Whiston
Town

St Nicholas' Church
Whiston
Whiston
Location within Merseyside
Population14,263 (2011 Census)
OS grid referenceSJ4791
Civil parish
  • Whiston
Metropolitan borough
Metropolitan county
Region
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townPRESCOT
Postcode districtL35
Dialling code0151
PoliceMerseyside
FireMerseyside
AmbulanceNorth West
UK Parliament
List of places
UK
England
Merseyside
53°24′47″N 2°47′53″W / 53.413°N 2.798°W / 53.413; -2.798Coordinates: 53°24′47″N 2°47′53″W / 53.413°N 2.798°W / 53.413; -2.798

Whiston is a town and civil parish within the Metropolitan Borough of Knowsley in Merseyside, England. Previously recorded within the historic county of Lancashire, it is located 8 miles (12.8 km) east of Liverpool. The population was 13,629 at the 2001 Census,[1] increasing to 14,263 at the 2011 Census.[2][3]

A new village, Halsnead Garden Village, was approved with government support in 2017 and will be located in the Halsnead area of the town.[4] The new village will contain over 1,500 houses, a primary school, a country park, and various community and leisure facilities. Construction is estimated to cost around £270 million.[5]

History

The first record of Whiston comes in 1245, being rendered as "Quistan" and being within the West Derby Hundred in Lancashire.[6] Archeological evidence such as a neolithic polished hand-axe and mesolithic tool fragments suggest that the region was host to pre-historic settlement up to 12,000 years, ago while other archaeological finds include remnants of a Roman tile workshop in nearby Tarbock and a medieval shovel head.[7][8][9][10][11]

The main industry of Whistons earlier documented history is agriculture, with the first recorded mill in the area being held by local lord Henry Travers from 1190.[12][13] By 1521, the first documentation of coal mining is made, which would in time become Whiston's primary industry.[11][14] By 1700, the coalfields of Whiston, Prescot, and Sutton were producing 25,000-50,000 tonnes of coal annually, and this would only increase as the Industrial Revolution progressed and the Whiston area became host to tens of collieries over the 18th and 19th Centuries.[15]

The Church of St. Nicholas on Windy Arbor Road was consecrated on 30 July 1868. It hosts a war memorial, designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, which was struck by lightning in 1928. The memorial was replaced in 1932.[16]

Whiston was previously host to Halsnead Hall, a neoclassical manor that housed the Willis family, chief landholders in Whiston from 1684 until the auctioning of their estate in 1929.[11] Halsnead Hall, demolished in 1932 and now the site of Halsnead static caravan park, was designed by the renowned architect Sir John Soane.[17] Before its demolition, it was the sole example of Soane's work in either Lancashire or Cheshire.[17]

Governance

Prior to boundary changes in 2016,[18] Whiston consisted of the Whiston North and Whiston South wards of the Metropolitan Borough of Knowsley. The North and South wards were separated by the Liverpool to Manchester Railway, which runs directly through the town. The former borough wards of North and South are still used in the form of Town Council wards,[19] but for the purposes of Borough representation, Whiston elects three councillors via the combined ward of Whiston and Cronton.[20]

Whiston lent its name to and was formerly the headquarters of the Whiston Rural District within the County of Lancashire before the Local Government Act 1972. Today, Whiston Town Council oversees parish level administration.

Transport

Whiston is crossed by the historic Liverpool to Manchester Railway, and is served by Whiston railway station with services to Liverpool and Manchester, operated by Northern. Local bus routes to Runcorn, Liverpool, St Helens and Huyton also serve the town. These are operated by, among other smaller local providers, Stagecoach and Arriva.

Health

St Helens and Knowsley Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust operates Whiston Hospital. The hospital supports the primary maternity department for the Knowsley and St Helens boroughs, alongside a regional Burns and Plastic Surgery Unit serving North West England, North Wales and the Isle of Man.[21] The Trust is a member organisation of the teaching hospital system partnered with the University of Liverpool, Liverpool John Moores University and Edge Hill University.

Industries

Local industry includes Glen Dimplex Home Appliances, producing kitchen appliances and employing approximately 1,000 people.

Education

Primary education

Secondary education

In 2010, two of Whiston's secondary schools were closed and redeveloped under the Labour Party governments 'Building Schools for the Future' scheme. This £150 million programme created seven new 'Centres for Learning' to replace the ten existing secondary schools within the Knowsley borough.[22]

Constructed in 1964, Knowsley Higher Side Comprehensive School was one of the first comprehensive schools in the local area, purpose built under the Labour Party's education reforms to formally abolish the tripartite system of education; to amalgamate grammar, technical and secondary modern schools into one appropriately named Comprehensive System. In March 2010, after serving the local area for 46 years, Higher Side Comprehensive School was permanently closed and subsequently demolished to make way for the new St Edmund Arrowsmith Catholic Centre for Learning which was constructed on vacant land behind Higher Side's main buildings. The land on which Higher Side once stood now serves as a car park and recreational area for staff and pupils of the new St Edmund Arrowsmith.

The only remaining building of the former Higher Side School site is the former Whiston & Prescot City Learning Centre (CLC), now St Edmund Arrowsmith Science Hub. The building was originally constructed and opened in 2000. Pupils of the school who were still enrolled at Higher Side at the time its closure were transferred to its replacement Knowsley Park Centre for Learning (now The Prescot School) based on Knowsley Park Lane, Prescot.

Closed, relocated and rebuilt behind the former Knowsley Higher Side Comprehensive School on Cumber Lane. Renamed as 'St Edmund Arrowsmith Catholic Centre for Learning' for a while. The original St Edmund Arrowsmith Building on Scotchbarn Lane was retained for several years and redeveloped as a youth training academy, but has also since been demolished.

Notable people

See also

References

  1. ^ 2001 Census: Whiston, Office for National Statistics, retrieved 22 February 2009
  2. ^ "Knowsley Ward population/Whiston South population 2011". Retrieved 11 January 2016.
  3. ^ "Knowsley Ward/Whiston North population 2011". Retrieved 11 January 2016.
  4. ^ "First ever garden villages named with government support". GOV.UK. 2 January 2017. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  5. ^ 15:40, 2 JAN 2017Updated15:55, 2 JAN 2017 (2 January 2017). "'One of the biggest residential developments on Merseyside' - plans for Whiston development revealed". Liverpool Echo. Retrieved 4 May 2018.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  6. ^ Blinkhorn, William (2004). A History of Whiston: From the Stone Age to the Plastic Age. Hartford: Léonie Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-901253-38-2.
  7. ^ Bailey, F.A (1941). "Neolithic Axe Found at Whiston, 1941". Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire. 93: 124–125.
  8. ^ Cowell, Ron (2012). A Journey Into the Past: Archaeology at Junction 6, Tarbock Roundabout. Manchester: Highways Agency Media Services.
  9. ^ Cowell, R. W (1982). Knowsley Rural Fringes Survey Report. Liverpool: Merseyside County Museums; Merseyside County Council. pp. 6–8.
  10. ^ Swann, Vivien; Philpott, Robert (2000). "Legio XX VV and Tile Production at Tarbock, Merseyside". Britannia. 31: 55–67.
  11. ^ a b c "History of Whiston". Knowsley Council. Archived from the original on 15 July 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2021.
  12. ^ Farrier, William; Brownbill, J (1907). A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 3. pp. 348–352.
  13. ^ Blinkhorn, 129
  14. ^ Blinkhorn, 140-141
  15. ^ Blinkhorn, 140-148
  16. ^ Whiston Origins and History, Knowsley Metropolitan Borough Council, retrieved 21 January 2008
  17. ^ a b Harris, Stanley (1954). "Sir John Soane (1753-1837), architect, and Halsnead Hall, Whiston" (PDF). Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire & Cheshire. 106: 153–158.
  18. ^ "Knowsley Boundaries Change for 2016 Local Elections". Prescot Online.
  19. ^ "Whiston Town Councillors". Whiston Town Council. 2019.
  20. ^ "Knowsley Metropolitan Borough Election Results 2018" (PDF). May 2018.
  21. ^ "Whiston Hospital Clinical Departments: Maternity & Gynaecology Services". St Helens and Knowsley Teaching Hospitals.
  22. ^ Future schooling in Knowsley, Knowsley Metropolitan Borough Council, retrieved 15 August 2007