Jackson Parish
Jackson Parish Courthouse in Jonesboro
Jackson Parish Courthouse in Jonesboro
Map of Louisiana highlighting Jackson Parish
Location within the U.S. state of Louisiana
Map of the United States highlighting Louisiana
Louisiana's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 32°18′N 92°33′W / 32.3°N 92.55°W / 32.3; -92.55
Country United States
State Louisiana
Founded1845
Named forAndrew Jackson
SeatJonesboro
Largest townJonesboro
Area
 • Total580 sq mi (1,500 km2)
 • Land569 sq mi (1,470 km2)
 • Water11 sq mi (30 km2)  1.9%
Population
 (2020)
 • Total15,031
 • Estimate 
(2021)
14,876
 • Density26/sq mi (10/km2)
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
Congressional district5th
Websitewww.jacksonparishpolicejury.org/Default.aspx

Jackson Parish (French: Paroisse de Jackson) is a parish in the northern part of the U.S. state of Louisiana. As of the 2020 census, the population was 15,031.[1] The parish seat is Jonesboro.[2] The parish was formed in 1845 from parts of Claiborne, Ouachita, and Union Parishes. In the twentieth century, this part of the state had several small industrial mill towns, such as Jonesboro.

East of Jonesboro is the Jimmie Davis State Park, which includes Caney Lake Reservoir.

History

Jackson Parish was founded in 1845 after Indian Removal and named for President Andrew Jackson.[3][4]

Civil War

During the American Civil War Confederate General Richard Taylor sent five companies into Jackson and Winn parishes to arrest conscripts who failed to report for duty, and to halt jayhawker groups in the area.[5]

20th century to present

Jonesboro became an industrial mill town in the 20th century, producing lumber and turpentine products from the pine forests. Industrialization stimulated its growth. By the 1950s and 1960s, numerous African Americans had become industrial workers. Many were veterans of World War II and the Korean War, and they began to press to gain civil rights in the segregated state and region. Ku Klux Klan chapters were active here, and they intimidated and attacked civil rights activists.

In November 1964 Rev. Frederick Douglass Kirkpatrick, ordained that year as a minister of the Church of God in Christ, and Earnest "Chilly Willy" Thomas founded the Deacons for Defense and Justice, an organized African-American, armed self-defense group to protect activists and their families.

In February 1965, these two men and other CORE workers traveled 300 miles to Bogalusa, Louisiana, another small mill town, where they founded another chapter of the Deacons. They advised local activists on strategies of self-defense. They helped found chapters of the Deacons in other cities of Louisiana, as well as in Mississippi and Alabama in these years.

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the parish has a total area of 580 square miles (1,500 km2), of which 569 square miles (1,470 km2) is land and 11 square miles (28 km2) (1.9%) is water.[6]

Major highways

Adjacent parishes

Communities

Towns

Villages

Unincorporated communities

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.Note
18505,566
18609,46570.1%
18707,646−19.2%
18805,328−30.3%
18907,45339.9%
19009,11922.4%
191013,81851.5%
192014,4864.8%
193013,808−4.7%
194017,80729.0%
195015,434−13.3%
196015,8282.6%
197015,9630.9%
198017,3218.5%
199015,705−9.3%
200015,397−2.0%
201016,2745.7%
202015,031−7.6%
2021 (est.)14,876[7]−1.0%
U.S. Decennial Census[8]
1790–1960[9] 1900–1990[10]
1990–2000[11] 2010–2013[1]
Jackson Parish racial composition as of 2020[12]
Race Number Percentage
White (non-Hispanic) 9,896 65.84%
Black or African American (non-Hispanic) 3,945 26.25%
Native American 34 0.23%
Asian 146 0.97%
Pacific Islander 5 0.03%
Other/Mixed 537 3.57%
Hispanic or Latino 468 3.11%

According to the 2020 United States census, there were 15,031 people, 5,971 households, and 4,015 families residing in the parish. At the census of 2000,[13] there were 15,397 people, 6,086 households, and 4,302 families residing in the parish. The population density was 27 people per square mile (10 people/km2). There were 7,338 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile (5.0/km2).

Among the population in 2000, 31.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.80% were married couples living together, 14.40% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.30% were non-families. 27.00% of all households were made up of individuals, and 13.50% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.01.

In 2000, the racial makeup of the parish was 71.01% White, 27.87% Black or African American, 0.29% Native American, 0.21% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.24% from other races, and 0.37% from two or more races. 0.61% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. By 2020, its racial makeup was 65.84% non-Hispanic white, 26.25% Black or African American, 0.23% Native American, 0.97% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 3.57% two or more races, and 3.11% Hispanic or Latino of any race.[12]

Among the 2000 population, the median income for a household in the parish was $28,352, and the median income for a family was $36,317. Males had a median income of $31,977 versus $19,992 for females. The per capita income for the parish was $15,354. About 16.00% of families and 19.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.30% of those under age 18 and 15.80% of those age 65 or over. In 2020, the median household income increased to $41,298 with home-owners paying $434 a month for monthly-housing costs.[14]

Politics

Jackson Parish was historically part of the Solid South, as Louisiana had disenfranchised most blacks in the state at the turn of the century, as had other southern states. This made the Republican Party non-competitive in the state and region, and excluded blacks from politics into the 1960s. The conservative whites consistently voted for Democratic candidates in the one-party region. Governor Al Smith of New York received 100 percent of the vote in 1928 (from white voters) in his losing race against Herbert C. Hoover.[15]

In the 1960s, the majority of conservative white voters began to shift their support to Republican presidential candidates, and then to those at the state level. In 1960, Richard M. Nixon led parishwide with 43.9 percent against both John F. Kennedy and a rival slate of unpledged segregationist electors. These included future Governor David C. Treen and Leander Perez of Plaquemines Parish. In that election, blacks were still disenfranchised.[16]

Since the late 20th century, Democrat Bill Clinton and Republican George W. Bush each carried the parish twice. In 1992, Clinton polled 3,370 votes (44.5 percent) to Republican George Herbert Walker Bush's 3,072 (40.6 percent). Another 882 ballots (11.7 percent) were held by Ross Perot of Texas, who ran as an Independent and thereafter founded his Reform Party.[17]

In the 2008 U.S. presidential election, Republican U.S. Senator John McCain of Arizona outpolled Barack H. Obama of Illinois by 30 percentage points.[18] In 2012, Republican Mitt Romney carried Jackson Parish. with 5,132 votes (68.2 percent) to President Obama's 2,305 ballots (30.6 percent), a margin of nearly 38 percentage points.[19]

United States presidential election results for Jackson Parish, Louisiana[20]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 5,394 70.68% 2,143 28.08% 95 1.24%
2016 5,169 69.25% 2,139 28.66% 156 2.09%
2012 5,132 68.16% 2,305 30.61% 92 1.22%
2008 5,190 67.09% 2,456 31.75% 90 1.16%
2004 5,038 65.88% 2,525 33.02% 84 1.10%
2000 4,347 61.17% 2,582 36.34% 177 2.49%
1996 3,030 42.88% 3,368 47.66% 669 9.47%
1992 3,072 40.60% 3,370 44.54% 1,124 14.86%
1988 4,251 58.64% 2,842 39.21% 156 2.15%
1984 5,034 64.86% 2,568 33.09% 159 2.05%
1980 3,923 50.75% 3,609 46.69% 198 2.56%
1976 3,310 46.88% 3,605 51.06% 145 2.05%
1972 4,152 69.96% 1,477 24.89% 306 5.16%
1968 1,104 16.80% 1,525 23.21% 3,941 59.98%
1964 4,521 74.44% 1,552 25.56% 0 0.00%
1960 1,799 43.88% 1,398 34.10% 903 22.02%
1956 1,553 54.26% 916 32.01% 393 13.73%
1952 1,614 36.43% 2,817 63.57% 0 0.00%
1948 169 7.38% 713 31.15% 1,407 61.47%
1944 414 18.34% 1,840 81.52% 3 0.13%
1940 280 9.29% 2,734 90.71% 0 0.00%
1936 169 8.55% 1,807 91.45% 0 0.00%
1932 34 1.91% 1,748 98.09% 0 0.00%
1928 0 0.00% 907 100.00% 0 0.00%
1924 88 11.43% 682 88.57% 0 0.00%
1920 166 11.90% 1,229 88.10% 0 0.00%
1916 27 2.68% 980 97.13% 2 0.20%
1912 19 2.48% 561 73.14% 187 24.38%

Education

Public schools in Jackson Parish are operated by the elected Jackson Parish School Board.

National Guard

A Company 199TH FSB (Forward Support Battalion) of the 256TH IBCT resides in Jonesboro, Louisiana. This unit has deployed twice to Iraq in 2004-5 and 2010. Also deployed in 1990 for Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm.

Notable people

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 7, 2022.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ "Jackson Parish". Center for Cultural and Eco-Tourism. Retrieved September 4, 2014.
  4. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. pp. 167.
  5. ^ John D. Winters, The Civil War in Louisiana, Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1963, ISBN 0-8071-0834-0, p. 306
  6. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on September 28, 2013. Retrieved September 1, 2014.
  7. ^ "QuickFacts Jackson Parish, Louisiana". Retrieved September 7, 2022.
  8. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 1, 2014.
  9. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved September 1, 2014.
  10. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 1, 2014.
  11. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 27, 2010. Retrieved September 1, 2014.
  12. ^ a b "Explore Census Data". data.census.gov. Retrieved December 29, 2021.
  13. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 14, 2011.
  14. ^ "Explore Census Data". data.census.gov. Retrieved December 30, 2022.
  15. ^ David Leip Election Atlas: 1928 statistics
  16. ^ Louisiana Secretary of State, Presidential election returns by parish, November 8, 1960
  17. ^ "Jackson Parish presidential election returns, November 3, 1992". staticresults.sos.la.gov. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
  18. ^ The New York Times electoral map (Zoom in on Louisiana)
  19. ^ "Jackson Parish presidential election returns, November 6, 2012". staticresults.sos.la.gov. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
  20. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved March 7, 2018.
  21. ^ "George T. Walker". Monroe News Star. Retrieved July 6, 2011.

32°18′N 92°33′W / 32.30°N 92.55°W / 32.30; -92.55