Glasses of red and white wine

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to wine:

Winealcoholic beverage typically made of fermented grape juice.[1] The natural chemical balance of grapes is such that they can ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes or other nutrients.[2] Wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. Yeast consumes the sugars found in the grapes and converts them into alcohol.[1] Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts are used depending on the type of wine being produced.

Ingredients and chemistry of wine

Wine includes the following ingredients:

Main article: Wine chemistry

Scientific makeup:

Types of wine

Wine styles

Grape varieties

Grape varieties – below are some examples of grape varieties from which wine is made: (This list does not render on mobile; try the Desktop view link at the bottom of the page)

Wine by country and region

Main articles: List of wine-producing countries and List of wine-producing regions

Classification systems

Main articles: Classification of wine and Appellation

Wine industry

Wine packaging

Types of wine packages


Main article: Wine accessory

Wine professions and qualifications

Trends and impacts

Wine production

Wine selecting

Wine in culture

Wine and health

Main article: Wine and health

History of wine

Main article: History of wine

By period

By region

Organizations and institutions



Persons influential in the field of wine

Wine-related films and television

See also

icon Wine portal


  1. ^ a b Mauseth, James D. (2013). Plants & people (1st ed.). Burlington: Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 366. ISBN 9780763785505. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
  2. ^ Johnson, H. (1989). Vintage: The Story of Wine. Simon & Schuster. pp. 11–6. ISBN 0-671-79182-6.
  3. ^ Jackson, Ron (2000). Wine Science (Second ed.). Academic Press. pp. 609–619. ISBN 9780123790620.
  4. ^ Kosseva, Maria; Joshi, V.K.; Panesar, P.S. (2017). Science and Technology of Fruit Wine Production. Elsevier Inc. ISBN 978-0-12-800850-8.
  5. ^ Puckette, Madeline (3 February 2017). "Ice Wine, You're So Fine". Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  6. ^ Wakawaka, Hawk (20 February 2012). "Understanding orange wines 2: Georgian amber wines; pheasant's tears rkatsiteli, vinoterra kisi". Hawk wakawaka wine reviews. Retrieved 2019-02-05.
  7. ^ Staff, Vinepair. "What is Rose Wine?". Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  8. ^ Torresi, Sara; Maria, Frangipane; Gabriele, Anelli (1 December 2011). "Biotechnologies in sparkling wine production. Interesting approaches for quality improvement: A review". Food Chemistry. 129 (3): 1232–1241. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.05.006. PMID 25212362.
  9. ^ "The Last Straw". Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  10. ^ Liu, Shuxun; Liu, Enchao; Zhu, Baoqing; Chai, Bowen; Liu, Ruojin; Gao, Qiong; Zhang, Bolin (January 2018). "Impact of maceration time on colour-related phenolics, sensory characteristics and volatile composition of mulberry wine". Journal of the Institute of Brewing. 124 (1): 45–56. doi:10.1002/jib.476.
  12. ^ "Ancient Nordic Grog Intoxicated the Elite". Live Science. 14 January 2014.