Ossie Davis
Davis at the 1963 March on Washington
Born
Raiford Chatman Davis

(1917-12-18)December 18, 1917
DiedFebruary 4, 2005(2005-02-04) (aged 87)
Occupations
  • Actor
  • director
  • poet
  • playwright
  • author
  • activist
Years active1939–2005
Spouse
(m. 1948)
Children3, including Guy Davis

Raiford Chatman "Ossie" Davis (December 18, 1917 – February 4, 2005) was an American actor, director, writer, and activist.[1][2][3] He was married to Ruby Dee, with whom he frequently performed, until his death.[4] He received numerous accolades including a Grammy Award and a Writers Guild of America Award as well as nominations for five Emmy Awards, a Golden Globe Award, and Tony Award. Davis was inducted into the American Theater Hall of Fame in 1994 and received the National Medal of Arts in 1995, Kennedy Center Honors in 2004 [5]

Davis started his career in theatre acting with the Ross McClendon Players in the 1940s. He made his Broadway debut acting in the post-World War II play Jeb (1946). He earned a Tony Award for Best Featured Actor in a Musical for his role in Jamaica (1958). He wrote and starred as the title character in the satirical farce Purlie Victorious (1961) which was adapted into a 1963 film and 1970 musical.

Davis's credits as a film director include Cotton Comes to Harlem (1970), Black Girl (1972), and Gordon's War (1973). He was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor for The Scalphunters (1968). Davis also acted in The Hill (1965), A Man Called Adam (1966), Lets Do It Again (1975), School Daze (1988), Do the Right Thing (1989), Grumpy Old Men (1993), The Client (1994), and Dr. Dolittle (1998).

For his portrayal of Martin Luther King Sr. in the NBC miniseries King (1978) he was nominated for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Drama Series. He was also Emmy-nominated for his roles in Teacher, Teacher (1969), Miss Evers' Boys (1997), and The L Word (2005). He won the Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album with his wife Ruby Dee for Ossie and Ruby (2005).

Early life

Raiford Chatman Davis was born in Cogdell, Georgia, the son of Kince Charles Davis, a railway construction engineer, and his wife Laura (née Cooper; July 9, 1898 – June 6, 2004).[6][7] He inadvertently became known as "Ossie" when his birth certificate was being filed and his mother's pronunciation of his name as "R. C. Davis" was misheard by the Clinch County courthouse clerk.[8] Davis experienced racism from an early age when the KKK threatened to shoot his father, whose job they felt was too advanced for a black man to have. His siblings included scientist William Conan Davis, social worker Essie Davis Morgan, pharmacist Kenneth Curtis Davis, and biology teacher James Davis.[9]

Following the wishes of his parents, he attended Howard University but dropped out in 1939 to fulfill his desire for an acting career in New York after a recommendation by Alain Locke; he later attended Columbia University School of General Studies. His acting career began in 1939 with the Rose McClendon Players in Harlem. During World War II, Davis served in the United States Army in the Medical Corps. He made his film debut in 1950 in the Sidney Poitier film No Way Out.

Career

1939–1959: Acting debut and Broadway work

Photo by Carl Van Vechten, 1951

When Davis wanted to pursue a career in acting, he ran into the usual roadblocks that black people suffered at that time as they generally could only portray stereotypical characters such as Stepin Fetchit. Instead, he tried to follow the example of Sidney Poitier and play more distinguished characters. When he found it necessary to play a Pullman porter or a butler, he played those characters realistically, not as a caricature.

In 1961 he wrote and starred in the Broadway play Purlie Victorious a farce satirizing the confederate south. Davis portrayed the title character Purlie Victorious Judson, and acting opposite Ruby Dee and Alan Alda. The film was adapted into a film titled Gone Are the Days! was released in 1963. The Broadway cast reprised their roles for the film. Howard Taubman for The New York Times wrote of the play, "It is marvelously exhilarating to hear the Negro speak for himself, especially when he does so in the fullness of his native gusto and the enveloping heartiness of his overflowing laughter."[10]

1970–1989: Directorial work

In addition to acting, Davis, along with Melvin Van Peebles and Gordon Parks, was one of the notable black directors of his generation: he directed movies such as Cotton Comes to Harlem (1970), Black Girl (1972) and Gordon's War (1973). Along with Bill Cosby and Poitier, Davis was one of a handful of black actors able to find commercial success while avoiding stereotypical roles prior to 1970, which also included a significant roles in the Otto Preminger directed drama The Cardinal (1963) and the Sidney Lumet prison drama The Hill (1965). He acted in the musical drama A Man Called Adam (1966) acting alongside Sammy Davis Jr., Louis Armstrong, and Cicely Tyson. He played Joseph Lee in the Sydney Pollack directed western drama The Scalphunters acting alongside Burt Lancaster and Shelley Winters. For his performance he received a nomination for the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture. Critic Roger Ebert of The Chicago Sun-Times praised Davis' performance in the film writing, "Davis, as an educated slave, is gradually initiated into the brutal realities of frontier life. [He] emerges as a genuine comic talent in a very demanding role (actually the lead, although Lancaster gets top billing). His character changes from an Uncle Tom to a rough-and-ready cowboy before your very eyes."[11]

During this time he acted in the western comedy Sam Whiskey with Burt Reynolds and Angie Dickinson, the drama Slaves starring Dionne Warwick, and the action comedy Hot Stuck with Dom DeLuise and Suzanne Pleshette. Davis starred with Cosby and Poitier in the 1975 film Let's Do It Again. Davis, however, never had the tremendous commercial or critical success that either of them enjoyed. As a playwright, Davis wrote Paul Robeson: All-American, which is frequently performed in theatre programs for young audiences.

In 1976, Davis appeared on Muhammad Ali's novelty album for children, The Adventures of Ali and His Gang vs. Mr. Tooth Decay.[12] Davis found recognition late in his life by working in several of director Spike Lee's films, including School Daze (1988), Do The Right Thing (1989), Jungle Fever (1991), Malcolm X (1991), Get on the Bus (1996), and She Hate Me (2004) For the final moments of Malcolm X, Davis, in voiceover, recited the actual eulogy that he wrote and delivered at Malcolm's funeral 27 years earlier. He also found work as a commercial voice-over artist and served as the narrator of the early-1990s CBS sitcom Evening Shade, starring Burt Reynolds, where he also played one of the residents of a small southern town. Davis and Reynolds had also worked together on Reynolds' previous TV series, B.L. Stryker (1989-1990), aired as part of the ABC Mystery Movie series.

1990–2005: Later work and final roles

Davis in 2000

Davis also appeared in several popular 1990s films, including the studio comedies Grumpy Old Men (1993) starring Jack Lemmon and Walter Matthau, and Cop and a Half (1993) with Burt Reynolds, as well as the John Grisham drama film The Client (1994) starring Susan Sarandon and Tommy Lee Jones. He reunited with Spike Lee acting in the film Get on the Bus (1996) and appeared his HBO documentary 4 Little Girls (1997) which was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature. In 1998 he acted in the Eddie Murphy led comedy film Dr. Dolittle. In 1999, he appeared as a theater caretaker in the Trans-Siberian Orchestra film The Ghosts of Christmas Eve, which was released on DVD two years later. For many years, he hosted the annual National Memorial Day Concert from Washington, D.C.

In 1994, Davis played Judge Richard Farris in the Stephen King miniseries The Stand. From 1995 to 1996 he played Judge Harry Roosevelt in the CBS legal drama The Client (reprising his role from the 1994 film). Davis played Erasmus Jones in Promised Land from 1996 to 1998. The series was a spinoff from Touched by an Angel where he played multiple characters from 1996 to 2000. He played Mr. Evers in the HBO film Miss Evers' Boys (1997) starring Laurence Fishburne and Alfre Woodard. The film won the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Television Movie. That same year he acted in the Showtime television film 12 Angry Men (1997) playing Juror #2. He acted in an ensemble cast acting alongside Courtney B. Vance, George C. Scott, James Gandolfini, Jack Nicholson, and Hume Cronyn. He voiced Anansi the spider on the PBS children's television series Sesame Street in its animation segments. He also narrated the HBO Storybook Musicals adaptation of The Red Shoes aired on February 7, 1990. In 2000, he voiced the role of Yar in Disney's live-action animated film Dinosaur.

From 1999 to 2000 he played Mr. Parker in the NBC crime drama Third Watch. He also took roles in Deacons for Defense and JAG both in 2003. Davis's last role was a several episode guest role on the Showtime drama series The L Word, as a father struggling with the acceptance of his daughter Bette (Jennifer Beals) parenting a child with her lesbian partner. In his final episodes, his character took ill and died. His wife Ruby Dee was present during the filming of his own death scene. That episode, which aired shortly after Davis's own death, aired with a dedication to the actor.[13] After Davis's death, actor Dennis Haysbert portrayed him in the 2015 film Experimenter.

Personal life

Davis and Dee

Marriage

In 1948, Davis married actress Ruby Dee, whom he had met on the set of Robert Ardrey's 1946 play Jeb. In their joint autobiography With Ossie and Ruby, they described their decision to have an open marriage, later changing their minds.[14] In the mid-1960s they moved to the New York suburb of New Rochelle, where they remained ever after.[15][16] Their son Guy Davis is a blues musician and former actor, who appeared in the film Beat Street (1984) and the daytime soap opera One Life to Live. Their daughters are Nora Davis Day and Hasna Muhammad.

Political activism

Davis with activist and opera star Stacey Robinson (left) in 1998

Davis and Dee were well known as civil rights activists during the Civil Rights Movement and were close friends of Malcolm X, Jesse Jackson, Martin Luther King Jr. and other icons of the era. They were involved in organizing the 1963 civil rights March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, and served as its emcees. Davis, alongside Ahmed Osman, delivered the eulogy at the funeral of Malcolm X.[17] He re-read part of this eulogy at the end of Spike Lee's film Malcolm X. He also delivered a stirring tribute to Dr. Martin Luther King Jr, at a memorial in New York's Central Park the day after King was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.

Death

Davis was found dead in a Miami Beach hotel room on February 4, 2005. He was 87 years old. An official cause of death was not released, but he was known to have had heart problems.[18] His ashes were interred at Ferncliff Cemetery.

Davis's funeral was held in New York City on February 12, 2005. The line to enter The Riverside Church, located on the edge of Harlem, stretched for several blocks, with a thousand or more members of the public unable to attend as the church filled to its 2,100 capacity.[19] Speakers included Davis's children and grandchildren, as well as Alan Alda, Burt Reynolds, Amiri Baraka, Avery Brooks, Angela Bassett, Spike Lee, Attallah Shabazz, Tavis Smiley, Maya Angelou, Sonia Sanchez, Harry Belafonte, and former president Bill Clinton, among many others.[20] Wynton Marsalis performed a musical tribute. Burt Reynolds, who early in his career had worked with Davis, said "Ossie Davis took the bad parts of the South out of me.... I know what a man is because of Ossie Davis." Ms. Shabazz, oldest daughter of Malcolm X and Betty Shabazz, spoke lovingly of the man she and her five sisters called Uncle Ossie, saying he had provided exceptional support to her and her sisters after her father's assassination. Bill Clinton arrived midway through the service, and said from the pulpit "I asked to be seated in the back. I would proudly ride on the back of Ossie Davis's bus any day," adding that Davis "would have made a great president."[21]

Delivering the eulogy, Harry Belafonte said: Ossie Davis "embraced the greatest forces of our times. Paul Robeson, Dr. W.E.B. DuBois, Eleanor Roosevelt, A. Philip Randolph, Fannie Lou Hamer, Ella Baker, Thurgood Marshall, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Nelson Mandela, and so many, many more. At the time of one of our most anxious and conflicted moments, when 'Our America' was torn apart by seething issues of race, Ossie paused, at the tomb of one of our noblest warriors, and in the eulogy he delivered, insured that history would clearly understand the voice of Black people, and what Malcolm X meant to us in the African-American struggle for freedom.... It is hard to fathom that we will no longer be able to call on his wisdom, his humor, his loyalty and his moral strength to guide us in the choices that are yet to be made and the battles that are yet to be fought. But how fortunate we were to have him as long as we did."[22]

Filmography

Film

Year Title Role Notes
1950 No Way Out John Brooks uncredited
1951 Fourteen Hours Cab Driver uncredited
1953 The Joe Louis Story Bob uncredited
1963 Gone Are the Days! Rev. Purlie Victorious Judson aka Purlie Victorious
The Cardinal Father Gillis
1964 Shock Treatment Capshaw
1965 The Hill Jacko King
1966 A Man Called Adam Nelson Davis
1967 Silent Revolution
1968 The Scalphunters Joseph Lee
1969 Sam Whiskey Jed Hooker
Slaves Luke
1970 Cotton Comes to Harlem Director
1972 Black Girl Director
1973 Gordon's War Director
1973 Kongi's Harvest Director
1973 Wattstax Himself uncredited
1975 Let's Do It Again Elder Johnson
Black Shadows on a Silver Screen Documentary[23]
1976 Countdown at Kusini Ernest Motapo Also director
1979 Hot Stuff Captain John Geiberger
Benjamin Banneker: The Man Who Loved the Stars [24]
1984 Harry & Son Raymond
The House of God Dr. Sanders
1985 Avenging Angel Captain Harry Moradian
1986 From Dreams To Reality: A Tribute to Minority Inventors Himself Documentary
1987 Crown Dick Director; Television movie
1988 School Daze Coach Odom
1989 Do the Right Thing Da Mayor
1990 Joe Versus the Volcano Marshall
1991 Preminger: Anatomy of a Filmmaker Himself Documentary
Jungle Fever The Good Reverend Doctor Purify
1992 Gladiator Noah
Malcolm X Eulogy Performer Voice
1993 Cop and a Half Detective in Squad Room Uncredited
Grumpy Old Men Chuck
1994 The Client Harry Roosevelt
1996 Get on the Bus Jeremiah
I'm Not Rappaport Midge Carter
1997 4 Little Girls Himself Documentary
1998 Dr. Dolittle Archer Dolittle
Alyson's Closet Postman Extraordinaire Short film
1999 The Unfinished Journey Narration Voice; Documentary short
2000 The Gospel According to Mr. Allen Narrator Documentary
Dinosaur Yar Voice
Here's to Life! Duncan Cox
2001 Voice of the Voiceless Himself Documentary
2002 Why Can't We Be a Family Again? Narrator Voice; Documentary short
Bubba Ho-Tep Jack
2003 Unchained Memories Reader #6 Documentary
Nat Turner: A Troublesome Property Himself Documentary
Beah: A Black Woman Speaks Himself Documentary
BAADASSSSS! Granddad
2004 She Hate Me Judge Buchanan
Proud Lorenzo DuFau
2005 A Trumpet at the Walls of Jericho Documentary

Television

Year Title Role Notes
1955 Kraft Theatre Brutus Jones Episode: "The Emperor Jones"
1960 Play of the Week Will Harris 2 episodes
1960 Playhouse 90 Performer Episode: "John Brown's Raid"
1961 The Defenders District Attorney 8 episodes
1962 Seven Times Monday Will Television movie
1962 The Catholic Hour Performer Episode: "The Sign of Fire"
1962-1963 Car 54 Where Are You? Officer Omar Anderson 6 episodes
1963 The Great Adventure John Ross Episode: "Go Down, Moses"
1964 The Doctors and the Nurses Dr. Farmer Episode: "The Family Resemblance"
1964 CBS Show of the Week Performer Episode: "Neighbours"
1966 The Fugitive Lieutenant Johnny Gaines Episode: "Death is the Door Prize"
1966–1967 Run for Your Life Performer 3 episodes
1967 12 O'Clock High Major Glenn Luke Episode: "The Graveyard"
1968 N.Y.P.D. Dempsey 2 episodes
1969 Bonanza: The Wish Sam Davis Episode: "The Wish"
1969 The Name of the Game Kubani Episode: "The Third Choice"
1969 Night Gallery Osmund Portifoy Pilot; Segment: "The Cemetery"
1971 The Sheriff Sheriff James Lucas Television movie
1973 Love, American Style Performer Episode: "Love and High Spirits"
1974 Hawaii Five-O Ramon Borelle Episode: "Hara-Kiri: Murder"
1976 The Tenth Level Reed Television movie
1977 Billy: Portrait of a Street Kid Dr. Fredericks Television movie
1978 King Rev. Martin Luther King Sr. Miniseries
1979 Roots: The Next Generations Dad Jones Miniseries
Freedom Road Narrator Television movie
1980 All God's Children Blaine Whitfield Television movie
1980–1981 Ossie and Ruby! Co-host TV Series
1981 Don't Look Back: The Story of Leroy "Satchel" Paige Chuffy Russell Television movie
Death of a Prophet Himself Television movie
1989 Benjamin Banneker: The Man Who Loved the Stars Performer Television movie [25]
1989–1990 B.L. Stryker 'Oz' Jackson 12 episodes
1990 We'll Take Manhattan Man in Subway Television movie
1990–1994 Evening Shade Ponder Blue 99 episodes
1993 Alex Haley's Queen Parson Dick Miniseries
The Ernest Green Story Grandfather Television movie
1994 The Stand Judge Richard Farris Miniseries; 4 episodes
1995 Ray Alexander Uncle Phil Television movie
The Android Affair Dr. Winston Television movie
1995–1996 The Client Judge Harry Roosevelt 14 episodes
1996 Home of the Brave Erasmus Jones Television movie
1996–1998 Promised Land Erasmus Jones 10 episodes
1996–2002 Touched By An Angel Erasmus Jones / Gabriel / Gabe 6 episodes
1997 Miss Evers' Boys Mr. Evers Television movie
12 Angry Men Juror #2 Television movie
1999 The Secret Path 'Too Tall' Television movie
The Soul Collector Mordecai Television movie
The Ghosts of Christmas Eve The Caretaker Television movie
A Vow to Cherish Alexander Billman Television movie
1999–2000 Third Watch Mr. Parker 3 episodes
2001 Between the Lions Woodcutter Episode: Bug Beard
2000 Finding Buck McHenry Buck McHenry Television movie
2001 Legend of the Candy Cane Julius Voice; Television movie
The Feast of All Saints Jean-Jacques Television movie
2002 Persidio Med Otis Clayton Episode: "This Baby's Gonna Fly"
2003 Deacons for Defense Reverend Gregory Television movie
JAG Terrence Minnerly Episode: "Close Quarters"
2004–2005 The L Word Melvin Porter Final appearance; 4 episodes

Theatre

Year Title Role Notes
1939 Joy Exceeding Glory Reverend Stokes Rose McClendon Players
1940 On Strivers Row Chuck Reynolds
1940 Booker T. Washington Fred
1941 Black Women in White Performer
1946 Jeb Jeb Turner Martin Beck Theatre, Broadway
1946 Anna Lucasta Rudolph Mansfield Touring Company
1948 The Leading Lady Trem National Theatre, Broadway
1949 The Smile of the World Stewart Lyceum Theatre, Broadway
1949 Stevedore Lonnie Thompson Equity Library Theatre
1950 The Wisteria Trees Jacques Martin Beck Theatre, Broadway
1951 The Royal Family Jo City Center, Broadway
1951 The Green Pastures Gabriel Broadway Theatre, Broadway
1951 Remains to Be Seen Al Morosco Theatre, Broadway
1953 Touchstone Dr. Joseph Clay Music Box Theatre, Broadway
1955 The Wisteria Trees Jacques City Center, Broadway
1956 No Time for Sergeants A Lieutenant Alvin Theatre
1957 Jamaica Cicero Imperial Theatre, Broadway
1959 A Raisin in the Sun Walter Lee Younger
(replacement)
Ethel Barrymore Theatre, Broadway
1961 Purlie Victorious Purlie Victorious / Also writer Cort Theatre, Broadway
1963 Ballad for Bimshire Sir Radio Mayfair Theatre
1865 The Zulu and the Zayda Johannes Cort Theatre
1972 Ain't Supposed to Die a Natural Death Performer Ethel Barrymore Theatre
1979 Take It from the Top The Lord / Also director New Federal Theatre
1983 Zora is My Name! Performer American Playhouse
1986 I'm Not Rappaport Midge (replacement) Booth Theatre, Broadway
1988 A Celebration of Paul Robeson Performer Shubert Theatre, Broadway
1995 Two Hah Hahs and a Homeboy Performer Crossroads Theatre Company

Discography

Awards and honors

In 1989, Ossie Davis and his wife, actress/activist Ruby Dee, were named to the NAACP Image Awards Hall of Fame. In 1995, they were awarded the National Medal of Arts, the nation's highest honor conferred to an individual artist on behalf of the country and presented in a White House ceremony by the President of the United States.[5] In 1994, Davis was inducted into the American Theater Hall of Fame.[26] In 2004, they were recipients of the prestigious Kennedy Center Honors.[27] According to the Kennedy Center Honors:

"The Honors recipients recognized for their lifetime contributions to American culture through the performing arts— whether in dance, music, theater, opera, motion pictures, or television — are selected by the Center's Board of Trustees. The primary criterion in the selection process is excellence. The Honors are not designated by art form or category of artistic achievement; the selection process, over the years, has produced balance among the various arts and artistic disciplines."[28]
Year Association Category Project Result Ref.
1958 Tony Award Best Featured Actor in a Musical Jamaica Nominated
1967 Golden Globe Award Best Supporting Actor The Scalphunters Nominated
1969 Primetime Emmy Awards Outstanding Single Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role Hallmark Hall of Fame: Teacher, Teacher Nominated
1978 Outstanding Performance by a Supporting Actor in a Drama Series King Nominated
1997 Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or a Special Miss Evers' Boys Nominated
2005 Outstanding Guest Actor in a Drama Series The L Word Nominated
2001 Daytime Emmy Award Outstanding Performer in a Children's Special Finding Buck McHenry Nominated
2001 Grammy Award Best Spoken Word The Complete Shakespeare Sonnets Nominated
2007 With Ossie And Ruby: In This Life Together Won
1984 Writers Guild of America Awards Adapted Drama Anthology For Us the Living: The Medgar Evers Story Won

Bibliography

  • Davis, Ossie (1961). Purlie Victorious. New York: Samuel French Inc. Plays. ISBN 978-0-573-61435-4.
  • Davis, Ossie (1977). Escape to Freedom: The Story of Young Frederick Douglass. New York: Samuel French. ISBN 978-0-573-65031-4.
  • Davis, Ossie (1982). Langston. New York: Delacorte Press. ISBN 978-0-440-04634-9.
  • Davis, Ossie; Dee, Ruby (1984). Why Mosquitos Buzz in People's Ears (Audio). Caedmon. ISBN 978-0-694-51187-7.
  • Davis, Ossie (1992). Just Like Martin. New York: Simon & Schuster Children's Publishing. ISBN 978-0-671-73202-8.
  • Davis, Ossie; Dee, Ruby (1998). With Ossie and Ruby: In This Life Together. New York: William Morrow. ISBN 978-0-688-15396-0.
  • Davis, Ossie (2006). Dee, Ruby (ed.). Life Lit by Some Large Vision: Selected Speeches and Writings. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-1-416-52549-3.

References

  1. ^ Ossie Davis – Awards IMDb. 2012. Retrieved March 17, 2012
  2. ^ Ossie Davis Television Credits Archived April 23, 2012, at the Wayback Machine Official Website of Ossie Davis & Ruby Dee. 2012. Retrieved March 17, 2012
  3. ^ Books Archived April 23, 2012, at the Wayback Machine Official Website oOssie Davis & Ruby Dee. 2012. Retrieved March 17, 2012
  4. ^ Dagan, Carmel Oscar-Nominated Actress Ruby Dee Dies at 91. Variety. June 12, 2014. Retrieved March 30, 2016
  5. ^ a b Lifetime Honors – National Medal of Arts Archived 2013-08-26 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ "Ossie Davis Biography". filmreference. 2008. Retrieved January 22, 2009.
  7. ^ "Davis, Laura Cooper". The Journal News. White Plains, New York. June 9, 2004. Archived from the original on January 30, 2013.
  8. ^ "Ossie Davis Biography". IMDb. 2008. Retrieved January 11, 2007.
  9. ^ Davis, William C. (February 1, 2013). "The HistoryMakers® Video Oral History Interview with William Davis" (PDF). HistoryMakers.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 13, 2017.
  10. ^ "Theatre: 'Purlie Victorious' Romps In; Ossie Davis Stars in His Play at Cort". The New York Times. Retrieved January 26, 2024.
  11. ^ "The Scalphunters". rogerebert.com. Retrieved January 27, 2024.
  12. ^ Heller, Jason (June 6, 2016). "Remembering Muhammad Ali's Trippy, Anti-Cavity Kids' Record". Rolling Stone. Retrieved July 24, 2016.
  13. ^ Severo, Richard; Martin, Douglas (February 5, 2005). "Ossie Davis, Actor, Writer and Eloquent Champion of Racial Justice, Dies at 87". The New York Times. Retrieved February 6, 2007.
  14. ^ Sheri Stritof; Bob Stritof. "Ossie Davis and Ruby Dee on Open Marriage". About.com. Archived from the original on February 10, 2007. Retrieved January 11, 2007.((cite web)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  15. ^ Greene, Donna. "Q&A/Ossie Davis; Involved in a Community Beyond Theater", The New York Times, October 25, 1998.
  16. ^ "Lincoln Avenue Corridor NEW ROCHELLE, NEW YORK". The Cultural Landscape Foundation. Retrieved December 27, 2021.
  17. ^ Davis, Ossie (February 27, 1965). "Malcolm X's Eulogy". The Official Website of Malcolm X. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014. Retrieved September 6, 2009.
  18. ^ "Ossie Davis found dead in Miami hotel room". Today. Associated Press. February 9, 2005.
  19. ^ "Celebs Say Goodbye to Ossie Davis in Harlem". Fox News. Associated Press. January 13, 2015.
  20. ^ "<Remembering Ossie Davis 1917-2005: Maya Angelou, Harry Belafonte, Bill Clinton Pay Tribute to the Famed Actor & Civil Rights Activist". Democracy Now!. February 14, 2005.
  21. ^ Kilgannon, Corey (February 13, 2005). "Thousands Bid Farewell to Ossie Davis". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 20, 2023.
  22. ^ "Ossie Davis: He belonged to all of us". The Final Call. February 17, 2005.
  23. ^ Black shadows on a silver screen. July 11, 1975. OCLC 4186675 – via Open WorldCat.
  24. ^ "Benjamin Banneker: The Man Who Loved the Stars". Baltimore, Maryland: Enoch Pratt Free Library. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved September 21, 2012.
  25. ^ Erikson, Hal (2016). "Review Summary: Benjamin Banneker: The Man Who Loved the Stars (1989)". Movies & TV Dept. The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 25, 2016. Retrieved September 21, 2012.
  26. ^ "Ossie Davis". The History Makers.
  27. ^ Ossie Davis and Ruby Dee Archived March 25, 2012, at the Wayback Machine Kennedy Center Honors. September 2004. Retrieved March 17, 2012.
  28. ^ 34th Annual Kennedy Center Honors Kennedy Center Honors. 2011. Retrieved March 17, 2012.