New Year celebration, Rot Nam Dam Hua, a traditional celebration of elders
Official nameSongkran Festival
Observed byThai and Malaysian Siamese
SignificanceMarks the Thai New Year
Begins13 April
Ends15 April
DateApril 13
Related toSouth and Southeast Asian solar New Year
Songkran in Thailand, traditional Thai New Year festival
People performing water pouring on Buddha statues during Songkran in Wat Pho, Bangkok
DomainsSocial practices
RegionAsia and the Pacific
Inscription history
Inscription2023 (18th session)
A girl cleaning a Buddha statue in front of a Temple during Songkran, Koh Samui
Thai dancers in traditional dress perform a cleansing ritual for US Navy sailors during Songkran festival.
Water fights, Chiang Mai
Songkran festival in Laplae, Uttaradit

Thai New Year or Songkran (Thai: เทศกาลสงกรานต์, pronounced [tʰêːt.sā.kāːn sǒŋ.krāːn]) is the Thai New Year's national holiday. Songkran is on 13 April every year, but the holiday period extends from 14 to 15 April. In 2018 the Thai cabinet extended the festival nationwide to seven days, 9–16 April, to enable citizens to travel home for the holiday.[1] In 2019, the holiday was observed 9–16 April as 13 April fell on a Saturday.[2] The word "Songkran" comes from the Sanskrit word saṃkrānti,[3] literally "astrological passage", meaning transformation or change. It coincides with the rising of Aries on the astrological chart[4] and with the New Year of many calendars of Southeast and South Asia, in keeping with the Buddhist and Hindu Calendar. The New Year takes place at around the same time as the new year celebrations of many regions of South Asia like China (Dai people of Yunnan Province), India, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, Nepal, and Sri Lanka.

In Thailand, New Year is now officially celebrated 1 January. Songkran was the official New Year until 1888, when it was switched to a fixed date of 1 April. Then in 1940, this date was shifted to 1 January. The traditional Thai New Year Songkran was transformed into a national holiday.[5] Celebrations are famous for the public water fights framed as ritual cleansing. This had become quite popular among Thai and foreigners.


Songkran is a term derived from Sanskrit संक्रान्ति saṅkrānti meaning 'to move' or 'movement'. It derives from the movement of the sun from one position to another in the zodiac. According to its literal meaning in Sanskrit, a Songkran occurs every month. However, the period that Thai people refer to as Songkran happens when the sun moves from Pisces to Aries in the zodiac. The correct name for this period should actually be Maha Songkran ('great Songkran) because it coincides with the arrival of a New Year. The Songkran festival is, therefore, a celebration of the New Year in accordance with the solar calendar. The celebration covers a period of three days: 13 April is regarded as Maha Songkran, the day that the sun moves into Aries on the zodiac or the last day of the old year. The next day, 14 April is called Wan Nao, the transitional day between the old and the new years, and 15 April is called Wan Thaloeng Sok (Thai: วันเถลิงศก 'to begin a new era or year'), New Year's day itself.[6]


In 1989, the Thai cabinet fixed Songkran at 12–14 April, despite the correct starting date (13 April at 20:57).[7][n 1] Songkran, however, was traditionally computed according to the method described in Suriyayart (Thai: สุริยยาตร์), the Thai version of Surya Siddhanta. The celebration starts when the sun enters Aries according to the sidereal zodiac system. This is called Maha Songkran day (Thai: วันมหาสงกรานต์). The final day marks the new solar year and is called Wan Thaloengsok (Thai: วันเถลิงศก). The astrologers, local or royal, then make predictions about the economy, agriculture, rainfall, and political affairs according to observations between both days.[8] The king, or Chief Royal Astrologer on the monarch's behalf, issued an official notification on the new year to the public. The announcement, called Prakat Songkran (Thai: ประกาศสงกรานต์, Songkran notification), contained the information on Maha Songkran, Thaloengsok, the lunisolar calendar, and religious and royal ceremonies.[9] The government strictly adhered to the announcement and arranged some ceremonies according to the computation made by the royal astrologer.[10][11][n 2]

According to the scripture, 800 years equal 292,207 days.[12][13][n 3] In other words, each solar year lasts 292,207 kammaja (Thai: กัมมัช, lit. one produced by karma), where 1 kammaja equals 108 seconds and 800 kammaja corresponds to 1 solar day. Timekeeping began as Kali Yuga started in 3102 BCE (−3101 CE). At the start of each year, it is possible to compute the number of days since Kali Yuga commenced using the following formula:[14][15]

where , , denote Kali Era, Common Era, and Buddhist Era respectively. is the Suriyayart day number, which can vary according to the calendar era being used. The integer result is the count of days at New Year's Day, while the remainder indicates the time at which the new year begins (in kammaja), measured from the previous midnight.

Owing to a huge day number in the calculation, new calendar eras were devised to solve this problem, including the Minor Era (ME). 0 ME corresponds to 1181 BE, 638 CE or 3739 KE. Following the above equation, it follows that there were 1,365,702 days since the start of Kali Yuga. The remainder of the division suggests that the new year started at 373 kammaja after the previous midnight. This corresponds to 373/800 of a day or 11 hours, 11 minutes, and 24 seconds. In other words, 0 ME started at 11:11:24 on Sunday, 25 March 638 CE in the proleptic Gregorian calendar. The Julian day at the new year is computed according to the following formula:

The number can then be converted back into a date using an algorithm (see Julian day). Maha Songkran day is computed either by a lengthy process or by subtracting by 2.165 days (2 days 3 hours 57 minutes 36 seconds). This can be rewritten as

A solar year lasts 292,207 kammaja or 365.25875 days every year. However, a Gregorian year lasts, on average, 292194 kammaja.[n 4] The difference of 13 kammaja (23 minutes, 24 seconds) accumulates every year, causing the shift of Songkran towards the end of the calendar year.[16] In 1600, 1700, 1800, 1900 and 2000, Maha Songkran was on 7 April 9 April, 10 April 12 and 13 April respectively.

Nowadays the royal palace has ceased to issue the Prakat Songkran, replacing it with a small calendar booklet given to the public on New Year's Day. Government Savings Bank still prints a one-page lunisolar calendar, which is different from the multiple-page solar calendar commonly seen. The calendar features the image of Nang Songkran with her vehicle and subordinates, led by a Chinese zodiac animal holding a flag with Thai script for that zodiac. It also contains a piece of comprehensive information on the correct Songkran day and religious days.[17] Some astrologers, especially in northern Thailand, still issue their own Songkran notification containing predictions and other information.[18] In 2013, the Chiang Mai Provincial Council decided to defy the government-set holiday by rescheduling the ceremony according to the correct calculation.[19]

The following table lists the start and end dates of Songkran festival obtained from the formulae discussed above. The Chinese zodiac for each year is also given since it is also used in Thai astrology. However, the Chinese zodiac in Chinese astrology changes on Lichun, just before the Chinese New Year, in February, while Thai astrology uses the first day of fifth lunar month (roughly the new moon in late–March to early–April).[20][21] Before the cut off date, astrologer uses the zodiac of the last year.

Maha Songkran and Thaloengsok table
Year Chinese zodiac Maha Songkran
Songkran starts
Songkran ends
2019 Pig 14 April 2019
16 April 2019
2020 Rat 13 April 2020
16 April 2020
2021 Ox 14 April 2021
16 April 2021
2022 Tiger 14 April 2022
16 April 2022
2023 Rabbit 14 April 2023
16 April 2023
2024 Dragon 13 April 2024
16 April 2024
2025 Snake 14 April 2025
16 April 2025
2026 Horse 14 April 2026
16 April 2026
2027 Goat 14 April 2027
16 April 2027
2028 Monkey 13 April 2028
16 April 2028
2029 Rooster 14 April 2029
16 April 2029

Origin and myths

The origin of songkran festival lies in a Buddhist folk myth or non canonical jataka related to harvest and spring. In prosperous city of Sukhavati in suvvannabhumi, Bodistva was born in the household of a poor farmer. Once upon a time, Indra the king of Devas, looked at the city from heaven, and felt sad seeing the high level of corruption. He found that people did not respect their elders, behaved rudely, and didn't serve them proper food and medicines. They had no compassion to the needy and helpless. No faith in Sila and Uposath but fun in sins, no faith in donation but greedy for wealth, no faith in Dhamma but made business of Dhamma. By seeing decline of Dhamma, he said, "Glory/Siri of humans lies in their faith in Dhamma. There is no Glory without Dhamma." With affirmation of this truth, people in the city immediately loss their glory, no proper rains, water and food scarcity prevailed, extreme drought with skin burning hot sun waves and dirtly bad smelled garbages were filled their homes.

To get saved from this suffering, In leadership of bodistva, people prayed to mother earth or Siri. They asked Siri the causes and solutions of their misfortune. Out of compassion and sympathy to her children, she told them the causes and solutions to their sufferings. She told them restoration of their faith in Dhamma will end their suffering. She gave them a divine piece of fertile land, divine seeds, mysterious song for rain and pots divine thanaka powder of several colours to apply on their skin to cool body from hot sun waves. Now, people pleaged to observe sila and upasotha under guidance of bodistva.

Bodistva and his companions started cultivating the divine land, sowing divine seeds. They used to apply several colours of thanaka powder and water is poured to cool their body from heavy sun waves. In few days their crops were grown that was the day when the sun entered aries constellation. They produced adequate grains. At the day of harvest, they washed feets of their elders, saluted them and served delicious food and proper cloths. Donations were made to needy and helpless. Hence, Dhamma was restored by the people.

Same day when Indra the king of devas again looked at the city of SuvannaBhumi. He praised them and said, "Glory of humans lies in their faith in Dhamma, there is no Glory without Dhamma." By affirmation of this truth immediately their lost glory was restored back and the people elected bodistva as their leader and celebrated the harvest day with throwing water on each other and started playing with several colours of thanaka powder by applying it on each other's body.

Thus, in Buddhist community in South East Asia, to remember and celebrate this day, people clean their houses, salute and show respect to their elders by washing their feets, serving delicious food and proper clothing to them. Donations are made to monastery and needy. People play with water and different colours of thanaka powder is applied to each other's body.

According to the Buddhist scripture of Wat Pho, Songkran originated from the death of Kapila Brahma (Thai: กบิลพรหม, romanizedKabilaphrom, lit.'reddish Brahma').[22] In the olden days, there was a wealthy man and his neighbor, a drunkard. The drunkard, who had two sons, belittled the rich man for being childless. The rich man was humiliated and beseeched the Sun and the Moon gods to grant him a son. His attempts failed until he offered cooked rice to the tree god living in a banyan tree, who asked Indra to grant the man's wish. The child, named Thammabal (Thai: ธรรมบาล, also Dhammapala, lit.'one who protects righteousness'), was born.

Thammabal was a clever child who learned three vedas, bird language and also taught people to avoid sin. Kapila Brahma learned of the child and wanted to test the child's cleverness. The god asked, "Where is the glory of men (sri) located in the morning, during the day, and in the evening?". The loser would have his head chopped off. The boy thought in vain for six days, but could not find a solution to the riddles. He lay beneath a sugar palm tree and overheard a conversation between a pair of eagles who planned to eat his corpse when he lost the bet. The female eagle asked her mate whether he knew the answer. He answered, "In the morning, the sri appears on the face, so people wash their faces every morning. At noon, the sri is at the chest where people spray perfume every noon. In the evening, the sri goes to the feet, so people wash their feet every evening." Thmmabal memorized the answer and gave it to Kapila Brahma the next day. Having lost, Kapila Brahma summoned his seven daughters and told them that he must cut his head off. However, if his head fell to earth, it would create an inferno that would engulf the world. If his head was thrown into the air, the rains would stop. And if his head was dropped into the ocean, all seawater would dry up. To prevent these calamities, he told his daughters to place his head on an elevated phan. Thungsa, his eldest child, stored her father's head in the cave in Mount Kailash.[6]

Every year when the Sun enters Aries, one of Kapila Brahma's children, called the Nang Songkran (Thai: นางสงกรานต์, lit.'Lady Songkran') for that year, and other angels form a procession. One of them takes the phan with Kapila Brahma's head. The lady stands, sits, reclines or sleeps on the back of the animal depending on the time. From the dawn to midday, the lady will stand on the back of her conveyance. After midday until the sunset, she will sit down. Between the sunset and midnight, the lady lies down on her vehicle but leaves her eyes open. After midnight, she sleeps.[15] These postures and other details were previously drawn as part of the Prakat Songkran and now as part of the lunisolar calendar. The procession lasts for 60 minutes around Mount Meru. This is subsequently called Maha Songkran to distinguish from other Songkran that occur when the Sun moves from one to another zodiac. For simplicity, the name was later shortened as Songkran.[23][24]

The following table lists the names and characteristics of Nang Songkran, which vary according to which day of the week Maha Songkran falls on in each year.

Day of Week and corresponding colour Name Flower Jewellery stone Food Right hand Left hand Conveyance
  Sunday Dungsha Devi/Thungsa Thewi Pomegranate flowers Ruby Fig Discus Conch Garuda
  Monday Gōrāgha Devi/Khorakha Thewi Cork tree flowers Moonstone Oil Sword Staff Tiger
  Tuesday Rākshasa Devi/Raksot Thewi Lotus flower Agate Blood Trident Bow Pig
  Wednesday Maṇdā Devi/Mantha Thewi Champak flowers Cat's eye Butter Stylus Staff Donkey
  Thursday Kiriṇī Devi/Kirini Thewi Magnolia Emerald Nuts and sesame seeds Hook Bow Elephant
  Friday Kimidā Devi/Kimitha Thewi Water lilies Topaz Banana Sword Lute Buffalo
  Saturday Mahodharā Devi/Mahothon Thewi Water hyacinth flowers Blue sapphire Hog deer meat Discus Trident Peacock

New year traditions

The Songkran celebration is rich with symbolic traditions. Mornings begin with merit-making. Visiting local temples and offering food to the Buddhist monks is commonly practiced. On this specific occasion, performing water pouring on Buddha statues and the young and elderly is a traditional ritual, representing purification and the washing away of one's sins and bad luck.[4] As a festival of unity, people who have moved away usually return home to their loved ones and elders. Paying reverence to ancestors is an important part of Songkran tradition.

The holiday is known for its Water Festival. Major streets are closed to traffic, and are used as arenas for water fights. Celebrants, young and old, participate in this tradition by splashing water on each other. Traditional parades are held and in some venues "Lady Songkran" or "Miss Songkran" is crowned,[25] where contestants are clothed in traditional Thai dress.

In Thailand

Buddhist takes a bath ancestor pagoda in Songkran festival, Uttaradit.
Songkran festival, Chiang Mai's ancient city wall
Dancers in Isan traditional dress during Songkran festival, Bueng Kan
Monks receiving blessing at a temple in Ban Khung Taphao

Central Region: people in this region clean their houses when Songkran approaches. All dress up in colorful clothing or Thai dress. After offering food to the monks, people will offer a requiem to their ancestors. People make merit offerings such as giving sand to the temple for construction or repair. Other forms of merit include releasing birds and fish. Nowadays, people also release other kinds of animals such as buffaloes and cows. Phra Pradaeng hosts traditional ceremonies of Mon people such as parades in the colourful traditional outfits and folklore performances.[26]

South: southerners have three Songkran rules: Work as little as possible and avoid spending money; do not hurt other persons or animals; do not tell lies.

North: on 7 April, Baan Had Siew in Si Satchanalai District hosts the'Elephant Procession Ordination' event with a colourful parade where men dressed in the traditional clothes are taken to the temples on elephants.[27] In northern Thailand 13 April is celebrated with gunfire or firecrackers to repel bad luck. On the next day, people prepare food and useful things to offer to the monks at the temple. People have to go to temple to make merit and bathe Buddha's statue and after that they pour water on the hands of elders and ask for their blessings.

East: the eastern region has activities similar to the other part of Thailand, but people in the east always make merit at the temple throughout all the days of the Songkran Festival and create sand pagodas. Some people, after making merit at the temple, prepare food to be given to the elderly members of their family.

The Capital (Bangkok): the Khao San Road and Silom Road are the hubs for modern celebration of Songkran. The roads are closed for traffic, and posts equipped with water guns and buckets full of water. The party runs day and night.[28]


This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources in this section. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Songkran" Thailand – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (April 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Songkran is celebrated by the Malaysian Siamese community, particularly in the states of Kedah, Kelantan, Penang, Perak, Perlis and Terengganu where most Siamese are located.[29][30]

Pana Sankranti (Odia: ପଣା ସଂକ୍ରାନ୍ତି), also known as Maha bisuba Sankranti, is the traditional new year day festival of Buddhists and Hindus in Odisha, India.

The festival is celebrated as Sangken in northeastern areas of India and as Bizu, Boisuk, Shangrai, and Boisabi in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh, which is the traditional New Year's Day by the indigenous Hindu people and Buddhist community. The Sangken festival is celebrated by the Tai people — Khamti people Khamyang, Phake and Turung people. The festival is also celebrated by Singpho, Tikhak (Tangsa) and Duoniya people. Sangken generally falls in the month of 'Naun Ha', the fifth month of the year of the Tai Lunar calendar coinciding with the month of April. It is celebrated in the last days of the old year and the lunar new year begins on the day just after the end of the festival.

Vishu, a Hindu religious festival, celebrated mainly in the South Indian State of Kerala (and some parts of Tamil Nadu), also falls during the same timeframe. It is predominantly a harvest festival.

In some villages in south India, especially Karnataka, a festival called "Okhali" or "Okhli" is celebrated in which every household keeps a barrel of water mixed with chalk and turmeric to throw on passers-by. The date of Okhali coincides with that of Songkran in Thailand and Thingyan in Myanmar, not with the dates of Holi, which is a north Indian festival.

Songkran is celebrated annually on the U.S. territory of Wake Island by Air Force members and American and Thai contractors.[31]

In other calendars

Songkran occurs at the same time as that given by Bede for festivals of Ēostre—and Easter weekend occasionally coincides with Songkran (most recently 1979, 1990, and 2001, but not again until 2063[32]).


Roadway fatalities

Police statistics show that the death toll from road accidents doubles during the annual Songkran holiday. Between 2009 and 2013 there were about 27 road deaths per day during non-holiday periods and an average of 52 road deaths per day during Songkran. Thailand has among the highest traffic fatality rates in the world, along with Liberia, Congo, and Tanzania. Approximately 70–80 percent of the accidents that occur during the long holiday period are motorcycle accidents.[33] About 10,000 people per year die in motorcycle accidents.[34]

The National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO) says a total of 110,909 people were arrested and 5,772 vehicles impounded at road safety checkpoints across the country between 9–16 April 2016.[35] In 2018 the number of offenders arrested at 2,029 checkpoints had risen to 146,589. Of these, 39,572 had failed to wear crash helmets and 37,779 carried no driving licence.[33] Reacting to the numbers, the prime minister "ordered stricter enforcement of the law"; the interior minister said he would "propose greater efforts in raising awareness as an additional measure, insisting that traffic laws were [already] strictly enforced"; and deputy prime minister Prawit Wongsuwan said he would "work harder to ensure motorcyclists wore helmets".[36]

Date Accidents Deaths Injuries Source
11–17 Apr 2018 3,724 418 3,987 [33]
2017 3,690 335 3,506 [37]
11–17 Apr 2016 3,447 442 3,656 [38][39]
2015 3,373 364 3,559 [39]
11–17 Apr 2014 2,992 322 3,225 [39]


Intellectual property

Celebrate Singapore

In 2014 "Celebrate Singapore", a large two-day Songkran-style water festival,[42] was planned for Singapore and the event was promoted as the "largest water festival party in Singapore". However, controversy emerged when the Tourism Authority of Thailand (TAT) Deputy Governor for Tourism Products, Vilaiwan Twichasri, claimed that Thailand holds exclusive rights to celebrate Songkran and planned to consult with officials at the Department of Intellectual Property, Ministry of Commerce and Ministry of Culture to discuss a potential lawsuit. The Deputy Governor's view was supported by numerous Thai citizens on social media websites.[43] Chai Nakhonchai, Cultural Promotion Department chief, pointed out that Songkran is a traditional festival shared by many countries throughout Southeast Asia, while historian Charnvit Kasetsiri stated that no single nation can claim ownership of a tradition.[44] On 25 March 2014, the Bangkok Post reported that the Singaporean government had intervened in the festival's content and there would be no water-throwing, no water pistols and no public drinking. The festival was also reduced to a one-day event.[45]

See also


  1. ^ The cabinet later fixed this issue by shifting the holiday by one day to 13–15 April, which is still in use today.
  2. ^ In 1896, for example, the ceremony started on 12 April. According to Suriyayart, the sun entered Aries at 19:30 on 12 April. The main ceremony started one day later, possibly due to difficulties organizing the ceremony at the exact time. In 1949, Maha Songkran was on 13 April at 12:35 and the ceremony started that day.
  3. ^ According to Deva Sastri, Bapu (1861). "Translation of the Surya Siddhanta" (PDF). C B Lewis and the Baptist Mission Press, Calcutta. Sloka 37, there are 1,577,917,828 solar (or terrestrial, as the translator chose) day within one great Yuga, or eon. There are four yugas, or periods, within the aeon. All of them spans 4,320,000 solar years (Sloka 15–16). It follows that 800 solar years correspond to 292,207 days.
  4. ^ Julian year lasts 292,200 kammajas on average


  1. ^ "'Songkran Festival' extended to five-day holiday". The Nation. 27 February 2018. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 15 April 2018.
  2. ^ "Thai Government Approves Extra Day for Songkran 2019". Chiang Rai Times. 13 February 2019. Archived from the original on 26 March 2019. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
  3. ^ Monier-Williams, Monier (1899). "Saṃkrānti". A Sanskrit-English Dictionary: Etymologically and Philologically Arranged with Special Reference to Cognate Indo-European Languages. Oxford: Clarendon Press. OCLC 685239912.
  4. ^ a b "The magic and traditions of Thai New Year (Songkran)". Tourism Authority of Thailand Newsroom. Archived from the original on 5 April 2014. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
  5. ^ Melton, J. Gordon (2011). Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations. ABC-CLIO. p. 825. ISBN 978-1-59884-205-0.
  6. ^ a b Nimmanahaeminda, Prakong (April–June 2004). "Myth and Ritual : A Study of the Songkran Festival" (PDF). The Journal of the Royal Institute of Thailand. 29 (2): 345–350. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
  7. ^ ราชกิจจานุเบกษา, ประกาศสำนักนายกรัฐมนตรี เรื่อง กำหนดเวลาทำงานและวันหยุดราชการ (ฉบับที่ ๑๙) พ.ศ. ๒๕๔๐, เล่ม ๑๑๔, ตอนที่ ๒๖ ง, ๑ เมษายน ๒๕๔๐ (Cabinet notification on workdays and holidays, 1997)
  8. ^ เสมเสริมสุข, บาง (1961). ตำราพรหมชาติ ฉบับหลวง. สำนักงานลูก ส. ธรรมภักดี.
  9. ^ For example, ราชกิจจานุเบกษา, ประกาศสงกรานต์ ร.ศ. ๑๑๐ พ.ศ.๒๔๓๔, เล่ม ๘, ๑๒ เมษายน ๒๔๓๔ (1891 Notification on Songkran)
  10. ^ ราชกิจจานุเบกษา, พระราชพิธีเผด็จศกสงกรานต์, เล่มที่ ๑๖, ๑๖ เมษายน ๒๔๔๒, หน้า ๓๕ (Songkran and cutting off the year ceremony in 1899)
  11. ^ ราชกิจจานุเบกษา, กำหนดการพระราชพิธีสงกรานต์ พ.ศ.๒๔๙๒, ตอนที่ ๒๒, เล่ม ๖๖, ๑๒ เมษายน ๒๔๙๒ (Songkran royal ceremony schedule, 1949)
  12. ^ Burgess, James (1893). "ART.XVIII. Notes on Hindu Astronomy and the History of our Knowledge of it". Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Cambridge University. 25 (4): 717–761. doi:10.1017/S0035869X00022553. S2CID 163252270.
  13. ^ Deva Sastri, Bapu (1861). "Translation of the Surya Siddhanta" (PDF). C B Lewis and the Baptist Mission Press, Calcutta.
  14. ^ มนเทียรทอง, เอื้อน; ทองเนียม, บุนนาค. พระคัมภีร์สุริยยาตร์ศิวาคม. สำนักโหรหอคำ. (Aeur Montianthong and Bunnak Thongniam's Suriyayat Sivakom for Computer Users, in Thai)
  15. ^ a b สุริยาอารักษ์, สิงห์โต. เรื่องฤกษ์และการให้ฤกษ์ ดวงพิชัยสงคราม. เขษมบรรณกิจ. (Singto Suriya-arak's How to and how not to set the ceremonial time and how to compute a detailed Suriyayart natal chart, in Thai)
  16. ^ Chunpongtong, Loy (October 2012). "Discrepancies in Songkran Days: A Mathematical Research (ความคลาดเคลื่อนของวันสงกรานต์: ผลวิจัยเชิงคณิตศาสตร์)". 37 (4). ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  17. ^ "ปฏิทินสงกรานต์". Kom Chad Luek. 10 April 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
  18. ^ "สกู๊ปหน้า 1… หนังสือปีใหม่เมืองล้านนา". Chiang Mai News.
  19. ^ บัวคลี่, บัณรส (8 April 2013). "เลื่อนวันดำหัวผู้ว่าเชียงใหม่ : ท้องถิ่นนิยมใต้อำนาจรวมศูนย์". Retrieved 30 December 2017.
  20. ^ การผูกดวงวางลัคนา. ชมรมพยากรณ์ศาสตร์. 2004. (On the Formation of Thai Natal Chart)
  21. ^ "การเปลี่ยนปีนักษัตร". 7 February 2012. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
  22. ^ วิริยบูรณะ, อุระคินทร์ (1 April 1960). พรหมชาติ ฉบับหลวง. สำนักงาน ลูก ส. ธรรมภักดี. pp. 512–513
  23. ^ Suksawat, Saranya (n.d.). "Happy New Year Songkran Festival". Thaiways. Archived from the original on 9 February 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  24. ^ "Legendary of Songkran lady (Nang Songkran)". Songkran Festival. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
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  26. ^ "Songkran". 2 November 2022.
  27. ^ "Thailand Grand Songkran Celebrations". Tourism Authority of Thailand. 4 April 2018.
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Further reading