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Ecologist Green Party of Mexico
Partido Verde Ecologista de México
English nameEcological Green Party of Mexico
PresidentKaren Castrejón Trujillo
Executive SecretaryPilar Guerrero Rubio
Technical SecretaryGabriela Aguilar García
Senate LeaderRaúl Bolaños Cacho Cué [es]
Chamber LeaderCarlos Alberto Puente Salas
FounderJorge González Torres
Founded14 May 1993; 30 years ago (1993-05-14) (national level)
HeadquartersLoma Bonita 18 Lomas Altas, Miguel Hidalgo, Mexico City, México
Membership (2023)592,417[1]
IdeologyGreen politics[2]
Environmentalism[3]
Animal rights[4]
Factions:
Green conservatism
Political positionCentre-left[5]
Factions:
Centre-right[6]
National affiliationJuntos Hacemos Historia (since 2020)[7]
Continental affiliationFederation of the Green Parties of the Americas
International affiliationGlobal Greens
Colours  Yellow green
Chamber of Deputies
39 / 500
Senate
7 / 128
Governorships
1 / 32
State congresses
77 / 1,124
Website
Party website

The Ecological Green Party of Mexico (Spanish: Partido Verde Ecologista de México, pronounced [paɾˈtiðo ˈβeɾðe ekoloˈxista ðe ˈmexiko], PVEM or PVE) is a green political party in Mexico.

History

The party was founded in 1986 under the name Mexican Green Party (Spanish: Partido Verde Mexicano) and its first leader was Jorge González Torres. It participated in the 1991 federal elections for the first time as an independent bloc, under the name Ecologist Party of Mexico (Spanish: Partido Ecologista de México). It did not obtain a sufficient percentage of the vote to obtain official registration at the national level. It obtained its registration in 1993 and in the same year the party changed its name to the current one.

From when it obtained its first subnational registration as a political party on 28 February 1991 until 2011, it was controlled by a single family: its first president was founder Jorge González Torres (a public official and former member of the PRI), who was succeeded in the presidency of the party by his son, Jorge Emilio González Martínez (who served as a senator from 2000–2006 and was nicknamed "the Green Child") in 2001.

The party slowly increased its vote share through the 1990s, finishing in 5th place in the 1994 legislative elections and 4th place in 1997, obtaining its first seats in both the Chamber of Deputies and Senate in the latter.

It participated in the 2000 Mexican general election in the Alliance for Change with the National Action Party (PAN), resulting in the successful election of joint presidential candidate Vicente Fox and the obtaining of the most seats in the Chamber of Deputies and the senate between the two parties (although they lacked a majority). The PVEM eventually distanced itself from the PAN and Fox the following year after stating their belief that they were not complying with established agreements on environmental matters.

In the 2003 Mexican legislative election, the party allied with the PRI in 100 of the 300 constituency seats as the Alianza para Todos, with the PVEM winning 17 constituency seats and 14 proportional representation seats in the Chamber of Deputies, and 1 constituency seat and 4 proportional representation seats in the Senate. Initially intending to run its own candidate, Bernardo de la Garza, in the 2006 presidential election, the party eventually withdrew in support of the PRI's candidate Roberto Madrazo, who finished in 3rd place. From this point, the PVEM continued to ally with the PRI for most elections until 2019.

In the 2009 Mexican legislative election, the party campaigned in favor of the death penalty for murderers and kidnappers, the extension of school hours to relieve childcare concerns for working parents, and free medicines. Later, in the 2012 general election, the PRI-PVEM alliance's presidential candidate, Enrique Peña Nieto, was victorious, with the PVEM improving its results in the legislature (taking 34 seats in the Chamber of Deputies out of 500 and nine seats in the Senate out of 128)[8] and entering into a state government for the first time as part of a coalition with the PRI and PANAL in Chiapas, also winning the governorship for the first time under candidate Manuel Velasco Coello. It remained a part of the Chiapas state government until 2018.

In 2018, PVEM supported the Todos por México coalition, along with PRI and PANAL. José Antonio Meade, the coalition's candidate, came in third in a four-way race, with 16.43% of the vote.[9] PVEM later withdrew from Todos por Mexico and gradually came close to the Andrés Manuel López Obrador government, formally entering the Juntos Haremos Historia coalition in 2019.[10] In December 2020 it founded the successor Juntos Hacemos Historia coalition, together with the National Regeneration Movement and the Labor Party and contested the 2021 Mexican legislative elections with them. The PVEM also won its second gubernatorial election the same year, with Ricardo Gallardo Cardona finishing in first place in San Luis Potosí.[11]

Ideology

Originally portraying itself as a green conservative party, the PVEM has sought to shift toward the progressive centre-left in the 2020s,[12][13][14] although a conservative faction remains. The party has been criticized on a few occasions for a perceived lack of true commitment to environmental causes,[15] with the now-defunct Mexico City newspaper El Independiente reporting that during a meeting he held in London with Mexican graduate students, party leader Jorge González Martínez responded to the question of PVEM's programs in defense of the Mexican environment with "Ecology is the least important thing to me. I represent interests,"[16] and González Martínez being accused of accepting bribes to overlook construction occurring in protected areas.

The party came out in support of remote work, the creation of special economic zones, and a transition to a semi-presidential system of government in its 2018 manifesto.[17]

Controversies

Pro-death penalty campaign

Party logo between 1994 and 2009
A Green Party billboard promoting the restoration of the death penalty[18]

In 2008, the PVEM initiated an advertising campaign in favor of reintroducing the death penalty in Mexico.[19] This led to the European Green Party's withdrawal of recognition of the PVEM as a legitimate green party.[20]

Anti-LGBT rights factions

During an interview, PVEM candidate Gamaliel Ramirez verbally attacked an openly gay candidate for Guadalajara mayor and called for criminal laws against homosexuality to be established. In the following days, Ramirez issued a written apology after the party expressed disappointment at his remarks.[21]

While the party has pledged to support LGBT rights issues, its three representatives abstained from a vote on Mexico City granting legal recognition to same-sex couples and opposed the legalization of same-sex marriage in the city.

Accusations of corruption and nepotism

The PVEM is also widely criticized because its leader from 2001 to 2011, Jorge Emilio González Martínez, was appointed for being the son of former leader Jorge González Torres,[22] and for supporting the political and business agenda of Mexican businessman Víctor González Torres, owner of the Farmacias Similares drugstore franchise and González Martínez's uncle.[23] González Martínez was also accused of accepting bribes in exchange for allowing construction in protected areas.

The Quintana Roo state branch of PVEM removed its leader, José de la Peña Ruiz de Chávez, for his relationship with the Romanian mafia on 10 February 2021. He kept his position as a member of the Congress of Quintana Roo.[24] José Luis Jonathan Yong, former Public Security director in Cancun (2016–2018) has been implicated. De la Peña Ruiz de Chávez is said to also have ties to Leticia Rodríguez Lara "Doña Lety", leader of the Cancun drug cartel.[25]

Unlawful political advertising in movie theaters

In January 2015, the National Electoral Institute (INE) ordered the PVEM and theater chains Cinemex and Cinépolis to cease airing PVEM advertisements on the grounds of fairness in electoral contests. When the PVEM and the theaters did not comply, the INE imposed a fine of MXN$35 million on the PVEM and MXN$7 million on both theater chains.[26] The fine on the PVEM was later increased to MXN$67.1 million.[27]

Post-campaign influencer posts

In 2015, various media personalities alleged that they had been offered more than MXN$200,000 if they disseminated messages in favor of the PVEM through social networks in the middle of election day, despite a ban on campaigning on that day.[28]

In 2021, a similar incident occurred, and several Internet celebrities were fined for illegal posts in favor of PVEM on social media after the period of campaigning had ended.[29] Fer Moreno admitted she had been paid MXN$10,000 (US$493.34) and apologized.[30]

Electoral history

Presidential elections

Election year Candidate # votes % vote Result Note
1994 Jorge González Torres 327,313 0.93 Red XN Defeated
2000 support PAN Candidate; Coalition: Alianza por el Cambio (won)
2006 support PRI Candidate; Coalition: Alianza por México (defeated)
2012 support PRI Candidate; Coalition: Compromiso por México (won)
2018 support PRI Candidate; Coalition: Todos por México (defeated)
2024 support MORENA Candidate; Coalition: Juntos Hacemos Historia (won)

Congressional elections

Chamber of Deputies

Election year Constituency PR # of seats Position Presidency Note
votes % votes %
1994 470,951 1.4 479,594 1.4
0 / 500
Minority Ernesto Zedillo
1997 1,105,688 3.8 1,116,137 3.8
8 / 500
Minority
2000 see: National Action Party
17 / 500
Minority Vicente Fox Coalition: Alliance for Change
2003 1,063,741 4.1 1,068,721 4.1
17 / 500
Minority
2006 see: Institutional Revolutionary Party
19 / 500
Minority Felipe Calderón Coalition: Alliance for Mexico
2009 2,318,138 6.7 2,326,016 6.7
21 / 500
Minority
2012 3,045,385 6.44 3,054,718 6.43
34 / 500
Minority Enrique Peña Nieto Coalition: Commitment to Mexico
2015 2,740,208 7.57 2,757,170 7.54
47 / 500
Minority Coalition: PRI-PVEM
2018 1,429,802 2.55 2,695,405 4.79
17 / 500
Minority Andrés Manuel López Obrador Coalition: Todos por México
2021 992,320 2.03 2,670,997 5.43
44 / 500
Minority Coalition: Juntos Hacemos Historia

Senate elections

Election year Constituency PR # of seats Position Presidency Note
votes % votes %
1994 438,941 1.3
0 / 128
Minority Ernesto Zedillo
1997 1,180,04 4.0
1 / 128
Minority
2000 see: National Action Party
5 / 128
Minority Vicente Fox Coalition: Alliance for Change
2006 see: Institutional Revolutionary Party
6 / 128
Minority Felipe Calderón Coalition: Alliance for Mexico
2012 867,056 1.9 2,881,923 6.1
9 / 128
Minority Enrique Peña Nieto Coalition: Commitment to Mexico
2018 1,198,011 2.13 2,528,175 4.46
7 / 128
Minority Andrés Manuel López Obrador Coalition: Todos por México

See also

References

  1. ^ https://www.ine.mx/actores-politicos/partidos-politicos-nacionales/padron-afiliados/
  2. ^ Haynes, Jeffrey (2005), Comparative Politics in a Globalizing World, Polity, p. 177, ISBN 9780745630922
  3. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original on 2021-10-07. Retrieved 2023-09-11.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original on 2021-10-07. Retrieved 2023-09-11.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ "Verde Ecologista, se declara de centro izquierda". Metapolítica (in Mexican Spanish). 2020-01-04. Retrieved 2024-01-03.
  6. ^ Saragoza, Alex M.; Ambrosi, Ana Paula; Zárate, Silvia D., eds. (2012). Mexico Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic. Vol. 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 509. ISBN 9780313349485.
  7. ^ Alianza por el Cambio (2000)
    Alianza para Todos (2003)
    Alianza por México (2006)
    Compromiso por México (2012)
    Todos por México (2018–2019)
    Juntos Haremos Historia (2019–2020)
  8. ^ Seelke, Claire. "Mexico's 2012 Elections" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
  9. ^ "INE termina resultados finales de conteo para presidente". Excelsior (in Spanish). 5 July 2018.
  10. ^ "PVEM-Morena, una alianza "baratísima"". aristeguinoticias.com. Retrieved 2019-12-20.
  11. ^ Sevillano, Luis; Galindo, Jorge; Clemente, Yolanda; Alonso, Antonio (2021-06-07). "Resultados de las elecciones de México". EL PAÍS (in Mexican Spanish). Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  12. ^ https://pvem-cdmx.org.mx/verde-cdmx-celebra-que-se-declare-inconstitucional-penalizar-el-aborto-en-el-pais/[dead link]
  13. ^ https://vlex.com.mx/vid/va-pvem-despenalizacion-aborto-876353040/
  14. ^ https://www.forbes.com.mx/candidatos-a-diputados-de-morena-pt-y-pvem-son-los-que-mas-hacen-copy-paste-de-propuestas/
  15. ^ "Astillero: los diputados deciden la suerte de la ley con un volado". Greenpeace. Archived from the original on 2009-05-29.
  16. ^ García Soto, Salvador (25 February 2004). Un país de cínicos.
  17. ^ https://repositoriodocumental.ine.mx/xmlui/bitstream/handle/123456789/95067/Plataforma%20PVEM.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
  18. ^ Blears, James (26 February 2009), Mexico's Green Party Urges Death Penalty for Kidnappers, VOA News, retrieved 2 August 2009[permanent dead link]
  19. ^ "La Plaza". Los Angeles Times. 10 December 2008.
  20. ^ Tim Johnson, For Mexico's Ecologist Green Party, 'green' mostly means money, not environment, McClatchy Newspapers (June 18, 2012).
  21. ^ "Green Party rival crossed the line, says gay candidate". Guadalajara Reporter. May 16, 2009. Archived from the original on 22 February 2012. Retrieved November 27, 2009.
  22. ^ Thompson, Barnard. "Corruption inferences and the Green Party of Mexico". MexiData.info. Archived from the original on 4 September 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
  23. ^ "Miguel Ángel Toscano, dos años de escándalos sanitarios en la Cofepris" (in Mexican Spanish). Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-07-23.
  24. ^ "El PVEM destituye a su líder en QRoo, ligado con la mafia rumana". ADNPolítico (in Spanish). Expansion Politico. 11 February 2021. Retrieved February 13, 2021.
  25. ^ "Vinculan a verdes con mafia rumana". mural.com.mx (in Spanish). Reforma. February 10, 2021. Retrieved February 13, 2021.
  26. ^ Forbes Staff (3 March 2015). "Partido Verde, Cinemex y Cinépolis: crónica de una multa anunciada • Forbes México".
  27. ^ "Multan con 67 mdp al Partido Verde por spots en cines". El Universal (in Spanish). Retrieved 2024-01-03.
  28. ^ "Inés Sainz y Jean Duverger, revelan las trampas y compras de tuits del Verde". Proceso. 9 June 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-12-22.
  29. ^ "FGR abrió investigación contra influencers por apoyo al Verde Ecologista en la veda electoral". infobae (in Spanish). Infoabae. Retrieved June 11, 2021.
  30. ^ "Influencer se disculpa por violar veda electoral". Aristegui Noticias (in Spanish). Retrieved June 11, 2021.