Glasses of red and white wine

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to wine


Wine is an alcoholic beverage typically made of fermented grape juice.[1] The natural chemical balance of grapes is such that they can ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes or other nutrients.[2] Wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. Yeast consumes the sugars found in the grapes and converts them into alcohol.[1] Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts are used depending on the type of wine being produced. Wine includes the following ingredients:

Main article: Wine chemistry

Scientific makeup:

Types of wine

Wine styles

Grape varieties

Grape varieties – below are some examples of grape varieties from which wine is made: (This list does not render on mobile; try the Desktop view link at the bottom of the page)

Wine by country and region

Main articles: List of wine-producing countries and List of wine-producing regions

Classification systems

Main articles: Classification of wine and Appellation

Wine industry

Wine packaging

Types of wine packages


Main article: Wine accessory

Wine professions and qualifications

Trends and impacts

Wine production

Wine selecting

Wine in culture

Wine and health

Main article: Wine and health

History of wine

Main article: History of wine

By period

By region

Organizations and institutions



Persons influential in the field of wine

Wine-related films and television

See also

icon Wine portal


  1. ^ a b Mauseth, James D. (2013). Plants & people (1st ed.). Burlington: Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 366. ISBN 9780763785505. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
  2. ^ Johnson, H. (1989). Vintage: The Story of Wine. Simon & Schuster. pp. 11–6. ISBN 0-671-79182-6.
  3. ^ Jackson, Ron (2000). Wine Science (Second ed.). Academic Press. pp. 609–619. ISBN 9780123790620.
  4. ^ Kosseva, Maria; Joshi, V.K.; Panesar, P.S. (2017). Science and Technology of Fruit Wine Production. Elsevier Inc. ISBN 978-0-12-800850-8.
  5. ^ Puckette, Madeline (3 February 2017). "Ice Wine, You're So Fine". Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  6. ^ Wakawaka, Hawk (20 February 2012). "Understanding orange wines 2: Georgian amber wines; pheasant's tears rkatsiteli, vinoterra kisi". Hawk wakawaka wine reviews. Retrieved 2019-02-05.
  7. ^ Staff, Vinepair. "What is Rose Wine?". Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  8. ^ Torresi, Sara; Maria, Frangipane; Gabriele, Anelli (1 December 2011). "Biotechnologies in sparkling wine production. Interesting approaches for quality improvement: A review". Food Chemistry. 129 (3): 1232–1241. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.05.006. PMID 25212362.
  9. ^ "The Last Straw". Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  10. ^ Liu, Shuxun; Liu, Enchao; Zhu, Baoqing; Chai, Bowen; Liu, Ruojin; Gao, Qiong; Zhang, Bolin (January 2018). "Impact of maceration time on colour-related phenolics, sensory characteristics and volatile composition of mulberry wine". Journal of the Institute of Brewing. 124 (1): 45–56. doi:10.1002/jib.476.
  12. ^ "Ancient Nordic Grog Intoxicated the Elite". Live Science. 14 January 2014.