The seeds of the Coffea plant's fruits are separated to produce unroasted green coffee beans. The beans are roasted and then ground into fine particles that are typically steeped in hot water before being filtered out, producing a cup of coffee. It is usually served hot, although chilled or iced coffee is common. Coffee can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways (e.g., espresso, French press, caffè latte, or already-brewed canned coffee). Sugar, sugar substitutes, milk, and cream are often added to mask the bitter taste or enhance the flavor.
Though coffee is now a global commodity, it has a long history tied closely to food traditions around the Red Sea. The earliest credible evidence of coffee-drinking as the modern beverage appears in modern-day Yemen in southern Arabia in the middle of the 15th century in Sufi shrines, where coffee seeds were first roasted and brewed in a manner similar to how it is now prepared for drinking. The coffee beans were procured by the Yemenis from the Ethiopian Highlands via coastal Somali intermediaries, and cultivated in Yemen. By the 16th century, the drink had reached the rest of the Middle East and North Africa, later spreading to Europe. (Full article...)
After the Second World War, the Italian moka pot spread all over the south of Europe and became the standard way of domestically making coffee. Its popularity led to non-Italian south European manufacturers making copies or new designs inspired by the original Italian design. (Full article...)
Image 3118th century French plan of Mocha, Yemen. The Somali, Jewish and European quarters are located outside the citadel. The Dutch, English, Turkish and French trading posts are inside the city walls. (from History of coffee)
Ristretto (Italian pronunciation: [risˈtretto]) is a "short shot" (20 ml (0.7 imp fl oz; 0.7 US fl oz) from a double basket) of a more highly concentrated espressocoffee. It is made with the same amount of ground coffee, but extracted with a finer grind (also in from 20 to 30 seconds) using half as much water. A normal short shot might look like a ristretto, but in reality, would only be a weaker, more diluted, shot. The opposite of a ristretto (which means in Italian, "shortened, narrow") is a lungo ("long"), which have double water amount. The French call a ristretto a café serré.
Regardless of whether one uses a hand pressed machine or an automatic, a regular double shot is generally considered to be around 14–18 g (0.49–0.63 oz) of ground coffee extracted into about 40 ml (2 fl oz; two shot glasses). Thus, a "double ristretto" consumes the same amount of coffee beans but fills only a single shot glass. (Full article...)