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Politics of Morocco take place in a framework of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, whereby the prime minister of Morocco is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives of Morocco and the Assembly of Councillors. The Moroccan Constitution provides for a monarchy with a Parliament and an independent judiciary.

On June 17, 2011, King Mohammed VI announced a series of reforms that would transform Morocco into a constitutional monarchy.[1][2]

The Economist Intelligence Unit rated Morocco a "hybrid regime" in 2019.[3]

Executive branch

Main article: Cabinet of Morocco

Main office-holders
Office Name Party Since
King Mohammed VI 23 July 1999
Prime Minister Aziz Akhannouch RNI 10 September 2021

The constitution grants the king extensive powers; he is both the secular political leader and the "Commander of the Faithful" as a direct descendant of the Prophet Mohammed. He presides over the Council of Ministers; appoints the prime minister following legislative elections, and on recommendations from the latter, appoints the members of the government. While the constitution theoretically allows the king to terminate the tenure of any minister, and after consultation with the heads of the higher and lower Assemblies, to dissolve the Parliament, suspend the constitution, call for new elections, or rule by decree, the only time this happened was in 1965. The King is formally the chief of the military. Upon the death of his father Mohammed V, King Hassan II succeeded to the throne in 1961. He ruled Morocco for the next 38 years, until he died in 1999. His son, King Mohammed VI, assumed the throne in July 1999.[4]

Following the March 1998 elections, a coalition government headed by opposition socialist Abderrahmane Youssoufi and composed largely of ministers drawn from opposition parties, was formed. Prime Minister Youssoufi's government is the first government drawn primarily from opposition parties in decades, and also represents the first opportunity for a coalition of socialist, left-of-center, and nationalist parties to be included in the government until October 2002. It was also the first time in the modern political history of the Arab world that the opposition assumed power following an election. The current government is headed by Aziz Akhannouch.[5][6] However, despite being appointed by the King, Akhannouch's cabinet has yet to be formed.[7]

Legislative branch

The legislature's building, in Rabat.
The legislature's building, in Rabat.

Since the constitutional reform of 1996, the bicameral legislature consists of two chambers. The Assembly of Representatives of Morocco (Majlis al-Nuwab/Assemblée des Répresentants) has 325 members elected for a five-year term, 295 elected in multi-seat constituencies and 30 in national lists consisting only of women. The Assembly of Councillors (Majlis al-Mustasharin) has 270 members, elected for a nine-year term, elected by local councils (162 seats), professional chambers (91 seats) and wage-earners (27 seats). The Parliament's powers, though limited, were expanded under the 1992 and 1996 constitutional revisions and include budgetary matters, approving bills, questioning ministers, and establishing ad hoc commissions of inquiry to investigate the government's actions. The lower chamber of Parliament may dissolve the government through a vote of no confidence.

Political parties and elections

Main article: Moroccan general election, 2011

On November 26, 2011 initial results of parliamentary elections were released. The moderate Islamist party, the Justice and Development Party (PJD), was projected to win the largest number of seats. However, the electoral rules were structured such that no political party could ever win more than 20 percent of the seats in the parliament.[8]

Main article: Moroccan general election, 2016

The full results of the previous election appear as follows: The ruling Justice and Development Party remained the largest party, winning 125 of the 395 seats in the House of Representatives (PJD), a gain of 18 seats compared to the 2011 elections. Abdelillah Benkirane was reappointed Prime Minister by the King on 10 October.[9] The Authenticity and Modernity Party (PAM) won 102 seats, and the rest of the seats were split among smaller parties.

Main article: 2021 Moroccan general election

In the September 2021 general election, the moderate Islamist PJD suffered an electoral wipeout, with the liberal National Rally of Independents becoming the largest party in Parliament. Its leader, Aziz Akhannouch, subsequently formed a coalition government with the Authenticity and Modernity Party and Istiqlal Party.

For other political parties, see List of political parties in Morocco. An overview on elections and election results is included in Elections in Morocco.

Judicial branch

The highest court in the judicial structure is the Supreme Court, whose judges are appointed by the King. The Youssoufi government continued to implement a reform program to develop greater judicial independence and impartiality. Morocco is divided into 12 administrative regions; the regions are administered by the Walis and governors appointed by the King.

Administrative divisions

Since 2015 Morocco officially administers 12 regions: Béni Mellal-Khénifra, Casablanca-Settat, Dakhla-Oued Ed-Dahab, Drâa-Tafilalet, Fès-Meknès, Guelmim-Oued Noun, Laâyoune-Sakia El Hamra, Marrakech-Safi, Oriental, Rabat-Salé-Kénitra, Souss-Massa and Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima.

Morocco is divided also into 13 prefectures and 62 provinces. Prefectures: Agadir-Ida Ou Tanane, Casablanca, Fès, Inezgane-Aït Melloul, Marrakesh, Meknès, Mohammedia, Oujda-Angad, Rabat, Safi, Salé, Skhirate-Témara and Tangier-Assilah. Provinces: Al Haouz, Al Hoceïma, Aousserd, Assa-Zag, Azilal, Benslimane, Béni-Mellal, Berkane, Berrechid, Boujdour, Boulemane, Chefchaouen, Chichaoua, Chtouka Aït Baha, Driouch, El Hajeb, El Jadida, El Kelâa des Sraghna, Errachidia, Es Semara, Essaouira, Fahs-Anjra, Figuig, Fquih Ben Salah, Guelmim, Guercif, Ifrane, Jerada, Kénitra, Khémisset, Khénifra, Khouribga, Laâyoune, Larache, Médiouna, Midelt, Moulay Yacoub, Nador, Nouaceur, Ouarzazate, Oued Ed-Dahab, Ouezzane, Rehamna, Safi, Sefrou, Settat, Sidi Bennour, Sidi Ifni, Sidi Kacem, Sidi Slimane, Tan-Tan, Taounate, Taourirt, Tarfaya, Taroudannt, Tata, Taza, Tétouan, Tinghir, Tiznit, Youssoufia and Zagora.

International organization affiliations

ABEDA, ACCT (associate), AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, EBRD, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITF, ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO.

References

  1. ^ "King declares Morocco a constitutional monarchy - Yahoo! News". Archived from the original on 2011-06-20.
  2. ^ "Moroccan king in referendum win". irishtimes.com.
  3. ^ "Democracy Index 2021: the China challenge". Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 2022-02-16.
  4. ^ "BBC News | Africa | Mohammed VI takes Moroccan throne". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2020-10-14.
  5. ^ Goff, Shaquile (19 September 2021). "Aziz Akhannouch: Morocco's New Billionaire Prime Minister". Morocco World News. Retrieved 18 September 2021.
  6. ^ "Moroccan King appoints Aziz Akhannouch as new Prime Minister". ANI. 10 September 2021. Retrieved 18 September 2021.
  7. ^ "Le Roi Mohammed VI nomme Aziz Akhannouch chef du gouvernement". Medias24 (in French). 10 September 2021. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  8. ^ Middle East Online, "Moroccan Elections: A Barometer of Reform?" November 27, 2011 http://www.middle-east-online.com/english/?id=49230
  9. ^ "Moroccan king reappoints Abdelilah Benkirane as PM". www.aljazeera.com.