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Coffee is a beverage brewed from roasted coffee beans. Darkly colored, bitter, and slightly acidic, coffee has a stimulating effect on humans, primarily due to its caffeine content. It has the highest sales in the world market for hot drinks.

The seeds of the Coffea plant's fruits are separated to produce unroasted green coffee beans. The beans are roasted and then ground into fine particles typically steeped in hot water before being filtered out, producing a cup of coffee. It is usually served hot, although chilled or iced coffee is common. Coffee can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways (e.g., espresso, French press, caffè latte, or already-brewed canned coffee). Sugar, sugar substitutes, milk, and cream are often added to mask the bitter taste or enhance the flavor.

Though coffee is now a global commodity, it has a long history tied closely to food traditions around the Red Sea. The earliest credible evidence of coffee drinking as the modern beverage appears in modern-day Yemen in southern Arabia in the middle of the 15th century in Sufi shrines, where coffee seeds were first roasted and brewed in a manner similar to how it is now prepared for drinking. The coffee beans were procured by the Yemenis from the Ethiopian Highlands via coastal Somali intermediaries, and cultivated in Yemen. By the 16th century, the drink had reached the rest of the Middle East and North Africa, later spreading to Europe. (Full article...)

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Coffee: A Dark History is a 2005 book that examines the history of coffee. It was written by Antony Wild and was published by Norton. Wild had previously worked as a buyer for a specialty-coffee company for over ten years. He argues that coffee has had major effects on the economy of the British Empire. He also maintains that First World consumption of coffee and the accompanying free trade policies have had a negative impact on Third World coffee farmers. (Full article...)
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... that 90% of the Arabica coffee produced in Peru is either typica or caturra?

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Mazagran (also called café mazagran, formerly spelled masagran) is a cold, sweetened coffee drink that originated in Algeria. Portuguese versions may use espresso, lemon, mint and rum, and Austrian versions are served with an ice cube and include rum. Sometimes a fast version is achieved by pouring a previously sweetened espresso in a cup with ice cubes and a slice of lemon. Mazagran has been described as "the original iced coffee". (Full article...)

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Credit: Life magazine
A Life magazine advertisement for the Pan-American Coffee Bureau featuring George Burns and Gracie Allen, 1953.

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Roasted coffee beans
Roasted coffee beans
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