Edward Koch
105th Mayor of New York City
In office
January 1, 1978 – December 31, 1989
Preceded byAbraham Beame
Succeeded byDavid Dinkins
Member of the
U.S. House of Representatives
from New York
In office
January 3, 1969 – December 31, 1977
Preceded byTheodore Kupferman
Succeeded byBill Green
Constituency17th district (1969–1973)
18th district (1973–1977)
Member of the New York City Council
from the 2nd district
In office
January 1, 1967 – January 3, 1969
Preceded byWoodward Kingman
Succeeded byCarol Greitzer
Personal details
Edward Irving Koch

(1924-12-12)December 12, 1924
New York City, New York, U.S.
DiedFebruary 1, 2013(2013-02-01) (aged 88)
New York City, New York, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
ResidenceGreenwich Village, Manhattan,
New York City, New York, U.S.
EducationCity College of New York
(BA, 1945)
New York University
(LLB, 1948)
Military service
Allegiance United States
Branch/service United States Army
Years of service1943–1946
104th Infantry Division
Battles/warsWorld War II
 • Battle of Hürtgen Forest
 • Battle of the Bulge
Combat Infantryman Badge
European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal
World War II Victory Medal

Edward Irving Koch (/kɒ/ KOTCH;[1] December 12, 1924 – February 1, 2013) was an American politician, lawyer, political commentator, film critic, and television personality. He served in the United States House of Representatives from 1969 to 1977 and was mayor of New York City from 1978 to 1989.

Koch was a lifelong Democrat who described himself as a "liberal with sanity".[2] The author of an ambitious public housing renewal program in his later years as mayor, he began by cutting spending and taxes and cutting 7,000 employees from the city payroll. As a congressman and after his terms as mayor, Koch was a fervent supporter of Israel. He crossed party lines to endorse Rudy Giuliani for mayor of New York City in 1993, Michael Bloomberg for mayor of New York City in 2001, and George W. Bush for president in 2004.[3]

A popular figure, Koch rode the New York City Subway and stood at street corners greeting passersby with the slogan "How'm I doin'?"[4] A lifelong bachelor with no children, Koch rebuffed speculation about his sexuality and refused to publicly discuss his romantic relationships. After his retirement from politics, he declared that he was heterosexual.

Koch was first elected mayor of New York City in 1977, and he won reelection in 1981 with 75% of the vote. He was the first New York City mayor to win endorsement on both the Democratic and Republican party tickets. In 1985, Koch was elected to a third term with 78% of the vote. His third term was fraught with scandal regarding political associates (although the scandal never touched him personally) and with racial tensions, including the killings of Michael Griffith and Yusuf Hawkins. In a close race, Koch lost the 1989 Democratic primary to his successor, David Dinkins.[3]

Early life

Koch was born in Crotona Park East section of The Bronx borough of New York City,[5] the son of Yetta (or Joyce,[6] née Silpe) and Louis (Leib) Koch, Polish-Jewish immigrants from Kozliv and Uścieczko in Eastern Galicia.[7] He came from a family of Conservative Jews who resided in Newark, New Jersey, where his father worked at a theater. As a child, he worked as a hatcheck boy in a Newark dance hall.[8] He graduated from South Side High School in Newark in 1941.[9]

In 1943 he was drafted into the United States Army,[10][non-primary source needed] where he served as an infantryman with the 104th Infantry Division, landing in Cherbourg, France, in September 1944. He earned a European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal with two campaign stars, a World War II Victory Medal, and the Combat Infantryman Badge for service in the European Theater of Operations. After V-E Day, because he could speak German, Koch was sent to Bavaria to help remove Nazi public officials from their jobs and find non-Nazis to take their place. He was honorably discharged with the rank of Sergeant in 1946.[5][11]

Koch returned to New York City to attend City College of New York, graduating in 1945, and New York University School of Law, receiving his law degree in 1948. Koch was a sole practitioner from 1949 to 1964, and a partner with Koch, Lankenau, Schwartz & Kovner from 1965 to 1968. A Democrat, he became active in New York City politics as a reformer and opponent of Carmine DeSapio and Tammany Hall. In 1962 Koch ran for office for the first time, unsuccessfully opposing incumbent William Passannante, a DeSapio ally, for the Democratic nomination for the State Assembly.[citation needed]

In 1963, Koch defeated DeSapio for the position of Democratic Party leader for the district which included Greenwich Village, and Koch won again in a 1965 rematch.[12] Koch served on the New York City Council from 1967 to 1969.[13]


U.S. Congressman

Koch served in the United States House of Representatives from 1969 to 1977.
Koch served in the United States House of Representatives from 1969 to 1977.

Koch was the Democratic U.S. Representative from New York's 17th congressional district from January 3, 1969, until January 3, 1973, when, after a redistricting, he represented New York's 18th congressional district until December 31, 1977, when he resigned to become Mayor of New York City.[14]

Koch said he began his political career as "just a plain liberal", with positions including opposing the Vietnam War and marching in the South for civil rights.[15] In April 1973, Koch coined the term "Watergate Seven" when, in response to U.S. Senator Lowell P. Weicker, Jr.'s indicating that one of the men in Watergate scandal had been ordered in the spring of 1972 to keep certain senators and representatives under surveillance, he posted a sign on his office door reading, "These premises were surveilled by the Watergate Seven. Watch yourself".[16] At about the same time, Koch began his rightward shift toward being a "liberal with sanity" after reviewing the 1973 controversy around then-New York City Mayor John Lindsay's attempt to place a 3,000-person housing project in a middle-class community in Forest Hills, Queens. Koch met with residents of the community, most of whom were against the proposal. He was convinced by their arguments, and spoke out against the plan, shocking some of his liberal allies.[17]

Koch was active in advocating for a greater U.S. role in advancing human rights within the context of fighting Communism. He had particular influence in the foreign aid budget, as he sat on the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Foreign Operations. In 1976, Koch proposed that the U.S. cut off military aid and supplies to the military dictatorship of Uruguay. In mid-July 1976, the CIA learned that two high-level Uruguayan intelligence officers had discussed a possible assassination attempt on Koch by Dirección de Inteligencia Nacional (DINA), the Chilean secret police under dictator Augusto Pinochet. The CIA did not regard these threats as credible until after the September 1976 assassination of Orlando Letelier in Washington, D.C., by DINA agents coordinated by Operation Condor. After that, Director of Central Intelligence George H.W. Bush informed Koch of the threat. Koch subsequently asked both the CIA and the FBI for protection, but none was extended.[18]

Mayor of New York City

Koch briefly ran for Mayor in 1973, but garnered little support and dropped out before the Democratic primary. He threw his support to State Assemblyman Albert H. Blumenthal, but Blumenthal's bid was derailed by a scandal and he came in third.[19]

1977 election and first term

See also: 1977 New York City mayoral election

This section needs expansion with: details on first term. You can help by adding to it. (June 2021)
Koch (left) with Representative Bella Abzug (center) and President Jimmy Carter (right) in 1978
Koch (left) with Representative Bella Abzug (center) and President Jimmy Carter (right) in 1978
President Ronald Reagan presenting Ed Koch and other New York leaders with a check for Westway Project Funds, September 1981
President Ronald Reagan presenting Ed Koch and other New York leaders with a check for Westway Project Funds, September 1981

In 1977, Koch won the Democratic primary in the New York City mayoral election, defeating Bella Abzug, Mario Cuomo, and incumbent Abe Beame, among others. Koch ran to the right of the other candidates on a "law and order" platform. According to historian Jonathan Mahler, the New York City blackout of 1977 that happened in July, and the subsequent rioting, helped catapult Koch and his message of restoring public safety to front-runner status.[20]

1981 election and second term; run for governor

See also: 1982 New York gubernatorial election

Koch giving interview to WABC-TV in 1981
Koch giving interview to WABC-TV in 1981

In 1981, he ran for reelection as mayor on both the Democratic and Republican Party lines; in November he won, defeating his main opponent, Unity Party candidate Frank J. Barbaro, with 75% of the vote.[citation needed]

In 1982, Koch ran unsuccessfully for Governor of New York, losing the Democratic primary to Mario Cuomo, who was then lieutenant governor. Many say the deciding factor in Koch's loss was an interview with Playboy magazine in which he described the lifestyle of suburbia and upstate New York as "sterile" and lamented the thought of having to live in "the small town" of Albany as governor. Koch's remarks are thought to have alienated many voters from outside New York City. Among the events of Koch's second term as mayor were the Brooklyn Bridge's 100th anniversary, the appointing of Benjamin Ward as the city's first ever African American police commissioner in 1983, the emergence of the AIDS as a public health crisis, extensive media coverage of Bernhard Goetz's shooting of four African-American teenagers in the subway in 1984, and the United Nations' 40th anniversary.[citation needed]

Koch often deviated from the conventional liberal line, strongly supporting the death penalty, adding 3,500 officers to the NYPD in the 1980s,[21] and taking a hard line on "quality of life" issues, such as giving police broader powers in dealing with the homeless and signing legislation banning the playing of radios on subways and buses. These positions prompted harsh criticism from the local chapter of the American Civil Liberties Union and many African-American leaders, particularly Reverend Al Sharpton.[citation needed]

In 1984, Koch published his first memoir, Mayor, which became a best-seller and was adapted into an off-Broadway and later Broadway musical, Mayor.[22]

1985 election and third term

In 1985, Koch again ran for reelection, this time on the Democratic and Independent tickets; he defeated Liberal Party candidate Carol Bellamy, Republican candidate Diane McGrath, and Right to Life candidate Rabbi Lew Y. Levin with 78% of the vote.[23][self-published source][24] During the campaign, Koch visited the late Lubavitcher Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, seeking his blessing and endorsement.[25]

In 1986, Koch signed a lesbian and gay rights ordinance for the city after the City Council passed the measure (on March 20), following fifteen years of failed attempts by that body to approve such legislation. Despite his overall pro-lesbian and pro-gay-rights stance, he nonetheless backed up the New York City Health Department's decision to shut down the city's gay bathhouses in 1985 in response to concerns over the spread of AIDS. The enactment of the measure the following year placed the city in a dilemma, as it apparently meant that the bathhouses would have to be reopened because many heterosexual "sex clubs" – most notably Plato's Retreat – were in operation in the city at the time, and allowing them to remain open while keeping the bathhouses shuttered would have been a violation of the newly adopted anti-discrimination law. The Health Department, with Koch's approval, reacted by ordering the heterosexual clubs, including Plato's Retreat, to close as well. Also in 1986, he participated in Hands Across America and in the Statue of Liberty's 100th anniversary celebration. The career-ending face slashing of model Marla Hanson, the paralyzing shooting of NYCPD detective Steven McDonald, crack cocaine and its related gangs, the Robert Chambers "preppie murder" case, the Howard Beach incident, and the racially motivated murder of Yusef Hawkins also happened during Koch's third and last term.[citation needed]

Koch consistently demonstrated a fierce love for New York City, which some observers felt he carried to extremes on occasion: in 1984 he went on record as opposing the creation of a second telephone area code for the city, claiming that this would divide the city's population; and when the National Football League's New York Giants won Super Bowl XXI in January 1987, he refused to grant a permit for the team to hold their traditional victory parade in the city, quipping famously, "If they want a parade, let them parade in front of the oil drums in Moonachie" (a town in New Jersey adjacent to the East Rutherford site of the Meadowlands Sports Complex, where the Giants play their home games).

Edward Koch at the commissioning of USS Lake Champlain (1988)
Edward Koch at the commissioning of USS Lake Champlain (1988)

In his third term, Koch's popularity was shaken after a series of corruption scandals, touched off by Donald Manes's suicide and the PVB scandal, which revealed that he had acceded to the requests of political allies (most notably Queens Borough President Manes, Bronx Democratic Party official Stanley M. Friedman and Brooklyn Democratic Party chairman Meade Esposito, an American Mafia associate long perceived as New York City's preeminent political leader) to stack city agencies with patronage appointments. There were no allegations that Koch obtained any financial benefit from the corruption, but the scandals undermined Koch's claims that he ran a patronage-free municipal government. Michael Tager attributes the scandals not to Koch's failures but to the steadily declining power of the Democratic machine and its bosses' desperate efforts to reverse the collapse.[26][27]

Koch suffered a stroke in 1987, but recovered and was able to continue his duties.[28]

In July 1987, Koch proposed banning bicycling on Fifth, Park and Madison Avenues during weekdays, but many bicyclists protested and had the ban overturned.[29][30]

Koch with Ed van Thijn on a visit to Amsterdam in 1988
Koch with Ed van Thijn on a visit to Amsterdam in 1988

It has been said that race relations in Mayor Koch's last years were not good.[31] He became a controversial figure in the 1988 presidential campaign with his public criticism of Democratic candidate Jesse Jackson, who surprised many political observers by winning key primaries in March and running even with the front-runner, Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis. As the April New York primary approached, Koch reminded voters of Jackson's earlier anti-semitic statements, and said that Jews would be "crazy" to vote for Jackson. Koch endorsed Tennessee Senator Al Gore, who had run well in his native South, but hadn't won 20% in a northern state. As Koch's anti-Jackson rhetoric intensified, Gore seemed to shy away from Koch. On primary day, Gore finished a weak third place with 10% of the vote and dropped out of the race. Jackson ran ten points behind Dukakis, whose nomination became assured after his New York win.[citation needed]

In 1989, Koch ran for a fourth term as mayor but lost the Democratic primary to Manhattan Borough President David Dinkins, who went on to defeat Rudolph Giuliani in the general election. Koch's criticism of Jesse Jackson had angered many black voters and was cited as a major reason for his defeat.[citation needed]

Post-mayoral years

Koch and Colin Powell lead the US delegation for the 2004 Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Conference on Anti-Semitism, held in Berlin, Germany (April 28, 2004)
Koch and Colin Powell lead the US delegation for the 2004 Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Conference on Anti-Semitism, held in Berlin, Germany (April 28, 2004)

In the years following his mayoralty, Koch became a partner in the law firm of Robinson, Silverman, Pearce, Aronsohn, and Berman LLP (now Bryan Cave LLP) and a commentator on politics, as well as reviewing movies and restaurants for newspapers, radio and television. He also became an adjunct professor at New York University (NYU) and the judge on The People's Court for two years (1997–99) following the retirement of Judge Joseph Wapner. In 1999, he was a visiting professor at Brandeis University. Koch regularly appeared on the lecture circuit, and had a high-rated talk show on WABC radio. He also hosted his own online movie review show, The Mayor at the Movies.[32]

On August 12, 1993, a street in southern Tel Aviv was named after Koch in a ceremony attended by him alongside prominent Israeli and American dignitaries.[33][34]

In 2004, together with his sister Pat (also Pauline)[6] Koch Thaler, Koch wrote a children's book, Eddie, Harold's Little Brother; it tells the story of Koch's childhood, when he tried unsuccessfully to emulate his older brother Harold's baseball talents, before realizing that he should instead focus on what he was already good at, which was telling stories and speaking in public.[citation needed]

On March 23, 2011, the New York City Council voted to rename the Queensboro Bridge the Ed Koch Queensboro Bridge.[35] Later, city councilman Peter Vallone (D-Queens) introduced legislation banning the naming of New York City property after people who are still alive, but the legislation failed.[36]

Koch formed an organization called New York Uprising to push for statewide redistricting reform. In April 2011, he publicly upbraided 42 state legislators he claimed had broken their promises to support redistricting reform.[37]

In May 2011, Koch sat for a portrait by Dmitry Borshch that has been exhibited at the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, DePaul University, Brecht Forum, and CUNY Graduate Center, and is included in the Catalog of American Portraits at the Smithsonian's National Portrait Gallery.[38][39][40]

"Mayor at the Movies"

In the summer of 2009, Koch began appearing in weekly movie review segments for an online show, Mayor at the Movies.[41] He was an avid moviegoer who often saw two or three movies a weekend. Although he was invited to private screenings, Koch preferred to see films with a public audience and was often approached by moviegoers who were surprised to find him there. His reviews were outspoken and wry, with his rating system consisting not of stars but of a "plus" for a good film or a "minus" for a bad one.[citation needed]

He had a particular passion for independent cinema and documentaries, but enjoyed dramas and action films as well. In addition to Mayor at the Movies,[41] his film reviews were regularly featured on The Huffington Post[42] and in the New York newspaper The Villager.[43] Koch also appeared in more than 60 Hollywood films and television shows as himself, including Sex and the City, Spin City, and Double Rush, and also hosted Saturday Night Live.[44][45] A documentary about his life, Koch, had its world premiere at the Hamptons International Film Festival on October 8, 2012, and was released theatrically on February 1, 2013 (coincidentally, the day of Koch's death).[46]

Political endorsements

After leaving office, Koch frequently endorsed prominent Republican candidates, including Rudy Giuliani and Michael Bloomberg for mayor, Al D'Amato for U.S. Senate, Peter T. King for U.S. House, George Pataki for governor, and, in 2004, George W. Bush for president. Koch also endorsed Democrats, including Eliot Spitzer for governor in the 2006 election. He endorsed Bill Bradley for president in 2000.[citation needed]

Koch took back his endorsement of Spitzer in the aftermath of the governor's prostitution scandal. He said, "At the time the prostitution episode emerged, I commented that nothing could explain his behavior other than the fact that he had a screw loose in his head. Probably several."[47]

Though Koch supported Giuliani's first mayoral bid, he became opposed to him in January 1996, and began writing a series of columns in the New York Daily News criticizing Giuliani, most frequently accusing him of being authoritarian and insensitive. In 1999, the columns were compiled into the book Giuliani: Nasty Man. He resumed his attacks, and had the book republished, in 2007, after Giuliani announced his candidacy for president. In May 2007, Koch called Giuliani "a control freak" and said that "he wouldn't meet with people he didn't agree with. That's pretty crazy." He also said that Giuliani "was imbued with the thought that if he was right, it was like a God-given right. That's not what we need in a president."[48]

Koch originally endorsed Hillary Clinton for president during the 2008 campaign,[citation needed] then endorsed Democratic nominee Barack Obama in the general election. In his endorsement of Obama, Koch wrote that he felt that (unlike in 2004) both candidates would do their best to protect both the United States and Israel from terrorist attacks, but that he agreed with Obama's domestic policies much more and that the idea of Republican vice-presidential nominee Sarah Palin ascending to the presidency "would scare me".[49] In 2010 he rescinded his support for Obama, saying that Obama could very well harm American–Israeli relations.[50]

In 2011, Koch endorsed Republican Bob Turner for Congress, because Koch "wanted to send a message to Obama to take a stronger position in support of Israel."[51]

In October 2012, Koch told Al Sharpton that after a conversation with Obama about his position on Israel he was satisfied, and endorsed his reelection.[52]

Early in 2013, Koch endorsed Christine Quinn in the Democratic primary for that year's mayoral election.[53]

Other political statements

Koch often wrote in defense of Israel and against anti-Semitism. He also appeared in the documentary FahrenHYPE 9/11 defending President Bush and the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and blasting Michael Moore. Koch was quoted in the film saying of Moore's film Fahrenheit 9/11, "It's not a documentary, it's a lie."

Koch praised New York Governor Andrew Cuomo, saying that he had the right approach in reducing government spending and refraining from raising taxes.[54]

Koch was an early supporter of the Iraq War. In July 2007, Koch wrote that he was "bailing out" of his previous support for that war, due to the failure of the United States' NATO allies, and other Arab countries, to contribute to the war effort. Koch wrote, "I would support our troops remaining in Iraq if our allies were to join us. But they have made it clear they will not." He added that the U.S. must still "prepare for the battles that will take place on American soil by the Islamic forces of terror who are engaged in a war that will be waged by them against Western civilization for at least the next 30 years."[55]

On April 8, 2010,[56] Koch wrote a piece in The Jerusalem Post excoriating what he saw as increasing anti-Catholicism in the media, largely made evident by coverage of the priest sex abuse scandals. While denouncing the abuse, Koch wrote, "the procession of articles on the same events are, in my opinion, no longer intended to inform, but simply to castigate." He also wrote that he believed that many in the media, some themselves Catholic, exhibited such anti-Catholicism largely because of their opposition to the Catholic Church's teachings on such issues as abortion, homosexuality, and artificial contraception. He stated that, while he opposed the Church's teaching in all these matters, he firmly believed that the Church had the right to espouse these beliefs and to expect its members to espouse them as well, calling the Church "a force for good in the world, not evil."[citation needed]

Personal life

Koch was a lifelong bachelor, and his sexual orientation became an issue in the 1977 mayoral election with the appearance of placards and posters (disavowed by the Cuomo campaign) with the slogan "Vote for Cuomo, Not the Homo." Koch denounced the attack.[57] Writer and LGBT rights activist Larry Kramer, who often criticized Koch for not doing more about the HIV/AIDS crisis in the city, publicly alleged that Koch was a closet homosexual.[58]

In 1989, Koch was interviewed about a book he had coauthored with Cardinal John J. O'Connor. When the interviewer asked Koch to clarify his views on homosexuality relative to O'Connor, Koch responded, "I happen to believe that there's nothing wrong with homosexuality. It's whatever God made you. It happens that I'm a heterosexual."[59] He once told New York magazine, "Listen, there's no question that some New Yorkers think I'm gay, and voted for me nevertheless. The vast majority don't care, and others don't think I am. And I don't give a shit either way!"[58][60]

He was frequently accompanied at political functions by his friend Bess Myerson, whose presence was regarded by some observers as an effort to defuse rumors of his alleged homosexuality.[61][62][63]

In the 2009 film Outrage, David Rothenberg (who served as New York City Human Rights Commissioner in the Koch administration) "went public with his knowledge of Koch's boyfriend, Richard Nathan (who died of AIDS in 1996), who told him Koch made it clear that he had to leave town soon after Koch was elected mayor."[64] According to AIDS activist Rodger McFarlane, "Dick was threatened, physically threatened and financially threatened ... and he was terrified, in the middle of the night, leaving the city."[64]

Shortly before he died in 2009, former New York City senior assistant corporation counsel Dennis deLeon accused Koch of sexual harassment during a visit to Koch's apartment. Koch "dismissed the story mockingly" in a conversation with journalist Andy Humm in 2011.[65]

Death and funeral

Prior to his death, Koch lived in an apartment at 2 Fifth Avenue (the high-rise building to the left of the Washington Square Arch, as seen in the background of a 2016 image of Washington Square Park)
Prior to his death, Koch lived in an apartment at 2 Fifth Avenue (the high-rise building to the left of the Washington Square Arch, as seen in the background of a 2016 image of Washington Square Park)

Koch died of heart failure on February 1, 2013.[66] He was a resident of Greenwich Village for most of his adult life; at the time of his death, he lived at 2 Fifth Avenue, overlooking Washington Square Park.[67]

His funeral took place on February 4, 2013, at Temple Emanu-El, a Reform Jewish congregation in Manhattan.[68] Because of Koch's fierce loyalty to Israel, the Israeli Consul-General to New York City spoke. Former president Bill Clinton also addressed the congregation, serving as President Obama's representative. New York City Police Department helicopters gave a fly-over at the service.[69][68]

In April 2008, Koch had purchased a burial plot in Trinity Church Cemetery so that he could be buried in Manhattan. It is the only graveyard in the borough that is accepting new burials. He chose to put the last words of the late journalist Daniel Pearl on his tombstone: "My father is Jewish, my mother is Jewish, I am Jewish."[70]


A practiced public speaker since his days stumping for Adlai Stevenson, Koch was well known for his quips and one-liners.[71] A few include:

(On the occasion of his primary loss to David Dinkins) "The people have spoken...and they must be punished."[71]

"I'm the sort of person who will never get ulcers. Why? Because I say exactly what I think. I'm the sort of person who might give other people ulcers."[71]

"If you agree with me on nine out of 12 issues, vote for me. If you agree with me on 12 out of 12 issues, see a psychiatrist."[71]


See also



  1. ^ "Koch". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. Retrieved March 28, 2021.
  2. ^ "Mayor Koch, Self-Proclaimed 'Liberal With Sanity' Who Led New York From Fiscal Crisis, Is Dead at 88". The New York Sun. Retrieved October 21, 2016.
  3. ^ a b Smith, Benjamin (February 1, 2013). "Mayor Koch, Self-Proclaimed 'Liberal With Sanity' Who Led New York From Fiscal Crisis, Is Dead at 88". New York Sun.
  4. ^ "New York City Mayor Ed Koch: From TIME's Archives". Time. February 1, 2013. Retrieved October 15, 2014.
  5. ^ a b "Koch, Edward Irving – Biographical Information". Retrieved November 11, 2009.
  6. ^ a b "1940 US Federal Census". Ancestry.com. Retrieved February 5, 2013.
  7. ^ Stone, Kurt F. (December 29, 2010). The Jews of Capitol Hill: A Compendium of Jewish Congressional Members – Kurt F. Stone – Google Books. ISBN 9780810877382. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
  8. ^ New Jersey Trivia. Rutledge Hill Press. 1993. p. 74. ISBN 1-55853-223-4.
  9. ^ The Ultimate New Jersey High School Yearbook. The Star Ledger. June 27, 1999.
  10. ^ "NARA WWII Enlistment Records – Koch Edward I". U.S. National Archives and Records Administration.
  11. ^ Saxena, Jaya. "behindthescenes.nyhistory.org". Mayor Ed Koch Speaks at WWII & NYC Opening Reception. Retrieved February 8, 2013.
  12. ^ Ortega, Tony (October 19, 2009) [September 23, 1965]. "Ed Koch Finally Slays Carmine DeSapio For Good". Village Voice. Archived from the original on February 7, 2013.
  13. ^ "Partner biography, Ed Koch". Bryan Cave, LLP. Archived from the original on January 2, 2012. Retrieved March 28, 2021.
  14. ^ "Edward Koch". Columbia University Libraries Oral History Research Office. Retrieved March 28, 2021.
  15. ^ "Ed Koch's Legacy". Gotham Gazette. November 14, 2005. Archived from the original on April 27, 2007. Retrieved July 15, 2007.
  16. ^ Madden, Richard L. (April 7, 1973). "Javits Picks a Campaign Team, Citing the Need to Think Ahead; Votes in Congress This Week's Tally for Metropolitan Area Senate House". The New York Times. p. 19. Retrieved July 5, 2012.
  17. ^ Vincent Cannato (2009). The Ungovernable City. Basic Books. p. 511. ISBN 9780786749935.
  18. ^ "Ed Koch Threatened with Assassination". The National Security Archives. George Washington University. Retrieved May 4, 2009.
  19. ^ "New York's colorful, feisty former Mayor Edward I. Koch dies". United Press International. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
  20. ^ "That 70's Show". Gotham Gazette. May 9, 2005. Archived from the original on May 9, 2013.
  21. ^ "The Remarkable Drop in Crime in New York City" (PDF). October 21, 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 15, 2009.
  22. ^ Lumenick, Lou (February 2, 2013). "Ed Koch was a pop-culture sensation". New York Post. Retrieved February 8, 2013.
  23. ^ Caliendo, Ralph J. (2010). New York City Mayors, Volume 1. Xlibris Corporation. p. 419. ISBN 978-1-4500-8814-5.[self-published source]
  24. ^ Lynn, Frank (September 29, 1985). "The Race Is Low-Key for Koch and 3 Rivals" – via NYTimes.com.
  25. ^ Ehrlich, M. Avrum, The Messiah of Brooklyn: Understanding Lubavitch Hasidim Past and Present, (KTAV Publishing, January 2005) p. 109. ISBN 0-88125-836-9
  26. ^ Michael Tager, "Corruption And Party Machines in New York City," Corruption & Reform (1988) 3#1 pp 25–39
  27. ^ Newfield, Jack & Barrett, Wayne. City For Sale: Ed Koch and the Betrayal of New York, London: HarperCollins, 1989. ISBN 0-06-091662-1
  28. ^ Roberts, Sam (March 1, 2009). "Koch Makes His Peace and Dares to Look Ahead". The New York Times. Retrieved February 8, 2013.
  29. ^ Dunham, Mary Frances. "Fifth, Park and Madison". Bicycle Blueprint. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved March 28, 2021.
  30. ^ Yee, Marilynn K. (August 25, 1987). "Ban on Bikes Could Bring More Mopeds". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 25, 2009. Retrieved March 28, 2021.
  31. ^ "How Would Dinkins Have Done, Had He Come After Giuliani?". New York. January 17–24, 2011.
  32. ^ "Mayor at the Movies with Ed Koch". Mayorkoch.blip.tv. Archived from the original on April 1, 2010. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
  33. ^ "Ed Koch Returns to Israel and Receives Hero's Welcome". August 16, 1993.
  34. ^ "Ed Koch". Ed Koch.
  35. ^ Einhorn, Erin (March 23, 2011). "Ed Koch Queensborough bridge: Span officially renamed in honor of former New York City mayor". Daily News. New York.
  36. ^ Lamb, Rich (July 11, 2012). "Councilman Peter Vallone Wants To Ban The Renaming of City Property After Living People". CBS local. New York: CBS Radio. Retrieved February 2, 2013.
  37. ^ "Ed Koch identifies New York lawmakers who reneged on redistricting reform plan". Syracuse.com. April 12, 2011. Retrieved June 30, 2018.
  38. ^ "The Portraits". npg.si.edu. August 21, 2015.
  39. ^ "ARTstor, Happy birthday to Mayor Ed Koch!". Artstor Blog. Retrieved October 15, 2014.
  40. ^ "Russian American Cultural Center on ArtDiscover". Retrieved October 15, 2014.
  41. ^ a b "The Mayor at the Movies". Mayorkoch.com. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
  42. ^ "Koch's page at The Huffington Post". The Huffington Post. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
  43. ^ "The Villager homepage". thevillager.com. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
  44. ^ Ed Koch at IMDb
  45. ^ tv.com Double Rush "The Documentary" Episode Cast & Crew Accessed June 5, 2021
  46. ^ "Koch". Zeitgeist Films.
  47. ^ "Client 9: The Rise and Fall of Eliot Spitzer". The Mayor at the Movies. January 11, 2011. Archived from the original on March 25, 2012.
  48. ^ Seidman, David. "Railing at Rudy," New York Post, May 13, 2007, p. 9.
  49. ^ Smith, Ben (September 9, 2008). "Koch backs Obama, calls Palin 'scary'". Politico. Retrieved March 28, 2021.
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  63. ^ "Bess Myerson Is One Tough Customer" by Susan Berman. New York. November 14, 1977
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Primary sources

Further reading


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Political offices Preceded byWoodward Kingman Member of the New York City Councilfrom the 2nd district1967–1969 Succeeded byCarol Greitzer Preceded byAbraham Beame Mayor of New York City1978–1989 Succeeded byDavid Dinkins U.S. House of Representatives Preceded byTheodore Kupferman Member of the U.S. House of Representativesfrom New York's 17th congressional district1969–1973 Succeeded byJohn Murphy Preceded byCharie Rangel Member of the U.S. House of Representativesfrom New York's 18th congressional district1973–1977 Succeeded byBill Green Legal offices Preceded byJoseph Wapner Judge of The People's Court1997–1999 Succeeded byJerry Sheindlin