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Veda pathashala students doing sandhyavandanam at Nachiyar Kovil, Kumbakonam, Tamil Nadu.

Sandhyavandanam (Sanskrit: सन्ध्यावन्दनम्, sandhyāvandanam, lit. 'salutation to (Goddess) Twilight' or 'salutation during the twilight') is a mandatory religious ritual centring around the recitation of the Gayatri mantra, traditionally supposed to be performed three times a day by Dvija communities of Hindus,[1][2] particularly those initiated through the sacred thread ceremony referred to as the Upanayanam and instructed in its execution by a Guru, in this case one qualified to teach Vedic ritual.[2] Sandhyopasana is considered as a path to attain liberation (moksha).

Practice of Sandhyā in Ramayana and Mahabharata by Rama and Krishna can be observed. In Balakanda (23.2, 23.2) of Ramayana, Viswamitra wakes Rama and Lakshmana up at the break of the dawn for the worship of sandhyā. In Udyogaparva (82.21) of Mahabharata there is reference to Krishna performing Sandhya.[3]

Definition of Sandhyā

Three forms of Sandhyā devata (Brāhmi, Raudri, Vaiṣṇavi) along with Praṇava Rishi.

Sir Monier-Williams translated saṃdhyā as twilight (i.e. the period between night and day), as well as "the religious acts performed by Brahmans and twice-born men at the above three divisions of the day".[4] The Sandhyāvandanam consists of ritual recitation from the Vedas. These rituals are performed three times a day - at morning (prātassaṃdhyā), noon (mādhyāhnika) and evening (sāyaṃsaṃdhyā).

The Gayatri mantra

Main article: Gayatri

The Gayatri mantra, the central mantra of the Sandhyavandanam, has 24 syllables:

oṃ bhūr bhuvaḥ suvaḥ
tat savitur vareṇyaṃ
bhargo devasya dhīmahi
dhiyo yo naḥ pracodayāt
– Rigveda 3.62.10[5]

Stephanie W. Jamison and Joel P. Brereton translated the mantra as, "Might we make our own that desirable effulgence of god Savitar, who will rouse forth our insights."[6]


See also: Hindu units of time

Sandhyākāla is also defined as the time to perform Sandhyā. Traditionally, the day is divided by 5 parts, each having an interval of 2 hour and 24 minutes. They are prātaḥ-kālaḥ (early morning), pūrvahna (forenoon), madhyāhna (around noon), aparāhna (afternoon), sāyāhna (evening). As per Hindu traditional calendar, the day[note 1] which starts with sunrise (i.e. from midnight of previous night until sunrise is considered part of previous day).[7]

A Sandhyākāla is 72 minutes (i.e. 3 ghaṭīs of 24 minutes).[8]: 218 

  1. Prātassandhyā spans from two ghaṭīs before sunrise and until one ghaṭī after.
  2. Madhyāhna sandhyā spans from one and half ghaṭī before noon and until one and half ghaṭī after.
  3. Sāyam sandhyā spans from one ghaṭī before sunset and until two ghaṭīs after.

Direction of Sandhyāvandanam

The Sandhyāvandanam is traditionally done facing the east in the morning sandhyā (doing Gāyatrījapa until sunrise), the north in the noon and the west in the evening sandhyā (doing Gāyatrījapa until stars rise).[note 2] In the evening, only āchamana part is performed in east or north.

Parts of Sandhyā Vandanam

As per the work Sandhyātattvasubhodini,[8]: 133  the Sāṅgopāṅga Sandhyāvandanam (lit. Sandhyāvandanam with all the essential and subsidiary parts) consists of different components termed as aṅgas (lit. limbs). Apart from the principal aṅgi it has 5 anterior parts (pūrvāṅga) and 5 posterior parts (uttarāṅga).

Before commencement of the 5 pūrvāṅgas, there are 3 angas: Ācamanaṃ (आचमनम्), Prāṇāyāmaḥ (प्राणायामः) and Sankalpaḥ (सङ्कल्पः), which are not mentioned separately. These 5 pūrvāṅgas are:

  1. Prathama Mārjanaṃ (प्रथममार्जनम्, First cleansing)
  2. Mantrācamanaṃ (मन्त्राचमनम्, Water-sipping via Vedic mantras)
  3. Punarmārjanaṃ (पुनर्मार्जनम्, Second cleansing. Also known as Dvitīyamārjanaṃ)
  4. Pāpavimocana Mantram (पापविमोचन मन्त्रम्, Liberation from sins. Also known as Aghamarṣaṇa)
  5. Arghyapradānam (अर्घ्यप्रदानम्, Offering of water to the Sun (Sūrya))

The principal part is the Sandhyopāsanā mantram (सन्ध्योपासना मन्त्रम्), which involves contemplation on Brahman, referred as 'Brahmabhāvanam'. This Upāsanā mantra is also referred as Dhyānam part in Sandhyāvandanam by the smritis. However, few smritis such as by Manu and Āśvalāyana consider Gāyatrījapaḥ as the principle one.[9]: 69  The 5 uttarāṅgas are:

  1. Gāyatrījapaḥ (गायत्रीजपः, Deep meditation with the chanting of Gayatri mantra)
  2. Sūrya-Upasthānaṃ (सूर्योपस्थानम्, Adoration in the presence of the Sun with Vedic mantras)
  3. Dik Namaskāraḥ (दिङ्नमस्कारः, Salutation to the Devatas in all the cardinal directions)
  4. Bhūmyākāśa ābhivandanam (भूम्याकाशाभिवन्दनम्, Respectful salutation to the Sky (Dyaus Pitṛ) and the Earth (pṛthivī))
  5. Abhivādanam (अभिवादनम्, Formal salutation by reciting ones' Gotra and Pravara)

In addition to the above Vedic components of the Sandhyāvandanam, many include the following due to Tantric influences:

  1. Gayatri tarpaṇaṃ (तर्पणम्), nyāsa (न्यासः) and Mudrāpradarśanam (मुद्राप्रदर्शनम्) are performed in Yajurveda Sandhyāvandanam due to Śiṣṭācāra.
  2. Navagraha tarpaṇam are offerings made every day to each of the 9 planets.

Accessories for Sandhyā


A Pañcapātra is the set of holy utensils used for Hindu rituals containing plate (thāḷī, laghupātra) and ritualistic spoon (uddhariṇī/ācamanī).


As per vyāsa and parāśara, a seat (Āsana) for japa is traditionally made of silk (kauśeya) or blanket (kambala) or skin (ajina) or wood (dāruja) or (palm) leaves (tālapatra). Hindu texts cite various spiritual and material benefits or drawbacks depending on different materials used for the seat.[9]: 67 


A Japamāla is often used for counting the number of recitations in Gayatri japa. An Āsanamantra typically chanted before taking seat.


The Tilakadhāraṇa is a holy mark (Tilaka) made on the forehead as per the local tradition before commencement of Sandhyā. Kumkuma, gandha, gopichandana and bhasma are often used for marking. Saivaites and Smartas mark tripuṇḍram, while, vaishnavaites mark ūrdhvapuṇḍram. Tripuṇḍram (Sanskrit:त्रिपुण्ड्रम्) or Tripuṇḍraka refers to the "three parallel lines of ash marks over the forehead", according to the Śivapurāṇa 1.18.[10] Ūrddhvapuṇḍram (ऊर्द्ध्वपुण्ड्रम्) is a perpendicular line on the forehead made with Sandal, &c. a Vaishnava mark.[11] Traditional authorities strictly advised against doing Sandhyā without tilakadhāraṇa.[note 3]


The yajñopavītam (Sanskrit: यज्ञोपवीतम्, sacred thread) worn as upavīta[note 4] (i.e. in the proper manner of wearing it from over the left shoulder and under the right arm) is cited as a necessity for performing the Sandhyavandanam.[12]

Yajurveda Sandhyāvandanam

It is usual practice to recite mantras from one's own Veda in Sandhyāvandanam. The procedure described herein are taken from the Taittirīya śākha of (Kriṣna) Yajurveda as followed by Telugu and Tamil people adhering to the smarta tradition.[13][14][15][16] The mantras used in Prāṇāyāma, Mantrācamana, Gāyatrī āhvānam, Devatānamaskāraḥ and Gāyatrī Prasthānam are directly from Mahanarayana Upanishad (Andhra rescension containing 80 anuvakas).[17]


Sandhyāvandanam starts with mānasasnānam (lit. mind bath) that involves viṣṇusmaraṇaṃ (remembrance of Vishnu):

apavitraḥ pavitro vā sarvāvasthāṃ gato'pi vā
yaḥ smaret puṇḍarīkākṣaṃ saḥ bāhyābhyantaraḥ śuciḥ
puṇḍarīkākṣa puṇḍarīkākṣa puṇḍarīkākṣa[note 5]

Either pure or impure, passing through all the conditions of material life,
if remember the lotus-eyed, then, one becomes externally and internally clean.

By uttering the above chant, water is sprinkled on head three times.


Main article: Achamana

Achamana involves sipping of water three times without thinking of the self in any way, but meditating on the 'Supreme Atman".

Achamana is done only in two directions, the East or North. There are three types of Āchamanam,[18] namely, Śrautācamanam (Sanskrit: श्रौताचमनम्), Smṛtyācamanam (Sanskrit: स्मृत्याचमनम्)[note 6] and Purāṇācamanam (Sanskrit: पुराणाचमनम्)[note 7].

Since, this is the first āchamana in Sandhyāvandanam, the sipping of water should be Purāṇācamana (i.e. 24 names of Vishnu starting with Om Keśavāya swāha & Co). Then, one Smṛtyācāmana and Bhūtocchāṭana are performed.


Prāṇāyāma refers to the practice of controlled breathing in meditation. It consists of three processes, first is inhalation that involves breathing in slowly through the right nostril; called as pūraka (पूरकः). The second is retention that involves retaining the breath by closing both nostrils, for a period more or less prolonged; called as kumbhaka (कुम्भक). As per Yajnavalkya smriti, the Gayatri mantra with its śiras (head)[note 8] and preceded by the 7 vyāhṛtīs;[note 9] to each of which the syllable Om should be added. This chanting has to be done thrice during kumbhaka. Then, the third is exhalation that involves breathing out slowly through the other nostril; called as recaka (रेचकः).


Sankalpa means taking the resolve.

Then, Jalābhimantraṇam is done while reciting the Gayatri mantra to purify the water just before Prathama Mārjana.

Prathama Mārjana

Marjanam is also known as Mantrasnānam (bath with mantras). Mantras commonly used here praise water as a source of nourishment, medicines and energy.


Mantrācamanaṃ or Jalaprāśanaṃ is sipping of water by reciting relevant Vedic mantras for internal purification in order to perform ritual acts. One offers water consecrated by mantras in the fire present in the mouth – contemplating that body, mind and heart have been cleansed. Sins specified include: Mental, i.e. evil thoughts, anger, Oral, i.e. lies, abuses and Physical, i.e. theft, prohibited sexual act, consuming undesirable food, crushing creatures under the feet. Seek emancipation of sins committed during the day or night.


Smṛtyācāmana is performed two times. Then the Punarmārjanaṃ, or second cleansing is done.


Aghamarṣaṇaṃ is intended to liberate from sins with a few drops of water in the hand, chant the related mantra and mentally induce 'Pāpapuruṣa' to come out through the nose into the water and it is throw it away to the left side. In Yajurveda sandhya, the meaning of mantra is

Om, even as the perspiring gets relief from the shade of the tree, as bathing removes the impurities of the body, as the ghee becomes purified by its purifying agent. (Yajurveda, Taittiriya Brahmana, 2-4-4-43)
So let the Waters purify me from all sins.


An illustration of a Sanatana offering Arghya from 'The Sundhya, or, the Daily Prayers of the Sanatana' (1851) by Sophie Charlotte Belnos.[19]

One Smṛtyācāmana and one Prāṇāyāma are performed. Then, arghyapradāna means offering of water to the Sun with two hands as laid down in the Grihyasutras. A handful of water is taken in two hands cupped together, standing in front of the Sun. Then recite the Sāvitri (i.e. Gayatri mantra) preceded by the vyāhṛtis and the pranava (i.e. om kāra). Arghya has to be offered thrice. These three arghyas destroy the mandeha rakshasas fighting the Sun every sandhya.[note 10]. If there is delay in sandhya by exceeding the sandhya time, then Prāyaścitta arghya (i.e. fourth one) is given.

Sandhyopāsanā (Dhyāna)

The sun is then contemplated as the brahman (i.e.the supreme reality) through the mantra asā'vādityo brahmā (Sanskrit:असाऽवादित्यो ब्रह्मा, lit. this Āditya is indeed the Brahman). Smartas who adhere to advaita utter additional verse So'ham asmi. Aham brahmāsmi. (Sanskrit:सोऽहमस्मि। अहं ब्रह्मास्मि॥, lit. this is I[note 11]. I am Brahman[note 12]).


Then, two times Smṛtyācāmana and three times Prāṇāyāma are performed. Tarpana is a term in the Vedic practice which refers to an offering made to divine entities, where some water is taken in the right hand and poured over the straightened fingers. In Sandhyā, Four devatarpaṇas are offered for Sandhyā devata.[note 13]

Gāyatrī āhvānam

In Gāyatrī āhvānam (lit. invitation of Gāyatrī), the Sandhyādevata is invited by relevant Vedic mantras. One Śrautācāmana and one Prāṇāyāma are performed. Then Gāyatrī japa sankalpa is told.


In nyāsa mental appropriation or assignment of various parts of the body to tutelary deities is done just before and after Gāyatrī japam. There are two nyāsas, karanyāsa and aṅganyāsa that involves "ritualistic placing of the finger over the different parts of the body as prescribed" with related ancillary mantras. When done before japa, aṅganyāsa ends with the utterance digbandhaḥ (invoking protection from eight cardinals) and when done after, it ends with the utterance digvimokaḥ (releasing the protection). Then, Gāyatrīdhyāna mantra is uttered.


Gayatri mantra with swaras.

Mudrāpradarśana is showing different mudras[22] before and after the japa. These mudras are to be shown just after nyāsa. The mudras in Sandhyāvandanam are 32 in number, where 24 are pūrva mudras shown before the japa[note 14] and the remaining 8 are shown after it. After showing 24 mudras, the following sloka that emphasizes on showing mudras is to be uttered:

caturvimśati mudravaigāyatryāṃ supratiṣṭhitāḥ
(itimudrā najānāti gāyatrī niṣphalābhavet)

Gāyatri is well-established in these 24 mudras. If these mudras are not known then gayatri (japa) becomes fruitless.

Gāyatrī mantra (Japa)

See also: Gayatri_Mantra § Textual_appearances

Just before the japa, the Gāyatrī mantrārtha śloka that gives the meaning of Gayatri mantra is uttered. The Gayatri mantra is chanted either 1008,[note 15] 108,[note 16] 54,[note 17] 28[note 18] or at least 10[note 19] times using some japamāla or even karamāla. Meditation upon the solar deity is done. He is considered the absolute reality (i.e. Parabrahman) settled in the lotus heart (hṛtpadma) of all beings. The counting should be made on the right hand which should be covered with a cloth.

There are 3 ways of doing a Japa, namely, vācika, where the mantra is pronounced clearly and aloud, upāmśu, where the lips move quietly and only the meditator hears the mantra and mānasa (or mānasika), purely mental recitation of the mantra.[23]

Gāyatrī japāvasānam

One Śrautācāmana and one Prāṇāyāma are performed. Then Gāyatrī japāvasāna sankalpa is told. Then, nyasa is again performed; this time ending with the utterance digvimokaḥ and Gāyatrīdhyāna mantra is uttered. After that the remaining 8 uttara mudras are shown.

Then, the fruit of japa is offered to Brahman by uttering Om tat sat brahmārpaṇam astu (Sanskrit:ॐ तत्सत् ब्रह्मार्पणमस्तु, lit. That is truth; (fruit of japa) offered to Brahman).


One Smṛtyācāmana and three times Prāṇāyāma are performed. In upasthānaṃ, some mantras related to Mitra (in the morning), Surya (in the solar noon) and Varuna (in the evening) are chanted by standing and facing towards sun. In the morning face east, in the noon face north and in the evening face west.

Digdevata vandanam

Digdevata vandanam or Dik Namaskāraḥ involves prayers to the lords of the cardinal directions, Indra, Agni, Yama, Nirutha, Varuna, Vayu, Soma, Eeashana, Brahma and Vishnu. They are witnesses to all our deeds. The ideals represented by each of them will provide a direction to us in our march ahead.

Then, Munina maskāraḥ and Devatā namaskāraḥ are performed, where salutations to the munis and devatas. Among smartas, additionally, Hariharābheda smaraṇam is done by smartas to contemplate on the oneness of Siva and Vishnu.

Gāyatrī Prasthānam

Gāyatrī Prasthānam or Udvāsana involves bidding farewell to the Sandhyādevata by relevant Vedic mantras.


Lord Nārayaṇa is hailed by chanting relevant mantra.[note 20]

Bhūmyākāśa ābhivandanam

The Sky (Dyaus Pitṛ) and the Earth (Pṛthivī) are offered salutations by considering them as parents by Sāṣṭāṅga Namaskāra with relevant Vedic mantras from Taittiriya Brahamana.

Iśvara Prārthanā

Lord Vāsudeva (i.e. Krishna) is hailed by chanting relevant mantras.[note 21]


It is formal salutation by reciting one's Gotra and Pravara. It is also an expression of gratitude to the teachers (Rishis) for transmitting divine wisdom to the next generation. It is customary to mention the name, gotra, pravara, adhered dharmasutra (of Kalpa) and the Veda followed along with its śakha (recension).

A typical abhivādana(recitation of pravara) of a Yajuevedin is as follows

catussāgara paryantaṃ go brāhmaṇebhyaśśubham bhavatu
....ṛṣeya pravarānvita
....gotraḥ, .......sūtraḥ
....śarmā'haṃ bho abhivādaye
[note 22]

In the above abhivādana, Kshatriyas and Vyshyas replace śarmā with varmā and guptā respectively.


One Purāṇācamana and one Smṛtyācāmana are performed. Then, Samarpaṇam is done to note that the entire process was undertaken with an intent to please Him as per His directions. The fruits of such act are also placed at His disposal. He distributes them equitably. A philosophy of total surrender to Him is embedded here. This can only mollify our pride and implant humility.

kāyena vācā manasendriyairvā
buddhyātmanā vā prakṛteḥ svabhāvāt
karomi yadyatsakalaṃ parasmai
nārāyaṇāyeti samarpayāmi
[note 23]

My body, speech, mind, senses,
intellect, essence, or outer and inner tendencies,
All that I will do over and over,
to the supreme Nārāyaṇa I offer.[24]


Finally, Kṣamāpaṇam (lit. begging pardon (from the God)) is done to seek pardon for acts of omission / error that might have been committed by chanting three of His names thrice.Even with best of intentions and utmost care, inadequacies can creep in. It pays to look back, correct mistakes and strive to improvise.

Daily duties of Brahmins

Doing Sandhya-vandana first creates the eligibility for a Brahmin to do all rituals following it. Rituals done without doing sandhya-vandanam are regarded as fruitless by Dharmaśāstra. Thus, sandhyavandanam forms the basis or regarded as the foundation for all other vedic rituals. After doing Sandhyavandanam ( mādhyāhnika-sandhyā ) to get rid off sins occurred due preparation of lunch like boiling rice, cutting vegetables, burning firewood etc. In Vaishvadeva homa rice cakes are offered to vishvadevas (all devatas).

As per Śāṅkhāyana-gṛhya-sūtra Adhyāya II, Khaṇḍa 9, a person should go in the forest, with a piece of wood in his hand, seated, he performs the Sandhyā (twilight/dusk?) constantly, observing silence, turning his face north-west, to the region between the chief (west) point and the intermediate (north-western) point (of the horizon), until the stars appear and by murmuring the Mahāvyāhṛtis, the Sāvitrī, and the auspicious hymns when (Sandhya-dusk?) passed. In the same way during dawn, turning his face to the east, standing, until the disk of the sun appears. And when (the sun) has risen, the study (of the Veda) goes on.[25]


Other aspects of the ritual, though, speaking strictly, not included in Sandhyavandanam, may include meditation, chanting of other mantras (Sanskrit: japa), and devotional practices specifically for divinities that are preferred by the practitioner.[26] Regarding the connection with meditation practices, Monier-Williams notes that if regarded as an act of meditation, the sandhyā may be connected with the etymology san-dhyai.[27]

Depending on the beliefs — Smartha, Sri Vaishnava, Madhva — these mantras or procedures have slight changes, while the main mantras like mārjanaṃ (sprinkling of water), prāśanaṃ (drinking water), punar-mārjanaṃ and arghya-pradānaṃ remain the same in 95% of the cases. Smārtas (Advaitins) have aikyānu-Sandhānam, where they (Yajur Vedins) recite the verse from bṛhadāraṇyaka Upanishad ( brahmair vāhaṃ asmi ). Sivaprasad Bhattacharya defines it as the "Hindu code of liturgical prayers."[28]

See also



  1. ^ Dvija, Encyclopedia Britannica (2014)
  2. ^ a b Manilal Bose (1998). Social and Cultural History of Ancient India. Concept. pp. 55–56. ISBN 978-81-7022-598-0.
  3. ^ "Gayatri Bhashyam (Sanskrit & Tamil)". P. S. Ramanathan. Kalavani Press Pvt. Ltd. 1991. p. xii-xiii.
  4. ^ Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Monier-Williams, p. 1145, middle column.
  5. ^ Guy L. Beck (2006). Sacred Sound: Experiencing Music in World Religions. Wilfrid Laurier University Press. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-88920-421-8.
  6. ^ Stephanie Jamison (2015). The Rigveda –– Earliest Religious Poetry of India. Oxford University Press. p. 554. ISBN 978-0-19-063339-4.
  7. ^ S.V. Gupta (3 November 2009). Units of Measurement: Past, Present and Future. International System of Units. Springer. p. 6. ISBN 978-3-642-00738-5.
  8. ^ a b "Sandhyātattvasubhodini (Telugu)". Somayajula Venkatachala Sastry. Andhra Vignana Samiti, Jamshedpur. 1978.
  9. ^ a b "The Scared Books of Hindus". Rai Bahadur Srisa Chandra Vidyarnava. The Panini Office (Bhuvaneswari Asrama). 1918.
  10. ^ "Tripundra, Tripuṇḍra, Tri-pundra, Tripumdra: 14 definitions". 17 July 2016.
  11. ^ "Urddhvapundra, Ūrddhvapuṇḍra: 2 definitions". 21 October 2019.
  12. ^ PV Kane, History of Dharmasastra Volume 2.1, 1st Edition, pages 290-293
  13. ^ Gāyatryanuṣṭhānatattvaprakāśikā (Telugu), M. G. Subbaraya Sastri, Sriniketana Mudraksharasala (Chennai), 1904.
  14. ^ Yājuṣa Smārta Mantrapāṭhamu, Part 1 (Telugu), by Challa Lakshmi Nrisimha Sastry, Challa Press, 1913.
  15. ^ Yajurveda Sandhyāvandanam (Telugu), Maddulapalli Venkatasubrahmanya Sastri, Vavilla V. S. Trust (Chennai), 1998.
  16. ^ Sandhyopaasnavidhi, Rgveda Yajurveda Sahitam (Telugu), Mudunuri Venkatarama Sarma, Gita Press (Gorakhpur).
  17. ^ "Mahanarayana_Upanishad" (PDF). Swami Vimalananda (2 ed.). Sri Ramakrishna Math. 1968.
  18. ^ K. Krishnaswami Aiyar (1901). "Esoteric Hinduism". Central Book Depot, Madras. p. 90.
  19. ^ The Sundhya, or, the Daily Prayers of the Brahmins.
  20. ^ S. Viraswami Pathar (2006). Gayatri Mantra. Sura Books. p. 103. ISBN 978-81-7478-218-2.
  21. ^ "The Sacred Complex in Hindu Gaya". Lalita Prasad Vidyarthi (2 ed.). Concept Publishing Company, Delhi. 1978. p. 36.
  22. ^ Word mudrā on Monier-William Sanskrit-English on-line dictionary: "N. of partic. positions or intertwinings of the fingers (24 in number, commonly practised in religious worship, and supposed to possess an occult meaning and magical efficacy Daś (Daśakumāra-carita). Sarvad. Kāraṇḍ. RTL. 204; 406)"
  23. ^ "Japa Yoga". Retrieved 2020-02-09.
  24. ^ "Kayena Vāca – Veda Chanting Short Closing Prayer with Translation". 20 December 2015.
  25. ^ "Adhyāya II, Khaṇḍa 9". 4 September 2014.
  26. ^ These are entirely at the discretion of the performer and carry no ritualistic sanction whatsoever. For meditation, japa, and chosen deity practices, see Taimni, pp. 171-204.
  27. ^ For san-dhyai see Monier-Williams, p. 1145, middle column.
  28. ^ For a definition see Bhattacharyya, Sivaprasad. "Indian Hymnology", in Radhakrishnan (CHI, 1956), volume 4, p. 474. Sri Thillasthanam Swamy Kainkarya Sabha, Bangalore have brought out a book on Sandhyāvandanaṃ modelled as a Guide with all the hymns in Devanāgari, Tamil and Kannaḍa scripts and the meanings of each hymn and explanations in English for better appreciation. For more details please visit the sabha website



  1. ^ An Ahorātra is a tropical day
  2. ^ Yājñavalkyasmṛti (2.24, 2.25)
  3. ^ IAST:abhālatilakam kṛtvā tasya karma nirarthakam (the ritual done without tilaka on forehead shall be fruitless).
  4. ^ upanīyate vāmaskando'neneti upavītam (amarakośaṃ lingabhaṭṭīya vyākhyānaṃ)
  5. ^ Sanskrit: अपवित्रः पवित्रो वा सर्वावस्थां गतोऽपि वा
    यः स्मरेत् पुण्डरीकाक्षं सः बाह्याभ्यन्तरः शुचिः
    पुण्डरीकाक्ष पुण्डरीकाक्ष पुण्डरीकाक्ष
  6. ^ Also known as Smārtācamanam (Sanskrit: स्मार्ताचमनम्)
  7. ^ Also known as Paurāṇācamanam (Sanskrit: पौराणाचमनम्)
  8. ^ The śiromantra of gāyatrī is om āpojyōti rasomṛtaṃ brahma bhūrbhuva ssuva rom (Sanskrit:ओम् आपोज्योति रसोऽमृतं ब्रह्म भूर्भुव स्सुव रोम्)
  9. ^ Vyāhṛtī (व्याहृती) are the mystical utterances, seven in number, viz. "bhūḥ, bhuvaḥ, svaḥ, mahaḥ, janaḥ, tapaḥ, satyam". Each of the vyāhṛtis are preceded by the [Praṇava] Om.
  10. ^ As per story mentioned in Taittiriya Aranyaka, a tribe called Mandeha Rakshasas live in an island called Arunam. They march every day in the morning, conquer space and reach almost near the Sun threatening to destroy him. The Arghya water that is offered during Sandhyā becomes infinitely strong and the retreat to their own island. It is said that the first arghya destroys their horses, the second destroys their weapons and the third kills them. However, due to their boon from Brahma, they get back to life only to fight the Sun next sandhya.[20]
  11. ^ सः (saḥ, "it") + अहम् (aham, "I am"), undergoing visarga sandhi. It is a phrase used by the Advaita Vedānta school of Hinduism, signifying oneness with Brahman
  12. ^ It is a Mahavakya from Yajurveda
  13. ^ In devatarpaṇa, the water is poured on the middle of the palm kept in a slanted way pointing downwards so that the water flows down only from the tip of four fingers (excluding thumb).[21]
  14. ^ Uttering the below sloka 24 mudras are to be shown
          (1)                (2)                      (3)         (4)
    sumukhaṃ sampuṭam caiva vitataṃ visṛtaṃ tathā
          (5)                (6)                      (7)             (8)
    dvimukhaṃ trimukhaṃ caiva catuḥ pañcamukhaṃ tathā
          (9)                (10)                           (11)    
    ṣaṇmukho'dhomukham caiva vyāpakāñjaliṃ tathā
        (12)            (13)                  (14)                     (15)
    śakaṭam yamapāśam ca gradhikam sammukhonmukhaṃ
        (16)               (17)                   (18)        (19)          (20)
    pralambam muṣtikam caiva matsyaḥ kūrmo varāhakam
            (21)                  (22)                  (23)         (24)
    simhākrāntam mahākrāntam mudgaram pallavam tathaa
  15. ^ Referred as sahasra gāyatrī.
  16. ^ Referred as aṣṭottara-śata gāyatrī.
  17. ^ Referred as caturpancāśat gāyatrī.
  18. ^ Referred as aṣṭāvimśati gāyatrī.
  19. ^ Referred as daśa gāyatrī.
  20. ^ namo'stvanantāya sahasramūrtaye
    sahasrapādākṣi śirorubāhave
    sahasranāmne puruṣāya śāśvate
    sahasrakoṭi yugadhāriṇe namaḥ
  21. ^ Ākāśāt patitam toyam।
    yathā gacchati sāgaram।
    sarva deva namaskāraḥ।
    keśavam pratigacchati॥

    sarvavedeṣu yatpuṇyaṃ।
    sarvatīrtheṣu yatphalaṃ।
    tatphalaṃ purusha āpnoti।
    stutvā devaṃ janārthanam॥

    vāsanāt vāsudevasya।
    vāsitam te bhuvanatrayam।
    vāsudeva namo'stu te॥
  22. ^ चतुस्सागर पर्यन्तं गो ब्राह्मणेभ्यश्शुभम् भवतु
    ....ऋशेय प्रवरान्वित
    ....गोत्रः, ........सूत्रः
    ....शर्माऽहं भो अभिवादये
  23. ^ कायेन वाचा मनसेन्द्रियैर्वा। बुद्ध्यात्मना वा प्रकृतेः स्वभावात्। करोमि यद्यत्सकलं परस्मै। नारायणायेति समर्पयामि॥