Harambee was an African American newspaper published in the 1960s by the Los Angeles Black Congress, an umbrella organization for diverse groups which included the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), the Freedom Draft Movement, the Afro-American Association, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), Ron Karenga's US Organization, John Floyd's Black Panther Political Party, and others.[1] It was instrumental in publicizing the Black Panther idea and symbol in Los Angeles. It was originally created in August 1966 by Ron Karenga, for the organization US. Karenga then donated the publication to the Black Congress. Its first issue commemorated the anniversary of the 1965 Watts Rebellion.[2] Activist Elaine Brown was a reporter for the newspaper. Editors included Ron Karenga and John Floyd.[3] The name Harambee is Swahili for "Let's Pull Together."[4][5][6]

By April 1969, the newspaper had returned to its roots as an exclusive publication of Karenga's US organization.[7]


  1. ^ Joshua, Bloom; Martin, Waldo (2016). Black Against Empire: The History And Politics Of The Black Panther Party. University of California Press. p. 41.
  2. ^ Scot Brown, Fighting for US: Maulana Karenga, the US Organization, and Black Cultural Nationalism NYU Press, 2003
  3. ^ James Edward Smethurst, The Black Arts Movement: Literary Nationalism in the 1960s and 1970s, University of North Carolina Press, 2005
  4. ^ Joshua Bloom, Waldo E. Martin Jr. Black against Empire: The History and Politics of the Black Panther Party, Univ of California Press, Oct 25, 2016
  5. ^ Freedom North: Black Freedom Struggles Outside the South, 1940–1980 J. Theoharis, K. Woodard, Springer, Mar 5, 2016
  6. ^ Jessie Carney Smith, Black Firsts: 4,000 Ground-Breaking and Pioneering Historical Events, Visible Ink Press, Dec 1, 2012
  7. ^ Scot Brown, US: Maulana Karenga, the US Organization, and Black Cultural Nationalism NYU Press, 2003