Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756–1791) was a prolific composer and wrote in many genres. Perhaps his best-admired work is in opera, piano concerto, piano sonata, symphony, string quartet, and string quintet. Mozart also wrote many violin sonatas, and other forms of chamber music, violin concertos, and other concertos for one or more solo instruments, masses, and other religious music, organ music, masonic music, and numerous dances, marches, divertimentos, serenades, and other forms of light entertainment.

How Mozart's compositions are listed

Symphonies

Main article: List of symphonies by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Mozart's symphonic production covers a 24-year interval, from 1764 to 1788. According to most recent investigations, Mozart wrote not just the 41 symphonies reported in traditional editions, but up to 68 complete works of this type. However, by convention, the original numbering has been retained, and so his last symphony is still known as "No. 41". Some of the symphonies (K. 297, 385, 550) were revised by the author after their first versions.

Childhood symphonies (1764–1771)

These are the numbered symphonies from Mozart's early childhood.

There are also several "unnumbered" symphonies from this time period. Many of them were given numbers past 41 (but not in chronological order) in an older collection of Mozart's works (Mozart-Werke, 1877–1910, referred to as "GA"), but newer collections refer to them only by their entries in the Köchel catalogue. Many of these cannot be definitively established as having been written by Mozart (see here).

Salzburg-era symphonies (1771–1777)

These symphonies are sometimes subcategorized as "Early" (1771–1773) and "Late" (1773–1777), and sometimes subcategorized as "Germanic" (with minuet) or "Italian" (without minuet). None of these were printed during Mozart's lifetime.

Although not counted as "symphonies" the three Divertimenti K. 136–138, in 3-movement Italian overture style, are sometimes indicated as "Salzburg Symphonies" too.

There are also several "unnumbered" symphonies from this time period that make use of music from Mozart's operas from the same time period. They are also given numbers past 41.

There are also three symphonies from this time period that are based on three of Mozart's serenades:

Late symphonies (1778–1788)

The three final symphonies (Nos. 39–41) were completed in about three months in 1788. It is likely that Mozart hoped to publish these three works together as a single opus, but they remained unpublished until after his death. One or two of them might have been played in public in Leipzig in 1789.

Concertos

Piano concertos

Main article: Mozart piano concertos

Mozart's concertos for piano and orchestra are numbered from 1 to 27. The first four numbered concertos are early works. The movements of these concertos are arrangements of keyboard sonatas by various contemporary composers (Raupach, Honauer, Schobert, Eckart, C. P. E. Bach). There are also three unnumbered concertos, K. 107, which are adapted from piano sonatas by J. C. Bach. Concertos 7 and 10 are compositions for three and two pianos respectively. The remaining twenty-one, listed below, are original compositions for solo piano and orchestra. Among them, fifteen were written in the years from 1782 to 1786, while in the last five years Mozart wrote just two more piano concertos.

There are also two isolated rondos for piano and orchestra:

The early arrangements are as follows:

Others

Violin concertos

Mozart's five violin concertos were written in Salzburg around 1775, except the first around 1773. They are notable for the beauty of their melodies and the skillful use of the expressive and technical characteristics of the instrument, though Mozart likely never went through all the violin possibilities that others (e.g. Beethoven and Brahms) did after him. (Alfred Einstein notes that the violin concerto-like sections in the serenades are more virtuosic than in the works titled Violin Concertos.)

Mozart also wrote a concertone for two violins and orchestra, an adagio and two stand-alone rondos for violin and orchestra.

In addition, there are three works that are spuriously attributed to Mozart.

Horn concertos

Main article: Horn Concertos (Mozart)

Arguably the most widely played concertos for horn, the four Horn Concertos are a major part of most professional horn players' repertoire. They were written for Mozart's lifelong friend Joseph Leutgeb. The concertos (especially the fourth) were written as virtuoso vehicles that allow the soloist to show a variety of abilities on the valveless horns of Mozart's day.

The Horn Concertos are characterized by an elegant and humorous dialogue between the soloist and the orchestra. Many of the autographs contain jokes aimed at the dedicatee.

There are some other unfinished Mozart works for horn and orchestra:

Woodwind concertos

Others

Concertante symphonies

These were not Mozart's only attempts at the genre; a few other fragmentary works were also composed around the same time, though not completed.

Other concertos

Piano music

Mozart's earliest composition attempts begin with piano sonatas and other piano pieces, as this is the instrument on which his musical education took place. Almost everything that he wrote for piano was intended to be played by himself (or by his sister, also a proficient piano player). Examples of his earliest works are those found in Nannerl's Music Book. Between 1782 and 1786, Mozart wrote 20 works for piano solo (including sonatas, variations, fantasias, suites, fugues, rondo) and works for piano four hands and two pianos.

Solo piano works

Main article: List of solo piano compositions by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Dual piano/performer works

Piano four-hands

Others

Two pianos

Others

Chamber music

Chamber music with piano

Violin music

Mozart also wrote sonatas for keyboard and violin. For the most part, these are keyboard-centric sonatas where the violin plays a more accompanying role. In later years, the role of the violin grew to not just a support to the other solo instrument, but to build a dialogue with it.

The 'Violin Sonatas', KV 10–15, are unique in that they include an ad lib. cello part along with the score for violin and keyboard. The Neue Mozart-Ausgabe (1966) therefore includes them along with the other keyboard trios, although the Köchel catalogue (K6, 1964) lists them as normal violin sonatas.

Violin sonatas
Childhood violin sonatas (1762–66)
Mature violin sonatas (1778–88)
Variations for violin and piano

Piano trios

Others

Piano quartets

Other chamber music with piano

Fragments

Chamber music without piano

String duos

String trios

Others

String quartets

This cycle, in three movements, is interesting as far as these works can be considered precursors of the later—more complete—string quartets.
  • String Quartet No. 2 in D major, K. 155/134a (1772)
  • String Quartet No. 3 in G major, K. 156/134b (1772)
  • String Quartet No. 4 in C major, K. 157 (1772–73)
  • String Quartet No. 5 in F major, K. 158 (1772–73)
  • String Quartet No. 6 in B major, K. 159 (1773)
  • String Quartet No. 7 in E major, K. 160/159a (1773)
Much more stylistically developed. In Vienna Mozart is believed to have heard the op. 17 and op. 20 quartets of Joseph Haydn, and had received from them a deep impression.
  • String Quartet No. 8 in F major, K. 168 (1773)
  • String Quartet No. 9 in A major, K. 169 (1773)
  • String Quartet No. 10 in C major, K. 170 (1773)
  • String Quartet No. 11 in E major, K. 171 (1773)
  • String Quartet No. 12 in B major, K. 172 (1773)
  • String Quartet No. 13 in D minor, K. 173 (1773)
Mozart returned to the quartet in the early 1780s after he had moved to Vienna, met Haydn in person, and developed a friendship with the older composer. Haydn had just published his set of six quartets, Op. 33, which are thought to have been a stimulus to Mozart in returning to the genre. These quartets are often regarded as among the pinnacles of the genre.
This work was published by (dedicated to?) Franz Anton Hoffmeister, as well as the Prussian Quartets.
Mozart's last three quartets, dedicated to the King of Prussia, Friedrich Wilhelm II, are noted for the cantabile character of the parts for cello (the instrument played by the king himself), the sweetness of sounds and the equilibrium among the different instruments.
Others

String quintets

The string quintets (K. 174, 406, 515, 516, 593, 614), for two violins, two violas and cello. Charles Rosen wrote that "by general consent, Mozart's greatest achievement in chamber music is the group of string quintets with two violas."[2]

Others

Other chamber music without piano

Fragments

Serenades, divertimenti, and other instrumental works

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The production for instrumental ensembles includes several divertimenti, cassations, notturni, serenades, marches, dances, and a quodlibet, besides, of course, his symphonies. Mozart's production for orchestra is written for string ensembles (like the early Divertimenti K. 136–138), as well as for wind ensembles and the varied combinations of strings and winds.

Serenades

Others

Divertimenti

Others

Three Milanese Quartets called "Divertimento":

Incomplete

Marches

Others

Incomplete

Dances

Autograph manuscript of the Minuet K.164, number 5
Autograph manuscript of the Minuet K.164, number 5

See also: Mozart and dance

Mozart left a huge production of dances for orchestra in different genres, including more than 100 minuets, over 30 contra dances, over 50 allemandes (Teitsch, Ländler, or German Dances), a gavotte (French folk dance) and ballet and pantomime music.

In his production of minuets, Mozart generally followed Haydn's example, preferring the slow character of the dance. Allemandes written between 1787 and 1791 were mainly for public balls in Vienna. In the Contredanse production, also written mainly in Vienna, some examples of program music are found, like Il Temporale, K. 534, La Bataille, K. 535, Canary, K. 600/5, etc.

Minuet

Contra dance

Allemande

Others

Sacred music

Mozart's sacred music is mainly vocal, though also instrumental examples exist, like the seventeen Sonate da chiesa, composed between 1772 and 1780. His sacred music presents a rich stylistic mosaic: Gregorian choral elements meet rigorous counterpoint, and even operatic elements can sometimes emerge. Stylistic unity and consistency is present over all his sacred music work.

Masses

Main article: List of masses by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Oratorios

Cantatas

Liturgical works

Kyrie

Gradual

Offertory

Vespers

Magnificat

Antiphon

Three settings of the Marian antiphon Regina coeli:

Miserere

Te Deum

Litany

Litanies:

Other sacred works

Motet

Hymns and aria

Others

Church sonatas

Main article: Church Sonatas (Mozart)

Others

Organ music

Operas

Main article: List of operas by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Concert arias, songs and canons

Main article: List of concert arias, songs and canons by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Masonic music

Main article: Mozart and Freemasonry

The following are compositions written for the Masonic Lodge:

Handel adaptations

See also

References

  1. ^ King, Alec Hyatt (1973). "Some Aspects of Recent Mozart Research". Journal of the Royal Musical Association. 100 (1): 9–10. doi:10.1093/jrma/100.1.1. ISSN 0080-4452. OCLC 478409660.
  2. ^ Rosen, Charles (1997). The Classical Style: Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven (2nd ed.). New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-04020-3. OCLC 35095841.
  3. ^ Palmer, Willard A., ed. (2006). W. A. Mozart: An Introduction to His Keyboard Works (illustrated ed.). Alfred Music Publishing. p. 6. ISBN 9780739038758. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  4. ^ Hinson, Maurice; Roberts, Wesley (2013). Guide to the Pianist's Repertoire (4th ed.). Indiana University Press. p. 707. ISBN 9780253010230. Retrieved 27 November 2015.