In rock climbing, redpointing means to free-climb a climbing route from the ground to the top while lead climbing, after having practiced the route (either by headpointing or top roping) or after having failed first attempt (i.e. falling or resting on the rope for artificial aid).[2] Climbers will try to redpoint a route after having failed to onsight it (free climb the route on the first attempt with no falls and no prior beta), or flash it (free climb the route on the first attempt with no falls but with prior beta).[3] The first successful redpoint of a route, in the absence of any prior onsight or flash, is recorded as the first free ascent (FFA) of that route.[4]


Climbers can rest during a redpoint ascent but not using the rope or any artificial aids (e.g. they can use natural resting techniques such as hanging off the holds, or using a kneebar or a bat hang).[4] Where the climber falls during an attempted redpoint ascent (and thus ends up in a position of hanging off the rope), they must return to the very bottom of the climb, pull their rope free of the route, and completely re-start the ascent from scratch (the term "hangdoging" is where the climber rests on the rope after falling and then restarts climbing without returning to the ground).[4] This process is also known as "climbing a route clean" (it should not be confused with the broader topic of clean climbing).[5][3] The first climber to complete a redpoint of a route, in the absence of any prior onsight or flash of a route, has made the first free ascent (FFA) of that route.[4]

Where the quickdraws are pre-placed into the fixed protection bolts on sport climbing routes (i.e. the climber is just clipping in the rope on their lead), it is called "pinkpointing"; in practice, most ascents of extreme sport climbing routes are done as pinkpoints, as are ascents in modern competition climbing, so the term "pinkpoint" is no longer in use in sport or competition climbing.[4][2][6] However, due to additional significant challenge of placing climbing protection while ascending traditional climbing routes, it is not uncommon for traditional climbers to differentiate whether their first ascent was a pinkpoint (e.g. as Swiss traditional climber Didier Berthod did on making the first ascent of The Crack of Destiny in 2023).[7]


The unlimited practicing allowed before making a proper redpoint ascent contrasts with the historical aversion to "headpointing" (i.e. practicing the route on a toprope before making the first ascent) in traditional climbing. In the early 1980s, redpointing was therefore a term largely exclusive to sport climbing.[2][4] While headpointing was then considered a lesser form of first free ascent in traditional climbing (and an FFA that was headpointed would be asterisked as such),[8] leading traditional climbers eventually followed the redpointing practices of the sport climbers, and by the 2000s, had largely dispensed with the stigma associated with headpointing.[9]

From about the 2010s, traditional climbers were using the derived term "greenpointing" (or the Grünpunkt, as a play on the Rotpunkt), to describe climbing a pre-bolted sport-climb, but only using "traditional protection" (i.e. climbing protection that is not permanently fixed via pre-placed bolts or pitons); as with redpointing, the climber may have repeatedly practiced falling on the “traditional protection” before making their greenpoint ascent.[10][11] Notable examples include Austrian climber Beat Kammerlander [de]'s greenpoint of Prinzip Hoffnung (5.14a R, 2009) in Bürs in Austria, and Canadian Sonnie Trotter's greenpoint of The Path (5.14a R, 2007) in Lake Louise, Alberta,[12][13] and of East Face (Monkey Face) (5.13d R, 2004) at Smith Rocks.[14][15]


Repeatedly attempting a redpoint can take place over any length of time, from hours to years (i.e. any time, once the initial onsight or flash has failed). Climbers use the term projecting to denote a longer-term project to complete the FFA, or their own personal first ascent, of a route that is at the limit of their abilities.[16][17] The redpoint FFA of many of contemporary sport climbing routes, particularly those that involved breaking new grade milestones, took years, and even decades, to project (e.g. Realization, La Dura Dura, and Jumbo Love).

While bouldering climbers use the terms onsight and flash, they mostly use the term projecting instead of redpointing, when discussing long-term attempts of FFAs/personal first ascents.[18]


The English term "redpoint" is a loan translation of the German Rotpunkt that was coined by Kurt Albert in the mid-1970s at Frankenjura. Albert would paint a red "X" on any fixed metal pitons on a rock climbing route so that he could avoid using them while climbing, thus not using any artificial aid. Once Albert was able to free-climb the entire route, and avoid all the red "X"s, he would then paint a red "dot" (the "Roter Punkt") at the base of the route. His first Rotpunkt was the aid climbing route Adolf-Rott-Gedächtnis-Weg (V+/A1) at the Streitberger Schild crag in the Frankenjura, which he freed at 6a+ (5.10b) in 1975.[1] Albert got the idea for the "red dot" from the logo and name of a brand of German coffee and kettle maker.[1] To achieve a Rotpunkt, Albert additionally defined that if a climber fell during the ascent, they had to return to the base, pull the rope free, and re-start the climb from scratch (i.e. as if the climber had only just approached it).[19][20]

The connotation spread of a "redpoint" being a route that had to be repeatedly attempted because it was so hard – which is why metal pitons had been hammered into the rock as an aid in the first place – until it could be climbed in one clean push (i.e. no falls, and any falls required a full re-start), and without any artificial aids.[4][2] Because these routes were already established aid climbing routes, Albert could not remove the pitons (that would happen in later decades), however, his Rotpunkt laid down a mark to other climbers that the route could be free climbed without the use of the metal aids, and thus became an important moment in the development of free climbing.[1] Eventually, Albert's Rotpunkte became associated with the development of sport climbing in the 1980s, as many of these aids were on routes that had no possibility of even natural traditional climbing protection (e.g. no cracks), and thus bolts would be needed for protection (but not aid).[19][20]

Notable redpoints

Main articles: List of grade milestones in rock climbing § Redpointed by men, and List of grade milestones in rock climbing § Redpointed by women

Notable redpointed climbs are chronicled by the climbing media to track progress in rock climbing standards and levels of technical difficulty; in contrast, the hardest traditional climbing routes tend to be of lower technical difficulty due to the additional burden of having to place protection during the course of the climb, and due to the lack of any possibility of using natural protection on extreme sport climbs.[21]

As of May 2024, the world's hardest redpointed routes are Silence by Adam Ondra, DNA [de] by Seb Bouin, and B.I.G. by Jakob Schubert, which are all at a proposed grade of 9c (5.15d), and none of which have been repeated.[22] As of May 2024, four female climbers Angela Eiter, Laura Rogora, Julia Chanourdie, and Anak Verhoeven have redpointed established routes at the grade of 9b (5.15b).[23]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d Hannan, Andrew (29 November 2022). "Coffee and Giants: The Dawn of the Redpoint". UKClimbing Magazine. Retrieved 22 December 2022.
  2. ^ a b c d Pardy, Aaron (5 November 2022). "Redpoint, Pinkpoint, and Headpoint – What Do They Mean?". Gripped Magazine. Retrieved 21 December 2022.
  3. ^ a b Berry, Adrian (2006). Sport Climbing + (1 ed.). Rockfax Ltd. ISBN 1-873341-86-5.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "What Is A Redpoint In Climbing? – Climbing Jargon Explained". Climber. 2 October 2020. Retrieved 1 January 2022.
  5. ^ "What Is Free Climbing? – Rock Climbing's Most Commonly Mistaken Term". Climber. 11 April 2021. Retrieved 9 February 2023.
  6. ^ Pesterfield, Heidi (2007). Traditional Lead Climbing: A Rock Climber's Guide to Taking the Sharp End of the Rope (2 ed.). Wilderness Press. ISBN 978-0-89997-442-2.
  7. ^ Bailey, Nat (10 July 2023). "Didier Berthod Returns to Climbing Limelight With FA of 5.14 Crack". Climbing. Retrieved 15 September 2023.
  8. ^ Cookson, Franco (15 January 2019). "Franco Cookson's Guide to Headpointing". UKClimbing. Retrieved 20 September 2023.
  9. ^ Huttom, Mike (3 November 2022). "How the World's Boldest Climbing Area Got that Way: How headpointing became a legitimate, go-to tactic on Peak District gritstone". Climbing. Retrieved 13 February 2023.
  10. ^ "Heiko Queitsch greenpoint climbing in the Frankenjura". PlanetMountain. 3 August 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2022.
  11. ^ "Chasin the Trane greenpoint in the Frankenjura". PlanetMountain. 7 November 2011. Retrieved 22 December 2022. Greenpoint? OK redpoint, even pinkpoint is tried and tested (i.e. with gear already pre-placed). But greenpoint? Ay yes, it's the term used to define climbing a sport route without the bolts but using trad gear such as nuts and camming devices! What might at first glance seem somewhat contorted is in fact a movement that is gaining popularity.
  12. ^ "Sonnie Trotter finds The Path 5.14 R at Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada". PlanetMountain. 23 August 2007. Retrieved 8 February 2023.
  13. ^ Lambert, Erik (31 August 2007). "Trotter Chops Bolts, Sends Marathon Project". Alpinist. Retrieved 8 February 2023.
  14. ^ McDonald, Dougald (27 April 2004). "Trotter Cleans Up Monkey Face". Climbing. Retrieved 8 February 2023.
  15. ^ "Mike Doyle Trad Climbs East Face of Monkey Face 5.13d". Gripped Magazine. 31 May 2018. Retrieved 8 February 2023.
  16. ^ Hanes, Lucie (11 October 2022). "Tips for Successful Projecting (Even When Things Turn South)". Climbing. Retrieved 9 February 2023.
  17. ^ Miller, Delaney (22 December 2022). "Five Mistakes We All Make While Projecting". Climbing. Retrieved 9 February 2023.
  18. ^ Walker, Noah (31 August 2022). "Late Season Projecting and Maximizing Fall Climbing". Gripped Magazine. Retrieved 9 February 2023.
  19. ^ a b Hobley, Nicholas (29 October 2010). "Kurt Albert is dead. Goodbye to a climbing legend". PlanetMountain. Retrieved 21 December 2022.
  20. ^ a b Hobley, Nicholas (28 September 2020). "Remembering Kurt Albert, German climbing legend and father of the redpoint". PlanetMountain. Retrieved 21 December 2022.
  21. ^ Pohorsky, Matej (2018). "Climbing Milestones. Explore the Revolutionary Routes from 6a to 9c". eMontana (Czech). Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  22. ^ "Jakob Schubert proposes 9c for B.I.G. at Flatanger". PlanetMountain. 28 September 2023. Retrieved 28 September 2023.
  23. ^ "Anak Verhoven sends Planta de Shiva (9b) at Villanueva del Rosario in Spain". PlanetMountain. 16 May 2024. Retrieved 16 May 2024.