeast of Mt. Wilson, aside from minor damage from smoke and ash infiltration, the remainder of the observatory and its historic 30-inch Carroll telescope survived.

Bobcat Fire (2020)

Main article: Bobcat Fire

In September and October 2020, the Bobcat Fire burned 115,796 acres (180.931 sq mi) (468 km2) in the central San Gabriel Mountains of the Angeles National Forest. It was one of the largest wildfires in Los Angeles County history.[10]

Natural history

Further information: California montane chaparral and woodlands, Mediterranean California Lower Montane Black Oak-Conifer Forest, and California mixed evergreen forest

The Angeles National Forest manages the habitats, flora and fauna ecosystems, and watersheds. Some of the rivers with watersheds within its boundaries provide valuable non-groundwater recharge water for Southern California. The existing protected and restored native vegetation absorb and slow surface runoff of rainwater to minimize severe floods and landslides in adjacent communities.[11] The land within the forest is diverse, both in appearance and terrain. Elevations range from 1,200 to 10,064 ft (366 to 3,068 m). The Pacific Crest Trail crosses the forest.

Flora

Various mountain plant life with the Chaparral yucca at right.
Various mountain plant life with the Chaparral yucca at right.

Much of this National Forest is covered with dense chaparral shrub forests with oak woodlands, which changes to pine and fir-covered slopes in the higher elevations. Subsequent to the fire there was a heavy growth of poodle-dog bush, apparently triggered by the fire's effect on dormant seeds, that lasted for several years. The plant produces prolific lavender flowers. Unfortunately, as visitors to the Forest discovered, contact with it may cause a poison-oak-like rash.

Tree species for which the forest is important include bigcone Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga macrocarpa), Coulter pine (Pinus coulteri), and California walnut (Juglans californica). The National Forest also contains some 29,000 acres (12,000 ha) of old growth, with Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) forests, as well as mixed conifer forests (with Coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), white fir (Abies concolor), and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) being the most abundant trees).[12]

Fauna

This forest is home to black bears, gray foxes, bobcats, cougars, mule deer, bighorn sheep, rattlesnakes and coyotes.

Access

A National Forest Adventure Pass is required for parking at many locations in the Angeles National Forest and other National Forests in Southern California, and this can be obtained online or from visitor centers and local merchants.[13] Los Angeles County has declared that passes are not required on county-maintained roads. There are also many other areas that do not require the pass.

General information

Angeles National Forest, the two green areas north of Los Angeles.
Angeles National Forest, the two green areas north of Los Angeles.

Ranger Districts

Trails

Natural features

The east fork of the San Gabriel River is one of most visited sites in the forest system.
The east fork of the San Gabriel River is one of most visited sites in the forest system.

Sensitive species

Mountain peaks

Mount Islip.
Mount Harwood, from Devils Backbone
Mount Harwood, from Devils Backbone

Mountains within the Angeles National Forest include:

All the above mountains are part of the San Gabriel Mountains, except for Burnt Peak, which is in the Sierra Pelona Mountains.

Water recreation

Volunteer organizations

Gallery

California Historical Landmark

The California Historical Landmark Marker NO. 717 at San Gabriel Mountain, Clear Creek vista point, State Hwy 2, 8.3 mi N of I-210, La Canada reads:[24]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Angeles National Forest". Office of Historic Preservation, California State Parks. Retrieved October 7, 2012.
  2. ^ "Trump's signature means St. Francis Dam memorial is coming". Ventura County Star. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
  3. ^ "SAN GABRIEL CANYON, CALIFORNIA (047776)". www.wrcc.dri.edu. Retrieved April 19, 2021.
  4. ^ "LAKE HUGHES, CALIFORNIA". www.weatherbase.com. Retrieved April 19, 2021.
  5. ^ "MT BALDY NOTCH, CALIFORNIA (045901)". www.wrcc.dri.edu. Retrieved March 27, 2021.
  6. ^ Masters, Nathan (September 28, 2021). "The Lost Plan to Create a National Park in L.A.'s Backyard". KCET.
  7. ^ Davis, Richard C. (September 29, 2005), National Forests of the United States (PDF), The Forest History Society
  8. ^ "Plague squirrel closes Calif. campgrounds". USA Today. July 26, 2013. Retrieved July 26, 2013.
  9. ^ a b Pyles, Hamilton; Spaulding, Alfred; Wilson, Carl; Moore, William; Brunton, George (n.d.). "The Loop Fire Disaster" (PDF). Fireleadership.gov. United States Forest Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 16, 2019. Retrieved June 29, 2019.
  10. ^ "Bobcat Information". InciWeb. nwcg.gov. September 6, 2020.
  11. ^ Lockman, Ronald F. (1981). Guarding the Forests of Southern California: Evolving Attitudes Toward Conservation of Watershed, Woodlands, and Wilderness. Glendale: A. H. Clarke. ISBN 9780870621406.
  12. ^ Warbington, Ralph; Beardsley, Debby (2002). "2002 Estimates of Old Growth Forests on the 18 National Forests of the Pacific Southwest Region". United States Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region.
  13. ^ "Angeles Passes and Permits". Angeles Permits. Archived from the original on January 17, 2013. Retrieved February 14, 2008.
  14. ^ USFS.gov: Mt. Islip fire lookout tower
  15. ^ "Sierra Madre Search & Rescue".
  16. ^ "San Gabriel Mountain Trailbuilders".
  17. ^ "West Fork Conservancy".
  18. ^ "Angeles Volunteer Association".
  19. ^ "Fisheries Resource Volunteer Corps".
  20. ^ "San Dimas Mountain Rescue Team".
  21. ^ "Save The East Fork".
  22. ^ "Helping Our Mountain Environment page)" – via Facebook.
  23. ^ "Lowelifes RCC". Lowelifes Respectable Citizens' Club. Retrieved July 27, 2021.
  24. ^ "CHL No. 717 Angeles National Forest - Los Angeles". Angeles National Forest.

Further reading