Kosmos 2229 / Bion 10
Bion spacecraft.jpg
A Bion spacecraft
NamesBion 10
Bion '92
Biocosmos 10
Biokosmos 10
Mission typeBioscience
OperatorInstitute for Medical and Biological Problems (IMBP)
COSPAR ID[1] 1992-095A [1] COSPAR ID does not match expected format
SATCAT no.22300
Mission duration12 days
Spacecraft properties
SpacecraftBion 10
Spacecraft typeBion
Launch mass6,000 kg (13,000 lb)
Start of mission
Launch date29 December 1992,
13:30:00 UTC
RocketSoyuz-U 11A511U
(s/n U15000-033)
Launch sitePlesetsk, Site 43/3
End of mission
Recovered byRussian Space Forces
Landing date10 January 1993, 04:19 UTC
Landing site50°46′N 73°08′E / 50.767°N 73.133°E / 50.767; 73.133 (Bion 10 spashdown),
Karaganda Region, Kazakhstan[2]
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric orbit[3]
RegimeLow Earth orbit
Perigee altitude225 km (140 mi)
Apogee altitude393 km (244 mi)
Period90.40 minutes
← Bion 9
Bion 11 →

Kosmos 2229, or Bion 10 (in Russian: Бион 10, Космос 2229) was a biomedical research mission involving in ten countries plus European Space Agency (ESA). A Russian spacecraft, was launched by a Soyuz-U launch vehicle from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome. It was part of the Bion programme.


Several of the hardware elements on the biosatellite were improved for Kosmos 2229. The in-flight data recording system was enhanced, making high-quality brain and neuromuscular recordings possible. The monkey feeder system was improved, and a backup juice dispenser was available. The monkey restraint system was modified to allow more arm movement. The neurovestibular data acquisition system was updated through a joint American-Russian development effort, allowing more parameters to be recorded in flight.


Bion 10 carried two monkeys and several insects, amphibians, plants, and cell cultures.[1] Participating scientists were from ten countries (Canada, France, Germany, Lithuania, Netherlands, China, Russia, Ukraine, United States, and Uzbekistan), plus European Space Agency (ASE). In the planning stages this mission was named Bion '92.

The Kosmos 2229 spacecraft orbited the Earth for almost 12 days. The payload, also designated Bion 10, contained thirteen American life sciences experiments. Studies focused on bone, neuromuscular and vestibular physiology, circadian rhythms, and metabolism. Two rhesus monkeys served as experimental subjects on the mission. As on previous Kosmos biosatellite missions, the monkeys were trained to activate food and juice dispensers. In addition, they were trained to operate a foot pedal so that muscle responses could be studied in flight. For in-flight neurovestibular testing, the monkeys were trained to make hand and head movements in response to visual stimuli.

See also


  1. ^ a b "Display: Bion 10 1992-095A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  2. ^ Cosmos 2229 Encyclopedia Astronautica Retrieved 17 January 2021
  3. ^ Chris Peat COSMOS 2229 Heavens Above Retrieved 17 January 2021