The Wine Portal

A Dutch wine bottle made in the 17th century, at The The Higgins Art Gallery & Museum
A Dutch wine bottle made in the 17th century, at The The Higgins Art Gallery & Museum

Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from fermentation of grape juice. The natural chemical balance of grapes is such that they can ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, or other nutrients. Although fruits other than grapes can also be fermented, the resultant wines are normally named after the fruit from which they are produced (for example, apple wine) and are known as fruit wine (or country wine). Others, such as barley wine and rice wine (e.g. sake), are made from starch-based materials and resemble beer more than wine; ginger wine is fortified with brandy. In these cases, the use of the term "wine" is a reference to the higher alcohol content, rather than the production process. The commercial use of the word "wine" (and its equivalent in other languages) is protected by law in many jurisdictions. Wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast which consume the sugars found in the grapes and convert them into alcohol. Various varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts are used depending on the types of wine produced.

Wine stems from an extended and rich history dating back about 8,000 years and is thought to have originated in present-day Georgia or Iran. Wine is thought to have appeared in Europe about 6,500 years ago in present-day Bulgaria and Greece and was very common in ancient Greece and Rome; the Greek god Dionysos, and his Roman counterpart Liber represented wine. Wine continues to play a role in religious ceremonies, such as Kiddush in Judaism and the Eucharist in Christianity. (Full article...)


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  • Skin-contact wine before clarification and stabilization
    Skin-contact wine before clarification and stabilization
  • Image 2 New Zealand wine is produced in several of its distinct winegrowing regions. As an island country in the South Pacific Ocean, New Zealand has a largely maritime climate, although its elongated geography produces considerable regional variation from north to south. Like many other New World wines, New Zealand wine is usually produced and labelled as single varietal wines, or if blended, winemakers list the varietal components on the label. New Zealand is best known for its Marlborough Sauvignon Blanc, and more recently its dense, concentrated Pinot Noir from Marlborough, Martinborough and Central Otago. While New Zealand wine traces its history to the early 19th century, the modern wine industry in New Zealand began in the mid-20th century and expanded rapidly in the early 21st century, growing by 17% a year from 2000 to 2020. In 2020, New Zealand produced 329 million litres (87,000,000 US gal) from 39,935 hectares (98,680 acres) of vineyard area, of which 25,160 ha (about two-thirds) is dedicated to Sauvignon Blanc. Nearly 90% of total production is exported, chiefly to the United States, Britain and Australia, reaching a record NZ$1.92 billion in export revenue in 2020. (Full article...)
  • Fermenting must
    Fermenting must
  • Roussanne in Viala & Vermorel
    Roussanne in Viala & Vermorel
  • Muscat blanc à Petits Grains and Muscat noir showing the white and black-skinned color mutation of the variety
    Muscat blanc à Petits Grains and Muscat noir showing the white and black-skinned color mutation of the variety
  • Grenache noir in Viala & Vermorel
    Grenache noir in Viala & Vermorel
  • Image 8Jean-Louis Vignes (April 9, 1780 - January 17, 1862), also known as Don Luis del Aliso,  was a French-born Californian vintner and ranchero. He was the one of the first commercial wine makers in California and one of the first men to import and plant European Vitis vinifera grapes in the state. A skilled cooper by trade and an adventurer and entrepreneur by choice, he arrived in the Sandwich Islands on July 6, 1827. After losing his business in Honolulu due to Queen Ka'ahumanu's edict banning alcohol production, he sailed to California and landed at Pueblo de Los Angeles in 1831.  In 1850, Vignes was the largest wine producer in California. (Full article...)
    Jean-Louis Vignes (April 9, 1780 - January 17, 1862), also known as Don Luis del Aliso, was a French-born Californian vintner and ranchero. He was the one of the first commercial wine makers in California and one of the first men to import and plant European Vitis vinifera grapes in the state. A skilled cooper by trade and an adventurer and entrepreneur by choice, he arrived in the Sandwich Islands on July 6, 1827. After losing his business in Honolulu due to Queen Ka'ahumanu's edict banning alcohol production, he sailed to California and landed at Pueblo de Los Angeles in 1831. In 1850, Vignes was the largest wine producer in California. (Full article...)
  • Map of Anjou wine region.
    Map of Anjou wine region.
  • A glass and bottle of Spanish Tempranillo wine, from Bodegues Ramon Roqueta, Catalunya DOP
    A glass and bottle of Spanish Tempranillo wine, from Bodegues Ramon Roqueta, Catalunya DOP
  • Sparkling rosé in the cave of Schramsberg Vineyards, in Napa, California
    Sparkling rosé in the cave of Schramsberg Vineyards, in Napa, California
  • Image 12 Wine Country is the region of California, in the northern San Francisco Bay Area, known worldwide as a premier wine-growing region. The region is famed for its wineries, its cuisine, Michelin star restaurants, boutique hotels, luxury resorts, historic architecture, and culture. Viticulture and wine-making have been practiced in the region since the Spanish missionaries from Mission San Francisco Solano established the first vineyards in 1812. There are over 1700 wineries in the North Bay, (according to Alcoholic Beverage Control of California), mostly located in the area
  • The phenolic compounds in Syrah grapes contribute to the taste, color and mouthfeel of the wine.
    The phenolic compounds in Syrah grapes contribute to the taste, color and mouthfeel of the wine.
  • Steep vineyards on Rüdesheimer Berg overlooking the river Rhine. These vineyards are located in the southwestern part of the region Rheingau at a bend in the river. These vineyards are planted with Riesling grapes, with some Spätburgunder (Pinot noir), and produce some of the finest wine in Germany.
    Steep vineyards on Rüdesheimer Berg overlooking the river Rhine. These vineyards are located in the southwestern part of the region Rheingau at a bend in the river. These vineyards are planted with Riesling grapes, with some Spätburgunder (Pinot noir), and produce some of the finest wine in Germany.
  • Image 15 Bombino bianco is a white Italian wine grape variety planted primarily along Italy

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Go, eat your food with gladness, and drink your wine with a joyful heart, for it is now that God favours what you do.
— King James Bible
Ecclesiastes 9:7


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The Kendall-Jackson Wine Center in Fulton, Sonoma County, California. August 2007.
The Kendall-Jackson Wine Center in Fulton, Sonoma County, California. August 2007.
Kendall-Jackson Vineyard Estates is a vineyard and winery, under the Kendall-Jackson brand started by the Jess Jackson family in Lakeport, California in 1974. That label now continues under the umbrella company, Jackson Family Wines, that Jackson later created.

In the 1980s, Kendall-Jackson rejected the California wine industry's trend toward vineyard-specific wine labeling. It ignored the concept of terroir in favor of blending wines from different regions to achieve desired wine characteristics. Jackson Family Wines is now a large and growing wine empire that owns many successful brands.

Their investments in wine have reached beyond US borders, now owning wineries in Italy (Tenuta di Arceno), France (Château Lassègue), Australia (Yangarra Estate Vineyards), and Chile (Viña Calina). (Full article...)


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The following are images from various wine-related articles on Wikipedia.

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Grapevine during flowering
Grapevine during flowering
Credit: Andy Melton
Grapevine during flowering


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