An event for 1 Suro in Surakarta City, 2023

Satu Suro (Javanese: ꦱꦶꦗꦶꦱꦸꦫ, Siji Suro) is the first day of the Javanese calendar year in the month of Suro (also transcribed "Sura"), corresponding with the first Islamic month of Muharram.[1] It is mainly celebrated in Java, Indonesia, and by Javanese people living elsewhere.[2]

Satu Suro has numerous associations in Javanese folk tales and superstitions in Java that vary considerably through regional variation in cultural practices. The prevalent theme of most Satu Suro superstitions is the danger of going out from home, similar to the Balinese holiday of silence, Nyepi.

A 1988 Indonesian film, Malam Satu Suro, explores the dangers and superstitions about leaving home on the night of Satu Suro.[3][4]

Rituals During the Eve of Satu Suro

The Javanese day begins at the sunset of the previous day, not at midnight; as such, considerable emphasis is placed on the eve of the first day of the month of Suro.[5][6]

Satu Suro rituals include:

  • Meditation, a common practice in the Kejawèn religion. The objective is to examine what has been done in the past year and to prepare what will be done in the future. The two main types of Satu Suro meditation include:
  • Tapa Bisu: meditation in silence;
  • Tapa Kungkum: meditation while submerged underwater.
  • Tirakatan and tuguran: Staying up all night engaged in self-reflection and prayer, often accompanied by wayang kulit (shadow puppetry). Many people also visit graves and holy sites during tirakatan.
  • Ruwatan: rituals to spiritually cleanse an area, such as a house or building, from evil spirits and calamity.[7][8]
  • Kirab Malam Satu Suro: in the city of Surakarta (Solo), a traditional cleansing ritual of the royal pusaka (heirloom) items held at the Palace of Surakarta.[9]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Kamajaya (1992), 1 Suro tahun baru Jawa perpaduan Jawa-Islam, UP. Indonesia, retrieved 20 July 2023
  2. ^ Australian National University (1966-06-30), "The Faculty of Oriental Studies (30 June 1966)", Report of the Council (315 of 1966), Govt. Print. Office: 92, ISSN 0572-1318 reporting publication of the then ANU staff member Soebardi. Calendrical traditions in Indonesia Madjalah IIlmu-ilmu Satsra Indonesia, 1965 no.3. - Madjalah ilmu-ilmu sastra Indonesia = Indonesian journal of cultural studies, Jajasan Penerbitan Karya Sastra, Ikatan Sardjana Sastra Indonesia, Dengan Bantuan Departemen Research Nasional, 1963, ISSN 0125-9946
  3. ^ Malam Satu Suro - TV Guide entry, TVguide, retrieved 20 July 2023
  4. ^ Malam Satu Suro IMDB entry, IMDB, retrieved 20 July 2023
  5. ^ "Javanese set to celebrate 'Satu Suro'", Asia Africa Intelligence Wire, Financial Times Ltd, 2005-02-08, retrieved 25 October 2017
  6. ^ "A distinctively new year", Asia Africa Intelligence Wire, Financial Times Ltd, 2005-02-08, retrieved 25 October 2017
  7. ^ Arumanadi, Bambang; Soetomo W. E; Asmito; Proyek Inventarisasi dan Pembinaan Nilai-Nilai Budaya (Indonesia) (1992), Ruwatan : upacara mohon keselamatan bagi anak "Sukerto", Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Direktorat Jenderal Kebudayaan, Direktorat Sejarah dan Nilai Tradisional, Bagian Proyek Inventarisasi dan Pembinaan Nilai-Nilai Budaya, retrieved 20 July 2023
  8. ^ For Balinese version of the practice see - Bagus, I Gusti Ngurah; Proyek Javanologi (Indonesia) (1984), Upacara ruwatan di Bali, Proyek Javanologi, retrieved 20 July 2023
  9. ^ Paku Buwono, Sunan of Surakarta XII, 1925- XII (2006), Karaton Surakarta : a look into the court of Surakarta Hadiningrat, Central Java, Marshall Cavendish Editions, ISBN 978-981-261-226-7((citation)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link) - Kirab Pusoko - page 283, and 299-301 - procession of the heirlooms