The gill /ˈɪl/ or teacup is a unit of measurement for volume equal to a quarter of a pint. It is no longer in common use, except in regard to the volume of alcoholic spirits measures.

## Imperial

In imperial units
 1 imperial gill ≡ 5 imperial fluid ounces ≡ .mw-parser-output .frac{white-space:nowrap}.mw-parser-output .frac .num,.mw-parser-output .frac .den{font-size:80%;line-height:0;vertical-align:super}.mw-parser-output .frac .den{vertical-align:sub}.mw-parser-output .sr-only{border:0;clip:rect(0,0,0,0);clip-path:polygon(0px 0px,0px 0px,0px 0px);height:1px;margin:-1px;overflow:hidden;padding:0;position:absolute;width:1px}1⁄32 imperial gallon ≡ 1⁄4 imperial pint ≡ 1⁄2 Imperial cups = 40 Imperial fluid drams ≡ 142.0653125 mL[a] ≈ 142 mL ≈ 1.2 US gills ≈ 8.67 in3

## US

In United States customary units
 1 US gill ≡ 4 US fl oz ≡ 1⁄32 US gallon ≡ 1⁄8 US quart ≡ 1⁄4 US pint ≡ 1⁄2 US cup ≡ 8 tablespoons ≡ 24 teaspoons ≡ 32 US fluid drams ≡ 77⁄32 in3 ≡ 118.29411825 mL[b] ≈ 118 mL ≈ 5⁄6 imperial gills

## United Kingdom

Prior to metrication, in the United Kingdom, the standard single measure of spirits in a pub was 16 gill (23.7 mL) in England and Northern Ireland, and either 15 gill (28.4 mL) or 14 gill (35.5 mL) in Scotland. After metrication, this was replaced by measures of either 25 or 35 millilitres (0.176 or 0.246 gi), at the discretion of the proprietor.

However, a spirit measure in the Isle of Man is still defined as 15 gill (28.4 mL) and 16 gill (23.7 mL) in Northern Ireland.[1][2] Colloquially, in all jurisdictions, a measure of spirits is referred to as a 'gill' regardless of metrication and the way it is defined.

Half of a gill is a jack, or an eighth of a pint.[3] But in northern England, a quarter pint could also be called a jack or a noggin, rather than a gill, and in some areas a half pint could be called a gill, particularly for beer and milk.[4][5][6]

## Ireland

In Ireland, the standard spirit measure was historically 14 gill and in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, it still retains this value, though it is now legally specified in metric units as 35.5 mL.

## Scotland

In Scotland, there were additional sizes:[7]

• big gill = 1+12 gills (213 mL)
• wee gill = 34 gill (107 mL)
• wee half gill = 38 gill (53 mL)
• nip=14 gill (36 mL)

## In popular culture

There are occasional references to a gill in popular culture, such as in:

### Literature

• In L. Frank Baum's The Patchwork Girl of Oz, one of the ingredients required for a magic spell is a gill of water from a dark well. In chapter 19, the obscure unit is used for humor including a pun with the nursery rhyme "Jack and Jill", which also involved a well.
• In George Orwell's Animal Farm, Moses the Raven is allotted a gill of beer a day after he returns, with the implication that this is part of his payment for supporting the farm leaders, the pigs.
• Dan Simmons' novel The Terror (2007) makes frequent references to gills of grog and rum.
• In Robert Louis Stevenson's Treasure Island there are uses of the measure gill, with Israel Hands drinking a gill of brandy in the chapter "I Strike the Jolly Roger". In Stevenson's Kidnapped the protagonist, David Balfour, is "forced" "to drink about a gill" of brandy.
• In Melvyn Bragg's memoir Back in the Day he recalls his grandfather in the pub with "a gill of bitter" in front of him.

### Television

• A gill is also referenced in Archer season 2, episode 3 ("Blood Test") when Barry explains to Archer that a liter of blood is, "about 8 gills". (Eight gills would be 32 US fl oz, or 0.95 L.) A call back reference, also discussing units of blood, is further made in season 3, episode 3 ("Heart of Archness, Part 3"). In both instances, the word is pronounced with a hard ⟨g⟩.
• In "Bart the Genius," an episode of The Simpsons, a child tricks Bart by offering, "I'll trade you 1,000 picoliters of my milk for four gills of yours." (A picoliter is a trillionth of a liter, so Bart is losing almost a pint of milk in this exchange.)

### Mispronunciation

Because of its more widely used homograph, gill has sometimes been mispronounced with a hard 'g' sound. In English, the sound of soft ⟨g⟩ is the affricate /dʒ/, as in general, giant, and gym. A ⟨g⟩ at the end of a word usually renders a hard ⟨g⟩ (as in "rag"), while if a soft rendition is intended it would be followed by a silent ⟨e⟩ (as in "rage").

• FX's animated cartoon Archer mispronounced gill in the episodes "Blood Test" (Season 2, Episode 3)[9] and "Heart of Archness: Part Three" (Season 3, Episode 3).[10]

## Notes

1. ^ after 1985 in the UK, c. 1964 in Canada
2. ^ after 1964 redefinition of litre and 1959 redefinition of inch

## References

1. ^ "Changes to Isle of Man alcohol measurements scrapped". BBC News. March 8, 2013.
2. ^ "1/5 Gill Shot Glass Government Stamped". Gellings.
3. ^ Klein, Herbert Arthur (1974). The Science of Measurement: A Historical Survey. New York: Dover Publications, Inc. p. 34. ISBN 0-486-25839-4. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
4. ^ Griffiths, Samuel (1873). Griffiths' Guide to the Iron Trade of Great Britain. Griffith. p. 292.
5. ^ O'Gorman, Daniel (1853). Intuitive calculations; the readiest and most concise methods. Manchester. p. 50.`((cite book))`: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
6. ^ International Dictionary of Food and Cooking by Charles Gordon Sinclair, ISBN 1-57958-057-2, published by Taylor & Francis, 1998
7. ^ Purves, James (1903). "The Scottish Licensing Laws". Retrieved 6 September 2016.
8. ^ "Good Luck to the Barley Mow, lyrics and audio". Chivalry.com. Retrieved 2011-02-14.
9. ^ VanDerWerff, Emily (11 February 2011). "Archer: "Blood Test"". The A.V. Club.
10. ^ VanDerWerff, Emily (30 September 2011). "Archer: "Heart Of Archness, Part Three"". The A.V. Club.