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French wines are usually made to accompany food.
Vineyards in Vosne-Romanée in Burgundy, a village that is the source of some of France's most expensive wines
Château Pichon Longueville Baron in Pauillac corresponds well to the traditional image of a prestigious French château, but in reality, French wineries come in all sizes and shapes.

French wine is produced all throughout France, in quantities between 50 and 60 million hectolitres per year, or 7–8 billion bottles. France is one of the largest wine producers in the world, along with Italian, Spanish, and American wine-producing regions.[1][2] French wine traces its history to the 6th century BCE, with many of France's regions dating their wine-making history to Roman times. The wines produced range from expensive wines sold internationally to modest wines usually only seen within France such as the Margnat wines of the post-war period.

Two concepts central to the better French wines are the notion of terroir, which links the style of the wines to the locations where the grapes are grown and the wine is made, and the Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) system, replaced by the Appellation d'Origine Protégée (AOP) system in 2012. Appellation rules closely define which grape varieties and winemaking practices are approved for classification in each of France's several hundred geographically defined appellations, which can cover regions, villages or vineyards.

France is the source of many grape varieties (such as Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Pinot noir, Sauvignon blanc, Syrah) that are now planted throughout the world, as well as wine-making practices and styles of wine that have been adopted in other producing countries. Although some producers have benefited in recent years from rising prices and increased demand for prestige wines from Burgundy and Bordeaux, competition from New World wines has contributed to a decline in the domestic and international consumption of French wine.[3]


Main article: History of French wine

French wine originated in the 6th century BCE, with the colonization of Southern Gaul by Greek settlers. Viticulture soon flourished with the founding of the Greek colony of Marseille. Wine has been around for thousands of years in the countries on the Mediterranean but France has made it a part of their civilization and has considered wine-making as art for over two thousand years. The Gauls knew how to cultivate the vine and how to prune it. Pruning creates an important distinction in the difference between wild vines and wine-producing grapes. Before long, the wines produced in Gaul were popular all around the world.[4][5] The Roman Empire licensed regions in the south to produce wines. St. Martin of Tours (316–397) spread Christianity and planted vineyards.[6] During the Middle Ages, monks maintained vineyards and, more importantly, conserved wine-making knowledge and skills during that often turbulent period. Monasteries had the resources, security and inventiveness to produce a steady supply of wine for Mass and profit.[7] The best vineyards were owned by the monasteries and their wine was considered to be superior.[8] The nobility developed extensive vineyards but the French Revolution led to the confiscation of many vineyards.[9]

The advance of the French wine industry stopped abruptly as first Mildew and then Phylloxera spread throughout the country and the rest of Europe, leaving vineyards desolate. Then came an economic downturn in Europe followed by two world wars and the French wine industry was depressed for decades.[10] Competition threatened French brands such as Champagne and Bordeaux. This resulted in the establishment in 1935 of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée to protect French interests. Large investments, the economic revival after World War II and a new generation of Vignerons yielded results in the 1970s and the following decades, creating the modern French wine industry.[11]

Quality levels and appellation system

In 1935, laws were passed to control the quality of French wine. The Appellation d'origine contrôlée system was established, which is governed by a powerful oversight board (Institut national des appellations d'origine, INAO). France has one of the oldest systems for protected designation of origin for wine in the world and strict laws concerning winemaking and production and many European systems are modeled after it.[11][12] The word "appellation" has been put to use by other countries, sometimes in a much looser meaning. As European Union wine laws have been modeled after those of the French, this trend is likely to continue with further EU expansion.

French law divides wine into four categories, two falling under the European Union Table Wine category and two the Quality Wines Produced in Specified Regions (QWPSR) designation. The categories and their shares of the total French production for the 2005 vintage, excluding wine destined for Cognac, Armagnac and other brandies, were

Table wine:


The total French production for the 2005 vintage was 43.9 million hl (plus an additional 9.4 million hl destined for various brandies) of which 28.3% was white and 71.7% was red or rosé.[13] The proportion of white wine is slightly higher for the higher categories, with 34.3% of the AOC wine being white. In years with less favourable vintage conditions than 2005, the proportion of AOC wine tends to be a little lower. The proportion of Vin de table has decreased considerably over the last decades, while the proportion of AOC has increased somewhat and Vin de Pays has increased considerably. In 2005 there were 472 wine AOCs in France.[14]


The wine classification system of France was revised in 2006, with a new system fully introduced by 2012. The new system consists of three categories rather than four, since there will be no category corresponding to VDQS from 2012. The new categories are:[15]

The largest changes will be in the Vin de France category, and to VDQS wines, which either need to qualify as AOP wines or be downgraded to an IGP category. For the former AOC wines, the move to AOP will only mean minor changes to the terminology of the label, while the actual names of the appellations themselves will remain unchanged. While no new wines have been marketed under the old designations from 2012, bottles already in the distribution chain will not be relabelled.

Wine styles, grape varieties and terroir

Vineyard in Côte de Beaune, Burgundy

All common styles of wine – red, rosé, white (dry, semi-sweet and sweet), sparkling and fortified – are produced in France. In most of these styles, the French production ranges from cheap and simple versions to some of the world's most famous and expensive examples. An exception is French fortified wines, which tend to be relatively unknown outside France.

In many respects, French wines have more of a regional than a national identity, as evidenced by different grape varieties, production methods and different classification systems in the various regions. Quality levels and prices vary enormously, and some wines are made for immediate consumption while other are meant for long-time cellaring.

If there is one thing that most French wines have in common, it is that most styles have developed as wines meant to accompany food, be it a quick baguette, a simple bistro meal, or a full-fledged multi-course menu.[16] Since the French tradition is to serve wine with food, wines have seldom been developed or styled as "bar wines" for drinking on their own, or to impress in tastings when young.[17]

Grape varieties

Numerous grape varieties are cultivated in France, including both internationally well-known and obscure local varieties. In fact, most of the so-called "international varieties" are of French origin, or became known and spread because of their cultivation in France.[12] Since French appellation rules generally restrict wines from each region, district or appellation to a small number of allowed grape varieties, there are in principle no varieties that are commonly planted throughout all of France.

Most varieties of grape are primarily associated with a certain region, such as Cabernet Sauvignon in Bordeaux and Syrah in Rhône, although there are some varieties that are found in two or more regions, such as Chardonnay in Bourgogne (including Chablis) and Champagne, and Sauvignon blanc in Loire and Bordeaux. As an example of the rules, although climatic conditions would appear to be favorable, no Cabernet Sauvignon wines are produced in Rhône, Riesling wines in Loire, or Chardonnay wines in Bordeaux. (If such wines were produced, they would have to be declassified to Vin de Pays or French table wine. They would not be allowed to display any appellation name or even region of origin.)

Traditionally, many French wines have been blended from several grape varieties. Varietal white wines have been, and are still, more common than varietal red wines.

At the 2007 harvest, the most common grape varieties were the following:[18][19]

Common grape varieties in France (2007 situation, all varieties over 1 000 ha)
Variety Color Area (%) Area (hectares)
1. Merlot red 13.6% 116 715
2. Grenache red 11.3% 97 171
3. Ugni blanc white 9.7% 83 173
4. Syrah red 8.1% 69 891
5. Carignan red 6.9% 59 210
6. Cabernet Sauvignon red 6.7% 57 913
7. Chardonnay white 5.1% 43 887
8. Cabernet Franc red 4.4% 37 508
9. Gamay red 3.7% 31 771
10. Pinot noir red 3.4% 29 576
11. Sauvignon blanc white 3.0% 26 062
12. Cinsaut red 2.6% 22 239
13. Melon de Bourgogne white 1.4% 12 483
14. Sémillon white 1.4% 11 864
15. Pinot Meunier red 1.3% 11 335
16. Chenin blanc white 1.1% 9 756
17. Mourvèdre red 1.1% 9 494
18. Colombard white 0.9% 7 710
19. Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains white 0.9% 7 634
20. Malbec red 0.8% 6 291
21. Alicante Bouschet red 0.7% 5 680
22. Grenache blanc white 0.6% 5 097
23. Viognier white 0.5% 4 111
24. Muscat de Hambourg red 0.4% 3 605
25. Riesling white 0.4% 3 480
26. Vermentino white 0.4% 3 453
27. Aramon red 0.4% 3 304
28. Gewurztraminer pink 0.4% 3 040
29. Tannat red 0.3% 3 001
30. Gros Manseng white 0.3% 2 877
31. Macabeu white 0.3% 2 778
32. Muscat d'Alexandrie white 0.3% 2 679
33. Pinot gris grey 0.3% 2 582
34. Clairette white 0.3% 2 505
35. Caladoc red 0.3% 2 449
36. Grolleau red 0.3% 2 363
37. Auxerrois blanc white 0.3% 2 330
38. Marselan red 0.3% 2 255
39. Mauzac white 0.2% 2 077
40. Aligoté white 0.2% 1 946
41. Folle blanche white 0.2% 1 848
42. Grenache gris grey 0.2% 1 756
43. Chasselas white 0.2% 1 676
44. Nielluccio red 0.2% 1 647
45. Fer red 0.2% 1 634
46. Muscadelle white 0.2% 1 618
47. Terret blanc white 0.2% 1 586
48. Sylvaner white 0.2% 1 447
49. Piquepoul blanc white 0.2% 1 426
50. Villard noir red 0.2% 1 399
51. Marsanne white 0.2% 1 326
52. Négrette red 0.2% 1 319
53. Roussanne white 0.2% 1 307
54. Pinot blanc white 0.2% 1 304
55. Plantet white 0.1% 1 170
56. Jacquère white 0.1% 1 052
All white varieties 30.1% 259 130
All red, pink and grey varieties 69.9% 601 945
Grand total 100.0% 861 075


Main article: Terroir

A Cahors chateau and vineyard

The concept of Terroir, which refers to the unique combination of natural factors associated with any particular vineyard, is important to French vignerons.[12] It includes such factors as soil, underlying rock, altitude, slope of hill or terrain, orientation toward the sun, and microclimate (typical rain, winds, humidity, temperature variations, etc.). Even in the same area, no two vineyards have exactly the same terroir, thus being the base of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) system that has been a model for appellation and wine laws across the globe. In other words: when the same grape variety is planted in different regions, it can produce wines that are significantly different from each other.[20] In France the concept of terroir manifests itself most extremely in the Burgundy region.[12] The amount of influence and the scope that falls under the description of terroir has been a controversial topic in the wine industry.[21]

Labelling practices

Vigneron independent logo
Vigneron independent logo

The amount of information included on French wine labels varies depending on which region the wine was made in, and what level of classification the wine carries. As a minimum, labels will usually state that classification, as well as the name of the producer, and, for wines above the Vin De Table level, will also include the geographical area where the wine was made. Sometimes that will simply be the wider region where the wine was made, but some labels, especially for higher quality wines, will also include details of the individual village or commune, and even the specific vineyard where the wine was sourced. With the exception of wines from the Alsace region, France had no tradition of labelling wines with details of the grape varieties used. Since New World wines made the names of individual grape varieties familiar to international consumers in the late 20th century, more French wineries started to use varietal labelling. In general, varietal labelling is most common for the Vin de Pays category, although some AOC wines now also display varietal names. For most AOC wines, if grape varieties are mentioned, they will be in small print on a back label.

Labels will also indicate where the wine was bottled, which can be an indication as to the quality level of the wine, and whether it was bottled by a single producer, or more anonymously and in larger quantities:

If varietal names are displayed, common EU rules apply:[23]

Wine regions of France

Map of the principal wine regions in France

The recognized wine producing areas in France are regulated by the Institut National des Appellations d'Origine – INAO in acronym. Every appellation in France is defined by INAO, in regards to the individual regions particular wine "character". If a wine fails to meet the INAO's strict criteria it is declassified into a lower appellation or even into Vin de Pays or Vin de Table. With the number of appellations in France too numerous to mention here, they are easily defined into one of the main wine producing regions listed below:


Alsace is primarily a white-wine region, though some red, rosé, sparkling and sweet wines are also produced. It is situated in eastern France on the river Ill and borders Germany, a country with which it shares many grape varieties as well as a long tradition of varietal labelling. Grapes grown in Alsace include Riesling, Gewurztraminer, Pinot gris, Pinot blanc, Pinot noir, and Muscat


Beaujolais is primarily a red-wine region generally made from the Gamay grape. Gamay is characterized by an early ripening and acidic variety. Due to the carbonic maceration that producers use during the wine-making process Beaujolais wines are brightly colored with a low level of soft tannin. They usually have an intense fruity flavor of raspberry and cranberry. Apart from Gamay grape some white and sparkling rosé are also produced.[24]

Beaujolais region is situated in central East of France following the river Saone below Burgundy and above Lyon. There are 12 appellations in Beaujolais including Beaujolais AOC and Beaujolais-Villages AOC and 10 Crus: Brouilly, Regnié, Chiroubles, Cote de Brouilly, Fleurie, Saint-Amour, Chénas, Juliénas, Morgon and Moulin-a-Vent. The Beaujolais region is also notorious for the Beaujolais Nouveau, a popular vin de primeur which is released annually on the third Thursday of November.


Pauillac is home to three of the five Bordeaux's first growth wines (classification of 1855).

Bordeaux is a large region on the Atlantic coast, which has a long history of exporting its wines overseas. This is primarily a red wine region, famous for the wines Château Lafite-Rothschild, Château Latour, Château Mouton-Rothschild, Château Margaux and Château Haut-Brion from the Médoc sub-region; Château Cheval Blanc and Château Ausone in Saint-Émilion; and Château Pétrus and Château Le Pin in Pomerol. The red wines produced are usually blended, from Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and sometimes Cabernet Franc. Bordeaux also makes dry and sweet white wines, including some of the world's most famous sweet wines from the Sauternes appellation, such as Château d'Yquem.

The Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855 resulted from the Exposition Universelle de Paris, when Emperor Napoleon III requested a classification system for France's best Bordeaux wines that were to be on display for visitors from around the world. Brokers from the wine industry ranked the wines according to a château's reputation and trading price.


Brittany is not an official wine region anymore, but it has a rich history related to grapegrowing and winemaking and has recently been demonstrating a revival of its viticulture. Several small recreational vineyards were established in the last two decades e.g. in Rennes, Quimper, Morlaix, Le Quillo, Cléguérec, Sain Sulliac, Le Folgoët, etc.


Wine from Nuits-Saint-Georges

Burgundy or Bourgogne in eastern France is a region where red and white wines are equally important. Probably more terroir-conscious than any other region, Burgundy is divided into the largest number of appellations of any French region. The top wines from Burgundy's heartland in Côte d'Or command high prices. The Burgundy region is divided in four main parts:

There are two parts of Burgundy that are sometimes considered as separate regions:

There are two main grape varieties used in Burgundy – Chardonnay for white wines, and Pinot noir for red. White wines are also sometimes made from Aligoté, and other grape varieties will also be found occasionally.

Gustave Henri Laly, a renowned wine producer from Burgundy, supplied the French General Assembly with his Montrachet produced at Mont Dardon around the turn of the 20th century.


Champagne, situated in northeastern France, close to Belgium and Luxembourg, is the coldest of France's major wine regions and home to its major sparkling wine. Champagne wines can be both white and rosé. A small amount of still wine is produced in Champagne using (as AOC Coteaux Champenois) of which some can be red wine.


Corsica is an island in the Mediterranean the wines of which are primarily consumed on the island itself. It has nine AOC regions and an island-wide vin de pays designation and is still developing its production methods as well as its regional style.[25]


Île-de-France is not an official wine region anymore. Yet it has a rich history related to grapegrowing and winemaking and has recently been demonstrating a revival of its viticulture. 5 villages of Ile de France (north-east of the Seine et Marne department) are part of the Champagne area and more than 200 small recreational vineyards were established in the last decades covering about 12 hectares altogether.


Jura, a small region in the mountains close to Switzerland where some unique wine styles, notably Vin Jaune and Vin de Paille, are produced. The region covers six appellations and is related to Burgundy through its extensive use of the Burgundian grapes Chardonnay and Pinot noir, though other varieties are used. It also shares cool climate with Burgundy.[26]


Languedoc-Roussillon is the largest region in terms of vineyard surface and production, hence the region in which much of France's cheap bulk wines have been produced. So-called "wine lake", Languedoc-Roussillon is also the home of some innovative producers who combine traditional French wine like blanquette de Limoux, the world's oldest sparkling wine, and international styles while using lessons from the New World. Much Languedoc-Roussillon wine is sold as Vin de Pays d'Oc.


Loire valley is a primarily white-wine region that stretches over a long distance along the Loire River in central and western France, and where grape varieties and wine styles vary along the river. Four sub-regions are situated along the river:


Normandy is not an official wine region anymore. Yet it has a rich history related to grapegrowing and winemaking and has recently been demonstrating a revival of its viticulture. Several small recreational vineyards were established in the last two decades and at least one operates on a commercial scale in Grisy near Caen.


Picardy is not an official wine region anymore. Yet it has a rich history related to grapegrowing and winemaking and has recently been demonstrating a revival of its viticulture. 40 villages of Picardy (south of the Aisne department) are now part of the Champagne area and several small recreational vineyards were established in the last two decades e.g. in Coucy le Château, Gerberoy, Gouvieux, Clairoix, etc.


Provence, in the south-east and close to the Mediterranean. It is perhaps the warmest wine region of France and produces mainly rosé and red wine. It covers eight major appellations led by the Provence flagship, Bandol.[27] Some Provence wine can be compared with the Southern Rhône wines as they share both grapes and, to some degree, style and climate.[27][28][29] Provence also has a classification of its most prestigious estates, much like Bordeaux.[30]


Rhône Valley, primarily a red-wine region in south-eastern France, along the Rhône River. The styles and varietal composition of northern and southern Rhône differ, but both parts compete with Bordeaux as traditional producers of red wines.


Savoy or Savoie, primarily a white-wine region in the Alps close to Switzerland, where many grapes unique to this region are cultivated.

South West France

South West France or Sud-Ouest, a somewhat heterogeneous collection of wine areas inland or south of Bordeaux. Some areas produce primarily red wines in a style reminiscent of red Bordeaux, while other produce dry or sweet white wines. Areas within Sud-Ouest include among other:

There are also several smaller production areas situated outside these major regions. Many of those are VDQS wines, and some, particularly those in more northern locations, are remnants of production areas that were once larger.


France has traditionally been the largest consumer of its own wines. However, wine consumption has been dropping in France for 40 years. During the decade of the 1990s, per capita consumption dropped by nearly 20 percent. Therefore, French wine producers must rely increasingly on foreign markets. However, consumption has also been dropping in other potential markets such as Italy, Spain and Portugal.

The result has been a continuing wine glut, often called the wine lake. This has led to the distillation of wine into industrial alcohol as well as a government program to pay farmers to pull up their grape vines through vine pull schemes. A large part of this glut is caused by the re-emergence of Languedoc wine.

Immune from these problems has been the market for Champagne as well as the market for the expensive ranked or classified wines. However, these constitute only about five percent of French production.

French regulations in 1979 created simple rules for the then-new category of Vin de pays. The Languedoc-Roussillon region has taken advantage of its ability to market varietal wines.


L'Office national interprofessionnel des vins, abbreviated ONIVINS, is a French association of vintners.

See also


  1. ^ "Production quantities by country (tonnes) in 2011". Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Retrieved 26 May 2021. 1. France 5,106,751 – 2. Italy 4,063,165 – 3. Spain 3,370,910
  2. ^ "World wine production reaches record level in 2018, consumption is stable - BKWine Magazine -". BKWine Magazine. 14 April 2019. Retrieved 18 November 2019.
  3. ^ Henley, Jon. "French attempt to arrest drastic fall in wine sales". the Guardian. Retrieved 1 July 2022.
  4. ^ Fox, Stuart (3 June 2013). "When Did the French Start Making Wine?". Wine Spectator. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  5. ^ Medieval France: an encyclopedia, William Westcott Kibler, Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, p. 964.
  6. ^ Patrick, Charles H. Alcohol, Culture, and Society. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1952, pp. 26–27.
  7. ^ Babor, Thomas. Alcohol: Customs and Rituals. New York: Chelsea House, 1986, p. 11.
  8. ^ Patrick, Charles H. Alcohol, Culture, and Society. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1952, p. 27.
  9. ^ Seward, Desmond. Monks and Wine. London: Mitchell Beazley, Publishers, 1979.
  10. ^ Ayuda, María-Isabel; Ferrer‐Pérez, Hugo; Pinilla, Vicente (2019). "A leader in an emerging new international market: the determinants of French wine exports, 1848–1938". The Economic History Review. 73 (3): 703–729. doi:10.1111/ehr.12878. ISSN 1468-0289. S2CID 199360879.
  11. ^ a b Wines of the World. London: Dorling Kindersly. 2004. pp. 49, 52. ISBN 978-0-13-178877-0.
  12. ^ a b c d Clarke, Oz; Spurrier, Steven (2001). Fine Wine Guide. London: Websters International Publishers Ltd. pp. 20, 21, 69.
  13. ^ a b c INAO statistics of vineyard surfaces and production volumes for the 2005–2006 campaign[permanent dead link], accessed 26 May 2008.
  14. ^ INAO: overview of AOC wine production in 2005[permanent dead link], accessed 26 May 2008.
  15. ^ "What are the future developments for Alsace wines?". Sommelier International. 2008. Archived from the original (574) on 27 April 2011.
  16. ^ Johnson, Hugh; Robinson, Jancis (2001). World Atlas of Wine (5th ed.). London: Mitchell Beazley. p. 125. ISBN 1-84000-332-4.
  17. ^ Robinson, Jancis, ed. (2006). "France". Oxford Companion to Wine (Third ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 281. ISBN 0-19-860990-6.
  18. ^ Viniflhor stats 2008: Les cepages noirs dans le vignoble.
  19. ^ Viniflhor stats 2008: Les cepages blanc dans le vignoble.
  20. ^ André Dominé (ed) "Wein" pp. 88–89 Tandem Verlag GmbH, Königswinter 2004 ISBN 3-8331-1208-5.
  21. ^ Robinson (2006), pp.693-695
  22. ^ Gilles Garrigues, "Oenologie: conseils pratiques".
  23. ^ "Guide to EU Wine Regulations" (PDF). Food Standards Agency. p. 20. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 February 2012. Retrieved 21 November 2008.
  24. ^ "Your 2022 guide to Beaujolais wine region". Retrieved 4 November 2022.
  25. ^ Robinson (2006), pp.203-204
  26. ^ Robinson (2006), pp.378
  27. ^ a b E. McCarthy & M. Ewing-Mulligan "French Wine for Dummies", pp. 224–28, Wiley Publishing 2001 ISBN 0-7645-5354-2.
  28. ^ K. MacNeil The Wine Bible pp. 306–11 Workman Publishing 2001 ISBN 1-56305-434-5
  29. ^ "Wine Regions of France". Emporium Nostrum.
  30. ^ T. Stevenson "The Sotheby's Wine Encyclopedia", pp. 243–47, Dorling Kindersley 2005 ISBN 0-7566-1324-8.