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Painting of musicians and a dancer from the Muromachi period.
Musicians and dancer, Muromachi period

Traditional Japanese music is the folk or traditional music of Japan. Japan's Ministry of Education classifies hōgaku (邦楽, lit.'Japanese music') as a category separate from other traditional forms of music, such as gagaku (court music) or shōmyō (Buddhist chanting), but most ethnomusicologists view hōgaku, in a broad sense, as the form from which the others were derived.[1][failed verification] Outside of ethnomusicology, however, hōgaku usually refers to Japanese music from around the 17th to the mid-19th century.[2] Within this framework, there are three types of traditional music in Japan: theatrical, court music, and instrumental.

Theatrical

Japan has several theatrical forms of drama in which music plays a significant role. The main forms are kabuki and Noh.

Noh

Noh () or nōgaku (能楽) music is a type of theatrical music used in Noh theatre. Noh music is played by an instrumental ensemble called hayashi-kata (囃子方). The instruments used are the taiko (太鼓) stick drum, a large hourglass-shaped drum called the ōtsuzumi (大鼓), a smaller hourglass-shaped drum called the kotsuzumi (小鼓), and a bamboo flute called the nohkan (能管). The hayashi ensemble is performed along with yōkyoku, vocal music, in Noh theater.

Kabuki

Kabuki (歌舞伎) is a type of Japanese theatre known for its highly stylized dancing and singing as well as the elaborate make-up worn by the predominately all-male cast. The first instances of kabuki used the hayashi from Noh performances. Later, kabuki began incorporating other instruments like the shamisen. Kabuki music can be divided into three categories: geza, shosa-ongaku, and ki and tsuke.[3]

Geza

Geza includes music and sound effects played on stage, behind a black bamboo curtain called a kuromisu. Geza music can be further subdivided into three types. The first type is uta or song. Uta is sung accompanied by a shamisen. Typically there are multiple uta singers singing together. The second type is called aikata. It involves shamisen music without any singing. The third type is narimono. Narimono is played by small percussion instruments[4] besides the shamisen.

Shosa-ongaku

Shosa-ongaku encompasses music that is played on the stage and accompanies acting and dancing. Shosa-ongaku includes the takemoto, nagauta, tokiwazu and kiyomoto music styles. takemoto accompanies acting. Nagauta, taena mo and kiyomoto accompany dancing in kabuki. Takemoto basically recites the parts of the play concerning scenery. The actors attempt to synchronize their lines with the rhythm of takemoto—an effect known as ito ni noru ('get onto strings').

Nagauta is one of the most commonly seen forms of geza. It involves singers, called utakata, and shamisen players, called shamisenkata. The utakata are seated to the right of the stage dancers, and the shamisenkata are seated on the left of the stage. The shamisenkata use hosozao (thin neck) shamisen which produce high pitched tones and are capable of producing delicate melodies.

Tokiwazu consists of reciters called tayū and shamisenkata that use chuzao (medium-neck) shamisen. Tokiwazu is similar to kiyomoto music but is slower-paced and more solemn. Tokiwazu is also performed onstage.

Kiyomoto also consists of tayū and shamisenkata using chuzao. However, in kiyomoto words and sentences full of emotion are recited in very high-pitched tones.

Ki and tsuke

Ki and tsuke describe the distinctive sounds made by striking two square oak boards. When the two boards are struck together, they produce the ki sound. When they are struck against a hardwood board, they produce the tsuke sound.

Court music (gagaku)

Main article: Gagaku

Gagaku (雅楽) is court music, and is the oldest traditional music in Japan. It was usually patronized by the Imperial Court or the shrines and temples. Gagaku music includes songs, dances, and a mixture of other Asian music. Gagaku has two styles; these are instrumental music kigaku (器楽) and vocal music seigaku (声楽).

Since means "elegance", gagaku literally means elegant music and generally refers to musical instruments and music theory imported into Japan from China and Korea from 500 to 600 CE. Gagaku is divided into two main categories: Old Music and New Music. Old Music refers to music and musical compositions from before the Chinese Tang dynasty (618–906). New Music refers to music and compositions produced during or after Tang, including music brought from various regions of China and Korea.[5][6]

Old and New Music are further divided into the categories 左楽 ("Music of the Left") and 右楽 ("Music of the Right"). Music of the left 左楽 is composed of 唐楽 (music from Tang) and 林邑楽 (music from Indo-China). Music of the right 右楽 is composed of 高麗楽 (music from Korea).

Shōmyō

Shōmyō (声明) is a kind of Buddhist chanting of sutra syllabically or melismatically set to melodic phrasing, usually performed by a male chorus. Shōmyō came from India, and it began in Japan in the Nara period. Shōmyō is sung a capella by one or more Buddhist monks.

The two characters ( and ) translate literally as "voice" and "clear" respectively. Shōmyō is a translation of the Sanskrit word sabda-vidya, which means "the (linguistic) study of language".[10]

Jōruri

Jōruri (浄瑠璃) is narrative music using the shamisen (三味線). There are four main jōruri styles. These are centuries-old traditions which continue today:

There are other four jōruri styles which have largely died out. Katōbushi, icchuubushi and miyazonobushi are old style. These styles are referred to as Kokyoku (古曲) or "old music". Kokyoku also included ogiebushi (荻江節). It is not jōruri but is like nagauta.

Nagauta

Nagauta (長唄) is a style of music played using the shamisen. There are three styles of nagauta: one for kabuki dance, one for kabuki plays (dialogue), and one for music unconnected with kabuki.

Ogiebushi (荻江節) is similar to nagauta. Ogie Royuu I (荻江露友) (died 1787) began to play this style, having first played in the nagauta style. He moved from playing this style to play in the ogiebushi style. His rival was Fujita Kichiji (富士田吉治), a nagauta singer in Edo. Ogie Royuu I had a beautiful but small voice. In a theater a voice with volume was important, so Ogie Royuu I stopped singing in the theater. Ogie Royuu I began to play in the Yoshiwara (red-light district). Ogiebushi declined after 1818. Tamaya Yamazaburou (玉屋山三郎) composed new ogiebushi pieces at the end of the Edo period. Yamazaburou was an owner of a parlor house in the red-light district of Yoshiwara. Yamazaburou knew music very well. Tamaya Yamazaburou's pieces are influenced by jiuta (地歌) music. Iijima Kizaemon (飯島喜左衛門) re-established ogiebushi. Kizaemon changed his name to Ogie Royuu IV in 1876 or 1879. (It is not known if there was an Ogie Royuu II or Ogie Royuu III.) Ogiebushi is classified as a style of "old music" (古曲, Kokyoku). (Kyoku usually means a musical piece or musical number in modern Japanese.) Now kokyoku is Katohbushi (河東節), Icchuubushi (一中節), Miyazonobushi (宮薗節) and Ogiebushi (荻江節). Kokyoku is old music from the Edo period. Not many players perform kokyoku and those who do are elderly; there are few young musicians playing this music.

Shakuhachi music

Shakuhachi (尺八) music began in the Edo period. Buddhist monks played the shakuhachi as a substitute for a sutra. Sometimes the shakuhachi is played along with other instruments.

Sōkyoku

Sōkyoku (筝曲) uses the Japanese koto (), which differs from the Chinese guzheng.[11] There are two well known families of sōkyoku, which can be distinguished by the shape of the plectra used in playing.

Traditional music in modern culture

Traditional Japanese musicians sometimes collaborate with modern Western musicians. Also, musicians create new styles of Japanese music influenced by the West but still use traditional musical instruments.

Traditional musical instruments

Main article: Traditional Japanese musical instruments

Chordophones

Aerophones

Membranophones

Idiophones

Traditional cultural events

Artists

See also

References

  1. ^ Sosnoski, Daniel (2013-05-21). Introduction to Japanese Culture. Tuttle Publishing. p. 34. ISBN 9781462911530.
  2. ^ "Performing Arts Network Japan". performingarts.jp. Retrieved 2019-06-22.
  3. ^ "Invitation to Kabuki | Expression by sounds". www2.ntj.jac.go.jp. Retrieved 2016-04-08.
  4. ^ "Narimono". kusanokokichi.com. Retrieved 2019-06-22.
  5. ^ Randel, Don Michael, The Harvard Dictionary of Music (2003), Belknap Press. ISBN 0-674-01163-5, page 339
  6. ^ The International Shakuhachi Society
  7. ^ 舞楽 (in Japanese). The Asahi Shimbun Company. Retrieved 2012-02-18.
  8. ^ "Azuma asobi Japanese dance suite". britannica.com. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  9. ^ "Rōei music". britannica.com. Retrieved June 23, 2019.
  10. ^ Randel, Don Michael, The Harvard Dictionary of Music (2003), Belknap Press. ISBN 0-674-01163-5, page 270
  11. ^ "Soukyoku". rateyourmusic.com. Retrieved June 23, 2019.