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Introduction

A cup of black coffee
A cup of black coffee

Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, the seeds of berries from certain flowering plants in the Coffea genus. From the coffee fruit, the seeds are separated to produce a stable, raw product: unroasted green coffee. The seeds are then roasted, a process which transforms them into a consumable product: roasted coffee, which is ground into fine particles that are typically steeped in hot water before being filtered out, producing a cup of coffee.

Coffee is darkly colored, bitter, slightly acidic and has a stimulating effect in humans, primarily due to its caffeine content. It is one of the most popular drinks in the world and can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways (e.g., espresso, French press, caffè latte, or already-brewed canned coffee). It is usually served hot, although chilled or iced coffee is common. Sugar, sugar substitutes, milk or cream are often used to lessen the bitter taste or enhance the flavor. It may be served with coffee cake or another sweet dessert, like doughnuts. A commercial establishment that sells prepared coffee beverages is known as a coffeehouse or coffee shop (not to be confused with Dutch coffeeshops selling cannabis).

Clinical research indicates that moderate coffee consumption is benign or mildly beneficial as a stimulant in healthy adults, with continuing research on whether long-term consumption reduces the risk of some diseases, although some of the long-term studies are of questionable credibility. (Full article...)

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Most coffee wars for consumer market share involve the largest coffeehouse, Starbucks, pictured here in 2016.
Most coffee wars for consumer market share involve the largest coffeehouse, Starbucks, pictured here in 2016.

Coffee wars, sometimes referred to as caffeine wars, involve a variety of sales and marketing tactics by coffeehouse chains and espresso machine manufacturers to increase brand and consumer market share. In North America belligerents in these wars typically include large coffeehouses, such as Starbucks, Dunkin', McDonald's, and Tim Hortons. According to The Economist, the largest coffee war of the late 2000s was between Starbucks and McDonalds in the United States. The U.S. market has, since the early 2010s, been primarily contested by its two largest players, Starbucks and Dunkin'. Since 2020, competition over the Chinese coffee market has intensified between Starbucks and Luckin Coffee.

Periods of low economic activity and business recessions – which contribute to diminished consumer demand – have been linked to an increase in coffee wars. Major innovations in the coffee industry, particularly the advent of single-serve espresso pods, have lowered the market's barrier to entry. Although store count has been traditionally seen as gauging market share, both firms and analysts have incorporated revenue, balance sheets, organic growth, operating margin, and stock market performance as comparable indicators. (Full article...)
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... that plantations on the mountains in Alto Paraguay Department close to Asunción proved viable for coffee production in Paraguay?
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Galão (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈɡɐ.ˈlɐ̃w̃]) is a hot drink from Portugal made by adding foamed milk to espresso coffee. Similar to caffè latte or café au lait, it consists of about one quarter coffee and three quarters foamed milk. It is served in a tall glass, as opposed to the smaller garoto that is served in a demitasse. When the proportion is 1:1 it is called meia de leite (half of milk) and it comes in a cup. (Full article...)

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Caffè corretto is an Italian beverage that consists of a shot of espresso with a shot of liquor, usually grappa, and sometimes sambuca or brandy.

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