Mitrovica
South Mitrovica
Ibar Bridge, Sitnica River, Miners Monument, Ibar River, St. Dimitri Orthodox Church, Former Jadran Hotel, Sand's Mosque, Mitrovica at night panoramic view.
Ibar Bridge, Sitnica River, Miners Monument, Ibar River, St. Dimitri Orthodox Church, Former Jadran Hotel, Sand's Mosque, Mitrovica at night panoramic view.
Official logo of Mitrovica
Mitrovica is located in Kosovo
Mitrovica
Mitrovica
Mitrovica is located in Europe
Mitrovica
Mitrovica
Coordinates: 42°53′N 20°52′E / 42.883°N 20.867°E / 42.883; 20.867
CountryKosovo
Government
 • MayorBedri Hamza (PDK)
Area
 • Municipality331 km2 (128 sq mi)
 • Urban
54.983 km2 (21.229 sq mi)
 • Rank17th in Kosovo
Elevation
500 m (1,600 ft)
Population
 (2022)[1]
 • Municipality85,360
 • Density260/km2 (670/sq mi)
 • Urban
46,132
 • Urban density840/km2 (2,200/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Albanian: Mitrovicas (m), Mitrovicase (f)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
40000
Area code+383 28
Vehicle registration02
WebsiteOfficial site

Mitrovica (Albanian indefinite form: Mitrovicë; Serbian Cyrillic: Митровица), also referred as Kosovska Mitrovica (Albanian: Mitrovica e Kosovës; Serbian Cyrillic: Косовска Митровица), is a city in northern Kosovo and administrative center of the District of Mitrovica. In 2013, the city was split into two municipalities, South Mitrovica (Albanian: Mitrovica e Jugut; Serbian: Јужна Митровица, romanizedJužna Mitrovica) and North Mitrovica (Albanian: Mitrovica e Veriut; Serbian: Ceвepнa Митровица, romanizedSeverna Mitrovica). Settled 10 km from Ujmani/Gazivoda Lake, on the confluence of the rivers Ibar, Sitnica, Lushta, and Trepça, the city is surrounded by the mountains of Kopaonik, Rogozna, Mokna, and Çyçavica. According to the 2011 Census, the two municipalities had 97,686 inhabitants of which 85,360 reside in south and 12,326 in north.[2][3]

The history of Mitrovica is rooted in antiquity, with evidence of early settlements of neolithic and Roman-era artifacts discovered in the region. During the Middle Ages, the area played an important role in the Byzantine and Serbian Empires, while the modern city was founded during the rule of the Ottoman Empire, being first mentioned in the 17th century. Its strategic location along trade routes made it an important center for commerce and cultural exchange during this time. The complex historical context of these foreign influences contributed to the diverse heritage and cultural mosaic of Mitrovica, which continues to be a notable aspect of the city's identity.[4]

In the modern era, Mitrovica's history has been marked by various events, including the industrial development of Trepça Mines during the Yugoslav period, the Kosovo War and the ethnic divisions that emerged in its aftermath in 1999. In 2013, following the North Kosovo crisis, the city was divided by the Ibar River into two separate municipalities, South Mitrovica with an ethnic Albanian majority and North Mitrovica with an ethnic Serb majority.[5]

Rich in minerals such as lead, zinc ore and other minerals, during Yugoslavian period, Mitrovica was an industrial city with a significant mining industry, as the Trepča Mines, a major mining and metallurgy complex, is located in the region. Following the Kosovo War in 1999 and the city’s ethnic division, Mitrovica suffered economic collapse, turning from the economic center of Kosovo before 1999,to the poorest region in Kosovo after. According to the Kosovo Statistics Agency, of all urban municipalities in Kosovo, Mitrovica has the highest unemployment rate and the highest number of dependents from state transfers.[6]

Mitrovica is also an important university center with the University of Mitrovica “Isa Boletini” in the south, the faculties of the parallel institution of University of Pristina in the north and several private universities. The city is known for music and has Mitrovica Rock School.[7] It hosts numerous cultural events, such as Green Fest, Mitrovica Jazz Days Festival, MittrixFest, Mitrovica Guitar Days, ArtFest, Nomad Fest, North Jazz Festival, and others. Mitrovica has the City Museum, the Museum of Crystals, the Cultural Center, City Library, City Theater, ensembles, several galleries, and social/cultural spaces. Additionally, it is home to many sports clubs and venues, including the Adem Jashari Olympic Stadium, Riza Lushta Stadium, Fatime Xhaka Stadium, Minatori Sports Hall and Omni Sports Center.[8]

Among the most important historical monuments in the region are the 13th century remains of St. Peter's Catholic Church, the 14th century monasteries of Banjska and Sokolica, and the mosque of Mazhiq, the fortresses of Zveçan and Rashan and Isa Boletini Towers Complex. Ibar bridge has become a symbol of division and the city’s main landmark.[9]

Etymology

The name of Mitrovica derives from the name Demetrius. It was most probably named after the 8th century Byzantine church St. Demetrius which was built near Zvečan Fortress, just above the modern Mitrovica, in honor of Saint Demetrius of Thessaloniki.[10]

The earliest evidence of the name of this city dates back to 1430 when it was mentioned in a Roman document as 'Dimitrovica.' In the Republic of Ragusa, in the documents 'Lamenta de foris' from 1446, the city was referred to as De Dimitruic. Throughout the late Middle Ages and Ottoman era, various travelers documented the name of the city. The German traveler Arnold von Harff mentioned Mitrovica in 1499 as Mitrix, while Benedikt Kuripečič, in 1530, referred to the city as Bazar Mitrovica. In 1660, the Ottoman explorer Evliya Çelebi mentioned the city with the name Mitrovica for the first time. From 1878 to 1890, the city was known as Mitrovica of Bazar, most probably due to the fact that it was under the Sanjak of Novi Pazar (Jenipazar)".[10] [11][12] [13]

After President Tito's death in 1980, each of the constituent parts of Yugoslavia had to have one place named with the word "Tito" (or "Tito's") included, the city was then known as Titova Mitrovica (Титова Митровица) in Serbian or Mitrovica e Titos in Albanian, until 1991.[14]

The official name of the city in the Republic of Kosovo is Mitrovicë (in Albanian) or Mitrovica (in Serbian), reflecting its bilingual character and regional context. In Serbian context, the city is often referred to as Kosovska Mitrovica, a name used to distinguish it from Sremska Mitrovica, a city in Serbia. In Turkish, the city is called Mitroviça.

Since the split of the Municipality of Mitrovica into two municipalities in 2013, with the creation of Serb-majority municipality in the northern side, the official names of the municipalities have changed. The original Municipality of Mitrovica is now officially known as South Mitrovica (Albanian: Mitrovica e Jugut; Serbian: Јужна Митровица, romanized: Južna Mitrovica) while the newly formed municipality is North Mitrovica (Albanian: Mitrovica e Veriut; Serbian: Ceвepнa Митровица, romanized: Severna Mitrovica).[15][16]

History

Neolithic period

There is archaeological evidence that proves the region of Mitrovica has been inhabited since the Neolithic era. The oldest settlements discovered in the area are the archeological sites of Zhitkoc, Karagaç and Vallaç, near Zvecan (around 5 km north of Mitrovica) and archaeological site of Fafos which is situated in the suburban area of Mitrovica.

The Neolithic site of Zhitkoc, situated approximately 3 km north of Zveçan, is positioned on a plateau near the Zhitkoc train station. In 1958, a series of preliminary excavations were conducted near the banks of the Ibër River, revealing the remains of a typical Neolithic settlement that belonged to both the earlier Starčevo culture and the later Vinča culture.

The adjacent archaeological site of Karagaç is found on a lower terrace along the riverbank and was investigated between 1955 and 1960. The archaeological findings indicated occupation during the middle Neolithic period. The settlement mainly consisted of semi-subterranean, elliptical huts, protected by ditches. Inside these dwellings, a significant amount of pottery associated with the Starcevo culture was uncovered. Furthermore, the settlement persisted into a later phase, with huts constructed from interwoven timber beams coated with earth/mud. Evidence from ceramic fragments and anthropomorphic figurines suggests that this settlement was also inhabited during the earlier stage of the Late Neolithic, specifically the Vinca culture. In addition to Neolithic artifacts, traces of a settlement and cemetery from the Bronze and Iron Ages were discovered in the same area, underscoring the continuity of human habitation from prehistoric times.

The archaeological site of Fafos is located in the suburban area of Mitrovica, within the industrial zone adjacent to the FAFOS factory, which was primarily involved in phosphates production. This site underwent excavation between 1955 and 1961, covering a total area of approximately 1,200 square meters. The findings confirmed the presence of two separate Neolithic settlements associated with the Vinca culture, situated about 200 meters apart from each other. The earlier settlement, referred to as Fafos I, consisted of characteristic semi-subterranean huts used for shelter. In contrast, the later settlement, known as Fafos II, featured house-huts arranged in a row. Notably, archaeological research indicated that a significant portion of the huts in both settlements had been destroyed by an extensive fire. Artifacts discovered in these settlements included various everyday objects such as cult items, ritual vases, and anthropomorphic figurines.[13][12][17][4][18]

Middle Ages

The 14th century Monastery of Banjska, 15 km northwest Mitrovica.

While there is limited historical evidence regarding the early Middle Ages when the region was under Byzantine rule, the period between the 9th and 15th centuries witnessed a series of significant events that made the area a focal point for conflicts involving the Byzantine Empire, the Medieval Kingdom of Serbia, the Bulgarian Empire and Ottoman Empire, being ruled by each of them in different periods.[12]

During this time, the fortified settlement of Zvečan emerged as a key location, playing a pivotal role in the expansion and development of the Kingdom of Serbia under Nemanjić rule. Its strategic position made it a center of power in the region.[12][13]

Simultaneously, the settlement of Trepca began to evolve into a thriving mining town. The development of mining activities and trade significantly contributed to the region's significance and economic growth.

The Zvecan Fortress overlooking the modern Mitrovica from the top of the extinct volcano vent

Notable structures were constructed during this era, including the Banjska Monastery, Sokolica Monastery, and the Saxon St. Peter's Basilica Church, Stari Trg. The Saxon Church in Stan Terg, built by Saxons, underlines the importance of the mining industry during this period in the region.[12][13]

With the Ottoman occupation in 1389, after the Battle of Kosovo, the fortified town of Zvecan turned into an active military site well into the 18th century, after which it was abandoned. During this time the population settled along the valley of Ibar and Sitnica, founding this way the modern settlement of Mitrovica. Mitrovica probably got the name after the 8th century Byzantine church St. Demetrius which was built near Zvečan Fortress, just above the modern Mitrovica, in honor of Saint Demetrius of Thessaloniki.[10][12][13]

Several Roman and Ragusian documents mention the city respectively as Dimitrovica in 1430 and 'De Dimitruic' 1446, while the German traveler Arnold von Harff mentioned the city in 1499 as 'Mitrix.[12][13]

Ottoman Empire

Several neighborhoods in the area of Trepča according to the Ottoman defter of the 16th century were Islamised and the other neighborhoods contained people with a mixture of Christian, Albanian and Slavic names. According to Selami Pulaha, the Ottoman defters of 1591 indicate that the area of Trepča in the 16th century had a significant Albanian population, with some Albanian names being combined with other Christian or Slavic names.[19]

Mitrovica train station in the late 19th century Ottoman Empire

Under Ottoman rule Mitrovica was a small city typical to the region. Rapid development came in the 19th century after lead ore was discovered and mined in the region, providing what has historically been one of Kosovo's largest industries.

It became an industrial town, formerly the economic centre of Kosovo because of the nearby Trepça Mines. It grew in size as a centre of trade and industry with the completion of the railway line to Skopje in 1873–1878, which linked Mitrovica to the port of Thessaloniki.[20] Another line later linked the town to Belgrade and Western Europe.[20]

Modern

During World War II, the city was part of Axis-occupied Serbia. In 1948, Mitrovica had a population of 13,901 and in the early 1990s of about 75,000.[20]

Kosovo war and city division

Both the town and municipality were badly affected by the 1999 Kosovo War. According to the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the area had been the scene of guerrilla activity by the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) prior to the war. It came under the command of NATO's French sector; 7,000 French troops were stationed in the western sector with their headquarters in Mitrovica. They were reinforced with a contingent of 1,200 troops from the United Arab Emirates, and a small number of Danish troops.

Monument to Serbian victims of the Kosovo War

Most of the approximately 6,000 Roma fled to Serbia, or were relocated to one of two resettlement camps, Cesmin Lug, or Osterode, in North Mitrovica. In the north, live some 17,000 Kosovo Serbs, with 2,000 Kosovo Albanians and 1,700 Bosniaks inhabiting discrete enclaves on the north bank of the Ibar River. Almost all of the Serbs living on the south bank were displaced to North Mitrovica after the Kosovo War. In 2011, the city had an estimated total population of 71,601.


Bridge over the Ibar, which connects the city's north and south municipalities (2023)

Mitrovica became the focus for ethnic clashes between the two communities, exacerbated by the presence of nationalist extremists on both sides. The bridges linking the two sides of the town were guarded by armed groups determined to prevent incursions by the other side. Because of the tense situation in the town, KFOR troops and the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) police were stationed there in large numbers to head off trouble. However, violence and harassment was often directed against members of the "wrong" ethnic community on both sides of the river, necessitating the presence of troops and police checkpoints around individual areas of the city and even in front of individual buildings.

On 17 March 2004, the drowning of three Albanian children in the river prompted major ethnic violence in the town and a Serbian teenager was killed. Demonstrations by thousands of angry Albanians and Serbs mobilised to stop them crossing the river degenerated into rioting and gunfire, leaving at least eight Albanians dead and at least 300 injured. The bloodshed sparked off the worst unrest in Kosovo seen since the end of the 1999 war (in which 16 Serbs were killed). The local prison was the scene of an international incident on 18 April 2004 when a Jordanian policeman working as a UN prison guard opened fire on a group of UN police officers leaving a class, killing three.[21][22]

Kosovo's independence

Tensions rose considerably in the city of Mitrovica after Kosovo declared independence on 17 February 2008. Some 150 Kosovo Serb police officers refused to take orders from the ethnic Albanian authorities and were suspended. Serb protesters prevented ethnic Albanian court employees from crossing the bridge over the Ibar River. UN police raided and seized the courthouse on 14 March using tear gas against Serbs and leaving some of them wounded. The explosion of a hand-grenade injured several UN and NATO staff on 17 March; UN forces were later withdrawn from the northern part of Mitrovica.[23]

Isa Boletini statue in the centre of Mitrovica inaugurated during the 100th anniversary of the independence of Albania.

The Serbian minority initially formed the Community Assembly of Kosovo and Metohija in the city, but it has no police force. Serbs refused to accept the jurisdiction of Kosovo courts.[24]

Kosovar leaders have expressed concern over the future of the region, stating their commitment to keep Mitrovica part of Kosovo and prevent crime or war there.[25] With the 2013 Brussels Agreement Kosovo Serbs accepted the Pristina-run police force and courts and vote on ballots with republic of Kosovo logos. Elected Serbs swear oaths to Republic of Kosovo.[citation needed]

Since 2012 the northern and the southern part of the city, and in particular the New Bridge over the Ibar River are patrolled 24/7 by Italian Carabinieri from KFOR-MSU.[26]

Demography

Main article: Demographics of Mitrovica

Historical population
YearPop.±%
194832,800—    
195338,716+18.0%
196150,747+31.1%
197171,357+40.6%
198187,531+22.7%
1991104,885+19.8%
201184,235−19.7%
Source: [2][27]

The city of Mitrovica in 2011 had 84,235 inhabitants, 71,909 of which were living in the southern municipality, while 12,326 in North Mitrovica municipality.[2] Since the 2011 census was not applied in the now four Serb-majority municipalities in North Kosovo, the data from an Update in 2008–2009 conducted by Kosovo Agency of Statistics (KAS) has been taken as official data for North Mitrovica municipality, as well as for the towns of Zvečan, Leposavić and Zubin Potok.[28] According to KAS, 58,458 inhabitants were living in the urban area of the city: 46,132 of them in southern municipality, 12,326 in the north.[2]

The Kosovo war and post-war conflicts, the destruction of economy, especially the operating stoppage of industrial sector, as well as other socio-economic factors, have influenced high emigration (both internal and external). After 1948 (32,800 inhabitants) the city had continual high population growth tripling by 1991 to 104,885 inhabitants, but in 2011 only 84,235 inhabitants were living in Mitrovica, a decrease of 19.29% from 1991.

In 2015, a wave of mass migration of approximately 100,000 Kosovo people occurred towards Western Europe with the total population of Kosovo declining by almost 5%.[29] During this period, 4,889 people fled south Mitrovica, which resulted in a population decline to 68,400 inhabitants. By 2015 the population of North Mitrovica municipality slightly increased to 12,223 inhabitants. In total, according to Kosovo Agency of Statistics estimation, at the end of 2015, 80,623 people were living in the city of Mitrovica.[30]

Ethnic groups

Young people on the banks of Ibar river in Mitrovica

Mitrovica is characterized with a large ethnic diversity, dominated by Albanians and followed by Serbs, Bosniaks, Turks, Roma and other ethnic groups. In south municipality of Mitrovica, Albanians make 96.65% of the total population, while other ethnic groups are Roma, Turks, Bosniaks and others. According to 2011 census, only 14 Serbs live in south Mitrovica municipality.

Ethnic composition in South Mitrovica
according to 2011 census[31]
Group Population Percentage
Albanians 69,497 96.65%
Serbs 14 0.02%
Turks 518 0.72%
Bosniaks 416 0.58%
Roma 528 0.73%
Ashkali 647 0.9%
Egyptians 6 0.01%
Gorani 23 0.03%
Other (specify) 47 0.07%
Prefer not to answer 61 0.08%
Not available 152 0.21%
Total 71,909 100%

Religion

The main religious group is Muslim. Small numbers of Serbian Orthodox and Roman Catholics exist in the city. Albanians, Bosniaks, Turks, Roma and other smaller ethnic groups are mainly Muslim.

In the results of 2011 census, 71,422 people or 99.32% of total population of southern municipality of Mitrovica, were Muslims. Orthodox Christians comprised 11 or 0.02% of total population of municipality, while Catholics comprised 42 or 0.06%.[32]

As North Mitrovica municipality was not covered by population estimation in 2011 by Kosovo Agency of Statistics, there are no official data on religion.[citation needed]

Isa Beg's Mosque (locally known as Sand's Mosque) in South Mitrovica
St. Demetrius Serbian Orthodox Church in North Mitrovica
Ruins of St. Peter's Basilica Church near Mitrovica
Albanian Catholic Church in southern part of Mitrovica

Economy

Abandoned factory in Mitrovica.

The Trepča Mines are located in Mitrovica. Once one of Europe's largest mines, its production has since dwindled and most of its operations closed off following the war.[33] Due to Mitrovica's political instability and divisions between the Albanian and Serb communities, the city's unemployment rate is 65%.[34] Publicly owned enterprises and local administration is largely responsible for the functioning of the economy, along with Serbian government assistance and EU donations.[35]

Infrastructure

Education

See also: Education in Mitrovica

In the southern municipality of Mitrovica there are 31 primary and lower secondary schools, which, since some of the schools function in separate parallels in different areas, operate in 42 educational facilities. In the southern municipality exists also 5 upper secondary schools. Although there is only one kindergarten, it has a large capacity, available for 300 kids.[36] The higher education is also provided through the Public University of Mitrovica "Isa Boletini" and University of Applied Sciences.[37]

In North Mitrovica there are 11 primary schools, four secondary schools and one kindergarten.[37] Regarding the higher education institutions, the public University of Pristina is functional. It hold the name University of Priština after the Serbian faculties of the University of Pristina were relocated from Pristina to North Mitrovica after the Kosovo War. However, many institutions refer to it as University of Mitrovica, including UNMIK and EUA.[38][39]

There are two private universities that operate in the south Mitrovica, College "Fama" and International Business College Mitrovica (IBCM). IBCM has campuses in both municipalities of Mitrovica.[37]

Culture

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See also: Monuments in Mitrovica

The City Museum of Mitrovica is located there.

Sights

Main article: Archaeological sites in the District of Mitrovica

The strategic position of the region of Mitrovica in the middle of two great rivers Ibar and Sitnica and its mineral wealth in Albanik (Monte Argentarum), made this location populated since prehistoric period. This region was populated by Illyrians, respectively Dardan tribe. The first data for the archaeological sites in the region of Mitrovica, begin with the researches of Sir Arthur John Evans, who was the first to pinpoint the Roman town of the Municipium Dardanourm.

In the archaeological sites of the region of Mitrovica were found traces and objects from different periods such as; neolithic, Roman, late antiquity and medieval period. Objects and figurines include: fortress vestiges, necropolis, Terpsichore figure, statues, sarcophagus, altar, jewellery, etc.

Sports

Adem Jashari Olympic Stadium

Mitrovica is the City in Kosovo with the most professional Football clubs, in the Country. Three football clubs are situated on the territory of Mitrovica. KF Trepça and KF Trepça'89 are from the south of the city. FK Trepča is from North Mitrovica. KF Trepça and KF Trepça'89 the two southern club's play in the Football Superleague of Kosovo. KF Trepça play at the Adem Jashari Olympic Stadium, which hosted Kosovo's first FIFA-recognized friendly international football match on 5 March 2014, playing 0–0 against Haiti.[40] Basketball is also a popular sport in the city and is represented by KB Trepça which is one of the most successful clubs in Kosovo.[41]

Notable people

Twin towns – sister cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Kosovo

Mitrovica is twinned with:

See also

References

  1. ^ "Kosovo Population Census 2020". Retrieved 31 May 2022.
  2. ^ a b c d "Kosovo Population Census 2011". Retrieved 31 May 2017.
  3. ^ "2011 Census: Mitrovica (demographics)". Kosovo Agency of Statistics/OSCE.
  4. ^ a b (in Albanian) REGIONAL HERITAGE PLAN NORTH Council of Europe & European Union
  5. ^ Eggert, Hardten. "An overview of the development of Mitrovica through the years" (PDF). Kosovar Stability Initiative. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  6. ^ Avdiu, Blendrita (February 2023). "Varfëria ka emër: Mbi 22 mijë kosovarë në skema sociale, inflacioni ua ha ndihmën e shtetit". Nacionale. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  7. ^ https://www.mitrovicarockschool.org/about-us-2/
  8. ^ "Municipality of South Mitrovica Municipal Development Plan" (PDF). www.kk.rks-gov.net. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  9. ^ Bancroft, Ian (6 March 2020). "The Symbol of Mitrovica's Divisions". Balkan Insight. BIRN. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
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  12. ^ a b c d e f g Ejupi, Arsim; Ramadani, Ibrahim; Bytyqi, Valbona; Hajredini, Bahri (2018). Leksikon: vendbanimet e Kosovës: tabloja fizike-hapësinore, demografike dhe funksionale = Lexicon: settlements of Kosova: physical-spatial, demographic and functional overview. Prishtinë: Akademia e Shkencave dhe e Arteve e Kosovës. p. 173,174. ISBN 978-9951-615-90-7.
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  14. ^ Spomenik, Database. "Mitrovica". www.spomenikdatabase.org. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  15. ^ "Statuti i Komunës së Mitrovicës së Jugut" (PDF). kk.rks-gov.net. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  16. ^ "Statute of Municipality of Mitrovicë Veriore / Severna Mitrovica" (PDF). kossev.info. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  17. ^ Berisha, Milot. "Archaeological Guide of Kosovo" (PDF). www.mkrs-ks.org. Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sport; Archaeological Institute of Kosovo. Retrieved 13 October 2023.
  18. ^ Neolithic archaeological site-Fafos (Mitrovica) Republic of Kosovo – Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sport
  19. ^ Pulaha, Selami (1984). "Popullsia Shqiptare e Kosoves Gjate Shekujve XV XVI". vdocuments.mx. p. 559.
  20. ^ a b c Elsie, Robert (2004). Historical dictionary of Kosovo. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810853096.
  21. ^ Wood, Nicholas (18 April 2004). "3 U.N. Police Die in Shootout At Kosovo Jail". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
  22. ^ "International press on the UN police shooting incident in Kosovska Mitrovica". ERP KIM Archive. Archived from the original on 20 November 2008. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
  23. ^ Peacekeepers hurt in Kosovo blast, bbc.co.uk, 17 March 2008.
  24. ^ Kosovo – what to do with the north, ad interim, transconflict.com, April 2010.
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  26. ^ Nella base italiana in Kosovo - 30 nov 2018 (video in Italian language) - interview of Col. Ruggiero Capodivento - XX° Commander of KFOR-MSU.
  27. ^ 1961–2010 Natural changes of population in the Republic of Serbia by municipalities STATISTICAL OFFICE OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA
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  29. ^ Al Jazeera 2015 Baffling Kosovo mass exodus exposes domestic hardships
  30. ^ Kosovo Population 2015 estimate in Albanian
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  40. ^ "Kosovo draw with Haiti on international bow".[dead link]
  41. ^ "KB Trepça".
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