Task Manager
Task Manager (Windows 10, version 2004) screenshot.png
Screenshot of Task Manager in Windows 10 after the "2004/20H1" update, showing Performance tab, with individual CPU cores shown. Hard Disk Drive and Removable media type(s) are now shown, along with GPU temperature.
Original author(s)David Plummer[1]
Developer(s)Microsoft
Initial releaseAugust 24, 1996; 26 years ago (1996-08-24)
Written inC++
Operating systemWindows NT 4.0 and onwards
PlatformIA-32, x86-64, ARM and Itanium (and historically DEC Alpha, MIPS, and PowerPC)
PredecessorSystem Monitor
TypeTask manager, system monitor and startup manager

Task Manager, previously known as Windows Task Manager, is a task manager, system monitor, and startup manager included with Microsoft Windows systems. It provides information about computer performance and running software, including name of running processes, CPU and GPU load, commit charge, I/O details, logged-in users, and Windows services. Task Manager can also be used to set process priorities, processor affinity, start and stop services, and forcibly terminate processes.

The program can be started in recent versions of Windows by pressing Win+R and then typing in taskmgr.exe, by pressing Ctrl+Alt+Delete and clicking Start Task Manager, by pressing Ctrl+⇧ Shift+Esc, by right-clicking on the Windows taskbar and selecting "Task Manager", or by typing taskmgr in the File Explorer address bar.

Task Manager was introduced in its current form with Windows NT 4.0. Prior versions of Windows NT, as well as Windows 3.x, include the Task List application, are capable of listing currently running processes and killing them, or creating new processes. Windows 9x has a program known as Close Program which lists the programs currently running and offers options to close programs as well shut down the computer.[2]

Functionality

Task Manager on Windows XP, showing the Processes tab
Task Manager on Windows XP, showing the Processes tab

Since Windows 8, Task Manager has two views. The first time Task Manager is invoked by a user, it shows in a simplified summary mode (described in the user experience as Fewer Details). It can be switched to a more detailed mode by clicking More Details. This setting is remembered for that user on that machine.[3]

Since at least Windows 2000, the CPU usage can be displayed as a tray icon in the task bar for quick glance.[4][5]

Summary mode

In summary mode, Task Manager shows a list of currently running programs that have a main window. It has a "more details" hyperlink that activates a full-fledged Task Manager with several tabs.

Right-clicking any of the applications in the list allows switching to that application or ending the application's task. Issuing an end task causes a request for graceful exit to be sent to the application.

Processes and details

The Processes tab shows a list of all running processes on the system. This list includes Windows Services and processes from other accounts. The Delete key can also be used to terminate processes on the Processes tab. By default, the processes tab shows the user account the process is running under, the amount of CPU, and the amount of memory the process is currently consuming. There are more columns that can be shown. The Processes tab divides the process into three categories:

This tab shows the name of every main window and every service associated with each process. Both a graceful exit command and a termination command can be sent from this tab, depending on whether the command is sent to the process or its window.

The Details tab is a more basic version of the Processes tab, and acts similar to the Processes tab in Windows 7 and earlier. It has a more rudimentary user experience and can perform some additional actions. Right-clicking a process in the list allows changing the priority the process has, setting processor affinity (setting which CPU(s) the process can execute on), and allows the process to be ended. Choosing to End Process causes Windows to immediately kill the process. Choosing to "End Process Tree" causes Windows to immediately kill the process, as well as all processes directly or indirectly started by that process. Unlike choosing End Task from the Applications tab, when choosing to End Process the program is not given a warning nor a chance to clean up before ending. However, when a process that is running under a security context different from the one which issued the call to Terminate Process, the use of the KILL command-line utility is required.[6]

Performance

The Performance tab shows overall statistics about the system's performance, most notably the overall amount of CPU usage and how much memory is being used. A chart of recent usage for both of these values is shown. Details about specific areas of memory are also shown.

There is an option to break the CPU usage graph into two sections: kernel mode time and user mode time. Many device drivers, and core parts of the operating system run in kernel mode, whereas user applications run in user mode. This option can be turned on by choosing Show kernel times from the View menu. When this option is turned on the CPU usage graph will show a green and a red area. The red area is the amount of time spent in kernel mode, and the green area shows the amount of time spent in user mode.

The Performance tab also shows statistics relating to each of the network adapters present in the computer. By default, the adapter name, percentage of network utilization, link speed, and state of the network adapter are shown, along with a chart of recent activity.

App history

The App history tab shows resource usage information about Universal Windows Platform apps. Windows controls the life cycle of these apps more tightly. This tab is where the data that Windows has collected about them, and then be viewed at a later time.

Startup

The Startup tab manages software that starts with Windows shell.

Users

The Users tab shows all users that currently have a session on the computer. On server computers, there may be several users connected to the computer using Terminal Services (or the Fast User Switching service, on Windows XP). Users can be disconnected or logged off from this tab.

History

Task Manager was originally an external side project developed at home by Microsoft developer David Plummer; encouraged by Dave Cutler and coworkers to make it part of the main product "build", he donated the project in 1995. The original task manager design featured a different Processes page with information being taken from the public Registry APIs rather than the private internal operating system metrics.

Windows 9x

A Close Program dialog box comes up when Ctrl+Alt+Delete is pressed in Windows 9x.[2] Also, in Windows 9x, there is a program called Tasks (TASKMAN.EXE) located in the Windows directory. It is rudimentary and has fewer features. The System Monitor utility in Windows 9x contains process and network monitoring functionality similar to that of the Windows Task Manager. Also, the Tasks program is called by clicking twice on the desktop if Explorer process is down.

Windows XP

In Windows XP only, there is a "Shut Down" menu that provides access to Standby, Hibernate, Turn off, Restart, Log Off, and Switch User. This is because, by default in Windows XP, pressing Ctrl+Alt+Delete opens the Task Manager instead of opening a dialog that provides access to the Task Manager in addition to the options mentioned above.

On the Performance tab, the display of the CPU values was changed from a display mimicking a LED seven-segment display, to a standard numeric value. This was done to accommodate non-Arabic numeral systems, such as Eastern Arabic numerals, which cannot be represented using a seven-segment display.[7]

Prior to Windows XP, process names longer than 15 characters in length are truncated. This problem is resolved in Windows XP.[8]

The users tab is introduced by Windows XP.

Beginning with Windows XP, the Delete key is enabled on the Processes tab.

Windows Vista

Windows Task Manager has been updated in Windows Vista with new features,[9] including:

Windows 8

In Windows 8, Windows Task Manager has been overhauled and the following changes[3] were made:

Windows 10

Weakness

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Task Manager" Windows – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (May 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Task Manager is a common target of computer viruses and other forms of malware; typically malware will close the Task Manager as soon as it is started, so as to hide itself from users. Variants of the Zotob and Spybot worms have used this technique, for example.[15][obsolete source] Using Group Policy, it is possible to disable the Task Manager. Many types of malware also enable this policy setting in the registry. Rootkits can prevent themselves from getting listed in the Task Manager, thereby preventing their detection and termination using it.

See also

References

  1. ^ Windows 10: The developer who wrote Windows Task Manager reveals its secrets | ZDNet
  2. ^ a b "How to end task on the items that are running in the background". Nuance Communications. June 22, 2002.
  3. ^ a b "Windows 8 Task Manager In-Depth". Microsoft Corporation. June 6, 2013. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
  4. ^ Hoffman, Chris (2020-08-19). "How to Keep the Task Manager's CPU Stats In Your System Tray". How-To Geek. Retrieved 25 January 2022.
  5. ^ Bailey, Carol (2001-11-16). "Get IT Done: Start your troubleshooting with the Windows 2000 Task Manager". TechRepublic. Retrieved 25 January 2022.
  6. ^ "Cannot End Service Processes with Task Manager". Support. Microsoft. 2007-02-27. Archived from the original on March 8, 2007. Retrieved 2012-12-06.
  7. ^ Raymond Chen (July 25, 2007). "What is Dave's frame class?".
  8. ^ Magic 15 with GetProcessesByName on Windows 2000[dead link]
  9. ^ Brien Posey (May 2008). "Microsoft's Windows Task Manager: What's new in Vista?". Retrieved 4 February 2019.
  10. ^ Raymond Chen (June 19, 2014). "What happened to the Shut Down menu in classic Task Manager?".
  11. ^ Sinofsky, Steven (October 27, 2011). "Using Task Manager with 64+ logical processors". Building Windows 8. Microsoft. Archived from the original on February 17, 2012. Retrieved October 29, 2011.
  12. ^ Serban, Alex (October 24, 2011). "How to Get the Most out of New Windows 8 Task Manager?". ITProPortal. Future Publishing.
  13. ^ "Manage startup programs in Vista using Windows Defender's Software Explorer".
  14. ^ Corden, Jez (4 Sep 2015). "How to use Task Manager to optimize your Windows 10 experience". Windows Central. Retrieved 4 Feb 2019.
  15. ^ "Task Manager, MSCONFIG, or REGEDIT disappears while opening". Ramesh's website. December 19, 2005.