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Sri Sultan
Hamengkubuwono X
Bandara Raden Mas Herjuno Darpito
10th Sultan of Yogyakarta
Reign7 March 1989 – Present
Coronation7 March 1989
PredecessorHamengkubuwono IX
Heiress presumptivePrincess Mangkubumi
3rd Governor of Yogyakarta
Incumbent3 October 1998
PredecessorPaku Alam VIII
BornBendara Raden Mas Herjuno Darpito
(1946-04-02) 2 April 1946 (age 75)
Yogyakarta, Dutch East Indies
SpouseRatu Hemas
IssuePrincess Mangkubumi
(Crown Princess)
Princess Candrakirana
Princess Maduretno
Princess Hayu
Princess Bendara
  • Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono X
  • ꦯꦿꦶꦯꦸꦭ꧀ꦡꦟ꧀ꦲꦩꦼꦁꦑꦸꦨꦸꦮꦟ꧇꧑꧐꧇
FatherHamengkubuwono IX

Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono X (also spelled as Hamengkubuwana X, often abbreviated as HB X; born BRM Herjuno Darpito, 2 April 1946) is the Sultan of the historic Yogyakarta Sultanate in Indonesia, and is currently also the Governor of the modern Yogyakarta Special Region (Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta).[1]

Hamengkubuwono X succeeded his father, Hamengkubuwono IX as the Sultan of Yogyakarta when Hamengkubuwono IX died on 3 October 1988. Hamengkubuwono X was formally installed as Sultan on 7 March 1989. However, the position of the Governor of the Yogyakarta Special Region did not go to Hamengkubuwono X. Vice Governor Sri Paku Alam VIII, prince of the subordinate enclave of Paku Alaman within Yogyakarta was instead controversially elevated to the position of governor. This was contrary to the agreement made at the independence of Indonesia in recognition of Hamengkubuwono IX's support and role in the Indonesian War of Independence. Under the agreement, the Sultan holds the position of governor in the Yogyakarta Special Region, and the Paku Alam holds the position of vice governor.

On 30 August 2012, following a decade of talks between Yogyakarta and the central government, the national legislature of Indonesia formally enshrined in law the convention that the Sultan inherits the position of governor.[2]


Hamengkubuwono X was a graduate of Public Administration at the Faculty of Law of Gajah Mada University in Yogyakarta.[1] He was active as Chairman of Indonesian Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Special Region of Yogyakarta,[1] Chairman of the Sports Committee of the Special Region of Yogyakarta, Chairman and Managing Director of PT Punokawan Construction,[1] President of the PG Madukismo Commissioner, and in July 1996 was appointed Chairman of the Special Region of Yogyakarta Expert Counsel to the Governor.

Hamengkubuwono X followed the tradition of his late father Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX in the spirit of Indonesian nationalism over self-interest by participating in street protests in support of the May 1998 student demonstrations opposing Suharto's rule, and like his illustrious father, wanted to be a pioneer in the Yogyakarta Reformation Movement albeit in a non-violent manner. He was also one of the four key figures in the early reform period that sparked the Ciganjur Declaration urging the government to hold elections as soon as possible, because President BJ Habibie had neither constitutional nor legal rights to take over the presidency of Suharto who had just resigned.

Hamengkubuwono X has stated his vision for his region and the Sultanate are the development of science and technology, development of agriculture, tourism and world-famous cultural industries and thus provide a fair and prosperous life to all his citizens. He was nominated by popular choice, to the Golkar Yogyakarta Assembly as a Presidential Candidate for the 2009 Indonesian Presidential Election Campaign. Hamengkubuwono X, though widely respected across all parties and nationwide as neutral, honest and uncorrupted was ultimately unsuccessful in garnering support outside Central Java and was unsuccessful to attain a first round voting position.

Personal life

Hamengkubuwono X has discontinued the polygamist tradition of Javanese monarchs having several wives and possibly multiple concubines, as per his late father's wishes to modernize the royal system. He is married to Ratu Gusti Kanjeng Ratu (GKR) Hemas.

Their five daughters (in birth order) are:[1]

Coronation of Hamengkubuwono X and Hemas in 1989
Coronation of Hamengkubuwono X and Hemas in 1989

Hamengkubuwono X resides in the Keraton Yogyakarta complex and uses the Governor's mansion solely for political affairs.


Styles of
Hamengkubuwono X
Reference styleHis Majesty
Spoken styleYour Majesty
Alternative styleNgarso Dalem

In Javanese Kraton (palaces) names of individuals change with respect to change in status:

His style and title in full English  : His Majesty The Sultan Hamengkubuwono the Tenth, Commander-in-chief in war, Servant of the Most Gracious, Cleric and Caliph that Safeguards the Religion[3][4]

Swearing HB X as Governor of DIY (1998)
Swearing HB X as Governor of DIY (1998)

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f "Profil Gubernur DIY". Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  2. ^ N.O. (6 September 2012). "Yogyakarta's sultans – Carrying on". The Economist. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
  3. ^ Documenta diplomatica (in Indonesian). Departemen Luar Negeri. 1968. Retrieved 17 September 2018. |first1= missing |last1= (help)
  4. ^ Overseas Trading. Australia: Department of Commerce and Agriculture. 1971. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
Political offices Preceded bySri Paku Alam VIII Governor of Yogyakarta 3 October 1998 – present Succeeded byIncumbent Regnal titles Preceded bySri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX Sultan of Yogyakarta 7 March 1989 – present Succeeded byIncumbent