Central
Central as viewed from Tsim Sha Tsui, on the opposite side of Victoria Harbour
Traditional Chinese中環
Simplified Chinese中环
Cantonese YaleJūng Wàahn

Central (also Central District) is the central business district of Hong Kong. It is located in the northeastern corner of the Central and Western District, on the north shore of Hong Kong Island, across Victoria Harbour from Tsim Sha Tsui, the southernmost point of Kowloon Peninsula. The area was the heart of Victoria City, although that name is rarely used today.[1]

As the central business district of Hong Kong, it is the area where many multinational financial services corporations have their headquarters. Consulates general and consulates of many countries are also located in this area, as is Government Hill, the site of the government headquarters until 2011. The area, with its proximity to Victoria Harbour, has served as the centre of trade and financial activities from the earliest days of the British colonial era in 1841, and continues to flourish and serve as the place of administration after the handover to China in 1997.

Naming

View of Central and Victoria Harbour from Victoria Peak. Tsim Sha Tsui is visible across the harbour.
Admiralty, Central and the Central and Wan Chai Reclamation, view from the east in 2010.
The General Post Office, the City Hall, and the surrounding business buildings in Central, viewed from the west.

The area of Chung Wan[2][3] (aka Choong Wan in the past;[4][5][6] 中環), named Central in English, was one of the districts (四環九約) in Victoria City. The English name Central became prevalent after the Island line of the MTR metro system was built in the early 1980s,[citation needed] and the connected stations of Pedder and Chater renamed as Central. On some older maps, it and the area to its west are named Kwan Tai Lo (羣帶路) below Victoria Peak. It formed a channel, Chung Mun (中門), with Tsim Sha Tsui, on the sea route along the coast of southern China. The eastern part of Central District has been known as Admiralty since the completion of Admiralty station in the early 1980s.[citation needed]

Location

Central is located on the north shore of Hong Kong Island, across Victoria Harbour from Tsim Sha Tsui, the southernmost point of Kowloon Peninsula. It is bordered in the west by Sheung Wan, with the border being along Aberdeen Street (also called Wing Kut Street). It is bordered in the east by Admiralty, an eastern extension of the central business district. As such, Admiralty is sometimes considered a part of Central. Central is bordered in the south by Mid-Levels, an area halfway up Victoria Peak. The boundary between Central and Mid-Levels is not clearly defined.

For district council elections purposes, the area, together with Admiralty, correspond roughly to the "Chung Wan" constituency.[7] The boundaries of such constituencies may be subject to modification.[8]

History

Central waterfront in the 1920s.
The Court of Final Appeal Building, completed in 1912, once used as the building of Legislative Council of Hong Kong from 1985 to 2011.

The British landed on Possession Point of Sheung Wan in 1841. They soon decided to build a city on the north coast of Hong Kong Island, and the present-day Central was chosen to house major military facilities and an administrative centre. The area soon attracted both Westerners and Chinese to trade and live in the area, and a Canton Bazaar (precursor of Central Market) was built between Cochrane Street and Graham Street in 1842. The area was soon zoned for Westerners only, and the Chinese residents were restricted to Sheung Wan. [It was zoned for "Western-style buildings," meaning buildings with minimum space and hygiene standards]. The area was largely dominated by the presence of Victoria City. The popularity of this area would also boost the population of Hong Kong from 5,000 in 1841 to 24,000 in 1848.[9] Government House and other Hong Kong Government buildings were completed during this period on Government Hill. Various barracks, naval bases and the residence of Commander, Flagstaff House were built on the east end of the district. Between 1860 and 1880 the construction of City Hall, Theatre Royal and other financial structures made Central the heart of Hong Kong.[citation needed]

In 1904, the Praya Reclamation Scheme added 59 acres (24 ha) of land to Central's waterfront. Many of the proposals came from Sir Paul Chater and James Johnstone Keswick, the founders of Hongkong Land.[10] During the 1920s, Hong Kong was able to push far ahead economically, because of the cohesive collaboration between Central and all waterfront commerce.[citation needed]

The military structures survived until the 1980s. Only Flagstaff House remains as Museum of Tea Ware in Hong Kong Park. City Hall sat on the present premises of the HSBC Hong Kong headquarters. Hong Kong's first road, Queen's Road, passes through the area and the business centre continued to expand toward the shoreline as far as the reclaimed lands.[citation needed]

Central has been the site of a number of major political protests. From October 2011 to September 2012, the Occupy Central movement against global economic inequality was based in front of the HSBC Main Building.[11] Two years later, in September 2014, democratic activists initiated Occupy Central with Love and Peace, demanding universal suffrage for the election of the Chief Executive of Hong Kong, eventually contributing to the Umbrella Revolution.[12]

Economy

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2011)

There are many Grade-A commercial buildings in Central,[13] a prime commercial district in Hong Kong.

Bank of China (Hong Kong) has its head office in the Bank of China Tower.[14] The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, a subsidiary of HSBC, has its head office in the HSBC Main Building.[15] Bank of East Asia and Hang Seng Bank have their head offices in Central.[16][17] Chu Kong Passenger Transport is headquartered in the Chu Kong Shipping Tower (珠江船務大廈) in Central.[18] The head office of New World Development is in the New World Tower [zh] in Central.[19] HKR International has its head office in Shun Tak Centre.[20]

Before 1999, Cathay Pacific had its head office in the Swire House in Central.[21] In 1999, the airline relocated its head office to the Hong Kong International Airport.[22]

Nord Anglia Education, which operates international schools in various countries, formerly had its head office in Central.[23] The head office moved to Hong Kong in 2012.[24] In 2018 the company announced it was returning its head office to the United Kingdom.[25]

Notable places, streets and buildings

Office buildings

Night view of Statue Square. From left to right: Bank of China Tower, HSBC Main Building, Standard Chartered Bank Building and Prince's Building
Two International Finance Centre.

Streets and squares

Pedder Street
Intersection of the lower end of D'Aguilar Street with Queen's Road in 2016

Government buildings

Central Government Complex, Tamar under construction in March 2011.
Former French Mission Building
The Cenotaph
St. John's Cathedral
Chater Garden

Other historical buildings

Hotels

Central, together with Tsim Sha Tsui and Tsim Sha Tsui East, is home to many hotels.

Serviced Apartments

It provides alternative options for those who do not want to stay in Hotels, but looking for flexible lease terms, below are some examples:[32]

Entertainment areas

Places of worship

Parks

Protesters in Chater Garden on 28 July 2019

Schools

Central is in Primary One Admission (POA) School Net 11. Within the school net are multiple aided schools (operated independently but funded with government money) and the following government schools: Bonham Road Government Primary School and Li Sing Primary School [zh] (李陞小學).[33]

Former buildings

Edinburgh Place Ferry Pier was demolished in 2007.

Transport

Tram in Central.
View of the Central Piers.
Central–Mid-Levels escalators at Cochrane Street.
The night view of Connaught Road Central

Public transport

The area is a major transport hub for Hong Kong (see also Transport in Hong Kong).

Expressways and routes

Climate

Climate data for Hong Kong Park (2011–2020) Extremes (2008–present) Sunshine hours (2017–2021)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 28.4
(83.1)
27.9
(82.2)
30.9
(87.6)
32.3
(90.1)
35.8
(96.4)
34.8
(94.6)
36.0
(96.8)
36.1
(97.0)
35.8
(96.4)
34.2
(93.6)
32.0
(89.6)
29.0
(84.2)
36.1
(97.0)
Mean maximum °C (°F) 25.3
(77.5)
26.4
(79.5)
28.3
(82.9)
30.4
(86.7)
33.2
(91.8)
34.1
(93.4)
34.8
(94.6)
35.2
(95.4)
34.2
(93.6)
32.1
(89.8)
29.6
(85.3)
26.4
(79.5)
35.5
(95.9)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 19.6
(67.3)
20.0
(68.0)
22.3
(72.1)
25.8
(78.4)
29.0
(84.2)
31.2
(88.2)
31.8
(89.2)
31.8
(89.2)
31.0
(87.8)
28.6
(83.5)
25.5
(77.9)
21.1
(70.0)
26.5
(79.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 16.5
(61.7)
17.0
(62.6)
19.4
(66.9)
22.9
(73.2)
26.4
(79.5)
28.5
(83.3)
28.7
(83.7)
28.6
(83.5)
27.8
(82.0)
25.6
(78.1)
22.7
(72.9)
18.0
(64.4)
23.5
(74.3)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 14.3
(57.7)
14.9
(58.8)
17.3
(63.1)
20.8
(69.4)
24.4
(75.9)
26.5
(79.7)
26.5
(79.7)
26.2
(79.2)
25.6
(78.1)
23.4
(74.1)
20.7
(69.3)
15.7
(60.3)
21.4
(70.5)
Mean minimum °C (°F) 8.8
(47.8)
9.8
(49.6)
12.8
(55.0)
16.6
(61.9)
20.3
(68.5)
23.7
(74.7)
24.2
(75.6)
23.7
(74.7)
23.5
(74.3)
19.9
(67.8)
15.6
(60.1)
9.7
(49.5)
7.9
(46.2)
Record low °C (°F) 2.9
(37.2)
6.7
(44.1)
8.4
(47.1)
13.6
(56.5)
16.7
(62.1)
20.3
(68.5)
22.2
(72.0)
22.6
(72.7)
22.2
(72.0)
15.0
(59.0)
10.0
(50.0)
5.8
(42.4)
2.9
(37.2)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 157.8 136.6 141.3 149.9 159.7 146.0 202.2 163.6 197.4 198.7 182.6 168.0 2,003.8
Source: Hong Kong Observatory[34][35][36]

References

  1. ^ Tsang, Steve (2004). A Modern History of Hong Kong. I.B. Tauris. p. 17. ISBN 1-84511-419-1.
  2. ^ http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr03-04/chinese/panels/ha/papers/ha0109cb2-2253-1ce.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  3. ^ https://www.facebook.com/story.php?story_fbid=587897254621475&substory_index=0&id=541641519247049[user-generated source]
  4. ^ Map of circa 1880
  5. ^ http://www.aab.gov.hk/form/20210315_historic_3_new_items.pdf#page=1 Archived 24 April 2021 at the Wayback Machine[bare URL PDF]
  6. ^ https://www.amo.gov.hk/form/PMQ-HIA-vol_01-BHIA.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  7. ^ District Council electoral boundaries – Central and Western District
  8. ^ Press release: "Public consultation on proposed constituency boundaries for 2011 District Council Election", 3 December 2010
  9. ^ Sanderson, Edgar (1897–1898). The British Empire in the nineteenth century: its progress and expansion at home and abroad. Vol. IV. London: Blackie and Son. p. 337. LCCN 02002538. OCLC 11625716.
  10. ^ Wordie, Jason. [2002] (2002) Streets: Exploring Hong Kong Island. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 962-209-563-1
  11. ^ Bradsher, Keith (11 September 2012). "Occupy Hong Kong Protesters Forcibly Removed". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 24 October 2023.
  12. ^ Barber, Elizabeth; Campbell, Charlie (28 September 2014). "Police Fire Tear Gas at Hong Kong Democracy Rally". Time. Retrieved 24 October 2023.
  13. ^ Office For Rent at Central Treasure Land. Retrieved 3 Oct 2018
  14. ^ "Contact Us Archived 20 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine." Bank of China. Retrieved on 11 September 2011. "Registered Office BOC Hong Kong (Holdings) Limited 52/F Bank of China Tower 1 Garden Road Hong Kong"
  15. ^ "Contact Us." HSBC. Retrieved on 12 September 2011. "The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Ltd The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation – Hong Kong Address: GPO Box 64, Hong Kong, 1 Queen's Road Central, Hong Kong SAR, China"
  16. ^ "Investor Enquiries." Bank of East Asia. Retrieved on 11 September 2011. "Registered Office: 10 Des Voeux Road Central, Central, Hong Kong"
  17. ^ "Business Banking Centres." Hang Seng Bank. Retrieved on 11 September 2011. "Level 1 & 6, Hang Seng Headquarters, 83 Des Voeux Road, Central" (Map Archived 2 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine)
  18. ^ "Contact Us". Chu Kong Passenger Transport. Retrieved 25 August 2021. Company Address: 22/F.,Chu Kong Shipping Tower, 143 Connaught Road Central, Hong KongTraditional Chinese: "香港干諾道中一四三號珠江船務大廈22字樓" , Simplified Chinese: "香港干诺道中一四三号珠江船务大厦22字楼"
  19. ^ "Contact Us". New World Development. Retrieved 15 September 2022. 30/F, New World Tower, 18 Queen's Road, Central, Hong KongTraditional Chinese address: "香港中環皇后大道中18號新世界大廈30樓", Simplified Chinese address: "香港中环皇后大道中18号新世界大厦30楼"
  20. ^ "Contact Us". HKR International Limited. Retrieved 9 December 2023. Mail HKR International Limited 23/F, China Merchants Tower Shun Tak Centre 168 Connaught Road Central Hong Kong - Traditional Chinese: "香港干諾道中168號 信德中心招商局大廈23樓", Simplified Chinese: "香港干诺道中168号 信德中心招商局大厦23楼"
  21. ^ "World Airline Directory" (PDF). Flight International. 30 March 1985. p. 68. Retrieved 17 June 2009. "Head Office: Swire House, 9 Connaught Road, C, Hong Kong"
  22. ^ "Cathay Pacific wins award for providing a smoke-free workplace at its Hong Kong Headquarters" (Press release). Cathay Pacific. 6 January 2005. Retrieved 2 July 2009.
  23. ^ "Contact Us." Nord Anglia Education. Retrieved on 5 March 2016. "Central Office Address: Nord Anglia Education St George's Building Level 12 2 Ice House Street Central Hong Kong"
  24. ^ "Nord Anglia Education Relocates its Global Headquarters to Hong Kong". Nord Anglia Education. 15 January 2012. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  25. ^ "Nord Anglia moves HQ to London". The PIE News. Professionals in International Education. 10 October 2018. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  26. ^ "Central Office for Rent — CBD OFFICE RENTAL | HONG KONG (2022–23)". CBD OFFICE RENTAL | HONG KONG. Retrieved 9 September 2022.
  27. ^ "辦公室出租 | 香港 (2023–24)". 辦公室出租 | 香港. Retrieved 31 January 2023.
  28. ^ [1] The Henderson
  29. ^ Yanne, Andrew; Heller, Gillis (2009). Signs of a Colonial Era. Hong Kong University Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-962-209-944-9.
  30. ^ Lim, Patricia. [2002] (2002). Discovering Hong Hong's Cultural Heritage. Central, Hong Kong: Oxford University Press. ISBN Volume One 0-19-592723-0
  31. ^ "TOWNPLACE SOHO | CENTRAL". Hong Kong Serviced Apartments (2023-24) | ResidenceHK. Retrieved 14 June 2023.
  32. ^ "CENTRAL SERVICED APARTMENTS | RESERVATION Q1 2024". The Best Hong Kong Serviced Apartments (2023-24) | ResidenceHK. Retrieved 1 January 2024.
  33. ^ "POA School Net 11" (PDF). Education Bureau. Retrieved 12 September 2022.
  34. ^ "Monthly Means of Meteorological Elements for The Peak, 2004–2017". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 29 May 2018. 山頂氣象要素月平均值 (2004–2017)
  35. ^ "Monthly Means of Meteorological Statistics for The Peak, 2004–2017". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 29 May 2018. 山顶气象统计月平均值 (2004–2017)
  36. ^ "Extreme Values and Dates of Occurrence of Extremes of Meteorological Elements between 1884–1939 and 1947–2017 for Hong Kong". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 29 May 2018.

22°16′55″N 114°09′29″E / 22.28194°N 114.15806°E / 22.28194; 114.15806