Fruit wines produced from guyabano (soursop) and bignay by Kalinga women

Philippine wine or Filipino wine are various wines produced in the Philippines. They include indigenous wines fermented from palm sap, rice, job's tears, sugarcane, and honey; as well as modern wines mostly produced from various fruit crops.


Bahalina a type of tubâ (palm wine) made from coconut sap and mangrove bark extracts

Indigenous wine-making traditions in the Philippines dates back to before the colonization of the islands by the Spanish in the 16th century. They were usually part of the traditional tapay fermentation process and were fermented inside earthen jars known as tapayan. They were consumed both for recreation and in the animist rituals in the various indigenous anito religions. Heavy consumption of tubâ and other alcoholic beverages in the Philippines were reported by early Spanish colonizers. Social drinking (tagayan or inuman in Tagalog and Visayan languages) was and continues to be an important aspect of Filipino social interactions.[1][2][3] Indigenous wines include the following:

Palm wines

Among the most widely prevalent wines produced in the Philippines is the tubâ which is produced from palm saps. The most common types of tubâ are made from coconut and nipa palm sap. Tubâ can also be made from the kaong palm (Arenga pinnata) and fishtail palms (Caryota spp.), which are known as tuhak and tunggang, respectively.[4][5]

A notable variant of tubâ from the Visayan peoples of Visayas and Mindanao is the bahalina, which is distinctively reddish-brown in color due to the use of bark extracts from certain mangrove species. Tubâ is also commonly consumed with raw egg yolks and other sweet ingredients, a combination known as kinutil.[6][7][8]

During the Spanish colonial period, distillation technologies were adopted by native Filipinos as early as 1574, resulting in improvised stills known as kawa. These were used to distill tubâ into a palm liquor known as vino de coco or vino de nipa, which is now known as lambanóg in modern times.[1]

Rice wines

Tapuy, a rice wine of the Igorot people

Rice wines used to be common in pre-colonial times, as part of the process of tapay production, but now only survive among relatively isolated ethnic groups in the islands. The pangasi of the Visayans, for example, is now virtually extinct. However, a version survives among the Subanen people, which can also be made from job's tears (adlay), though even this is starting to disappear as the starch source is increasingly being replaced by cassava. Pangasi also survives among the Sulodnon people of Panay, though it has also been replaced with sugarcane.[1][9][10][11]

Among the Manobo people of Bukidnon, a similar rice wine exists called agkud. It is flavored with ginger and sugarcane juice.[12] In the northern Philippines, the only surviving rice wine is the tapuy of the Igorot people, also known locally as baya. It is mixed with ginger and roots. It is a very important part of traditional rituals of the highland tribes.[4][13]

Sugarcane wines

Sugarcane wines include the basi of the Ilocanos and the palek of the Ivatan. Basi is notable in that it caused the 1807 Basi Revolt when Spanish authorities tried to ban the private manufacture of basi.[14]

Another sugarcane wine was the intus of Visayas and Mindanao. It is largely extinct,[9][15][16] though it still partially survives among the Lumad peoples of Mindanao where it is flavored with langkawas (Alpinia galanga) or pal-la (Cordyline fruticosa) roots.[17]


Mead made from honey were rare, even in precolonial times. They are now extinct and only known from colonial sources. They include the kabarawan of the Visayans which was made from honey mixed with bark from the kabarawan tree (Neolitsea villosa); and the bais of the Mandaya and Manobo people which is made from honey and water.[17]

Modern wines

Most of the modern wines produced in the country are based on locally produced crops with grape-based wines mostly imported from Australia and European countries.[18] In 2012, it was reported that previous attempts to produce grapes which are suitable enough for wine making in northern Philippines failed due to unsuitable soil conditions and high temperatures.[19]

Modern local wines are mostly fruit wines, including bignay wine made from bignay berries (Antidesma bunius);[20][21][22] guyabano wine made from soursop (Annona muricata); mangosteen wine made from mangosteen; duhat wine made from black plum (Syzygium cumini);[23][24][25] and mango wine made from Philippine mangoes.[26][27][28] Another locally produced wine is oregano wine from Quezon produced from Cuban oregano (Plectranthus amboinicus).[29]

Liqueurs produced from the colonial era are also commonly sold as "wine". The most popular are anisado, anise liqueurs generally infused with various herbal ingredients by early Chinese-Filipino immigrants. A notable variant of anisado is anisado Mallorca, or simply Mallorca, which adds sugar and can also be used as a cooking wine.[1][16]


  1. ^ a b c d Gibbs, H.D.; Holmes, W.C. (1912). "The Alcohol Industry of the Philippine Islands Part II: Distilled Liquors; their Consumption and Manufacture". The Philippine Journal of Science: Section A. 7: 19–46.
  2. ^ Lasco, Gideon. "Tagay: Why there's no Tagalog word for "cheers" and other notes on Filipino drinking culture". Health, Culture, and Society in the Philippines. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  3. ^ Garcia, Lawrence. "Tagay: A Look at Philippine Drinking Culture". Humaling. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  4. ^ a b Polistico, Edgie. "Tungog". Philippine Food Illustrated. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
  5. ^ "How Tuba and Bahalina, Also Known as Coconut Wine, Are Made". Delishably. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
  6. ^ "Do You Know What Kinutil Is?". Bite Sized. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  7. ^ Damo, Ida. "Kinutil: The Filipino Mudslide Drink". ChoosePhilippines. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  8. ^ "Comfort food ng mga Waray". Kapuso Mo, Jessica Soho. GMA Public Affairs. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  9. ^ a b Demetrio, Feorillo Petronilo A. III (2012). "Colonization and Alcoholic Beverages of Early Visayans from Samar and Leyte". Malay. 25 (1): 1–18.
  10. ^ Gico, Emma T.; Ybarzabal, Evelyn R. "Indigenous Rice Wine Making in Central Panay, Philippines". Central Philippine University. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
  11. ^ Jocano, F. Landa (1958). "The Sulod: A Mountain People In Central Panay, Philippines". Philippine Studies. 6 (4): 401–436. JSTOR 42720408.
  12. ^ Caldo, Gloria A.; Hiroshige, Sakai (1985). "Microbiological studies on pangasi, a rice wine in Mindanao". The Philippine Agriculturist. 68 (4).
  13. ^ Rice Wine Technology Bulletin, Philippine Rice Research Institute (2000)
  14. ^ "Chapter 3: Pre-colonial Philippines". Philippine History. Rex Bookstore. 2004. p. 60. ISBN 9789712339349. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  15. ^ Feraren, John Mychal. "Ten Proofs We Inherited Our Love for Drinking from Pre-Colonial Filipinos". Claire Delfin Media. Archived from the original on 9 May 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  16. ^ a b Aranas, Jennifer (2015). Tropical Island Cooking: Traditional Recipes, Contemporary Flavors. Tuttle Publishing. p. 11. ISBN 9781462916894.
  17. ^ a b Garvan, John M. (1912). "Report on the drinks and drinking among the Mandaya, Manobo, and Mangguangan Tribes". The Philippine Journal of Science: Section A. 7: 106–114.
  18. ^ "The Philippine Wine Industry". Wanzui. Beijing Realce Investment Industry Co., Ltd. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  19. ^ Beltran, Cito (3 February 2012). "Do they make wine in the Philippines?". CTALK. The Philippine Star. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  20. ^ Miranda, Roselle. "Duhat And Bignay Are The Fruits You Should Be Drinking". Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  21. ^ Piccio, Belle. "Proudly Filipino: Wonder Wine from the Country's Sugar Capital". ChoosePhilippines. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  22. ^ "How to Make Bignay Wine". Business Diary Philippines. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  23. ^ Lagsa, Bobby. "The women wine makers of Bolisong". Rappler. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  24. ^ "How to Make Duhat Wine". Business Diary Philippines. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  25. ^ Miranda, Roselle. "Duhat And Bignay Are The Fruits You Should Be Drinking". Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  26. ^ dela Cruz, Aissa (26 November 2011). "A toast to Conrad's Mango Wine". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 18 November 2019.
  27. ^ "How to Make Mango Wine". Business Diary Philippines. 5 September 2019. Retrieved 18 November 2019.
  28. ^ Ramoran, Carol (25 February 2014). "Mango rum, barako liqueur, and more local drinks to try". Rappler. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  29. ^ Valmero, Anna (17 September 2012). "Quezon's oregano wine makes it to wine festival in Italy". Retrieved 18 November 2019.

See also