River Mersey
The River Mersey at Liverpool, looking towards the Royal Liver Building
The River Mersey is highlighted in blue
interactive map
Coordinates: 53°27′00″N 3°01′59″W / 53.45°N 3.033°W / 53.45; -3.033
CountiesGreater Manchester, Cheshire, Merseyside, Lancashire (Historic)
CitiesLiverpool, Manchester
Physical characteristics
Source(source of the River Tame)
 • locationwest of Buckstones Moss, West Yorkshire
 • coordinates53°37′07″N 2°00′13″W / 53.6187°N 2.0035°W / 53.6187; -2.0035
 • elevation1,552 ft (473 m)
2nd source(confluence of Tame and Goyt)
 • locationStockport, Greater Manchester
 • coordinates53°24′51″N 2°09′23″W / 53.4143°N 2.1565°W / 53.4143; -2.1565
 • elevation130 ft (40 m)
 • location
Liverpool Bay
Length69 mi (111 km)
Basin size1,810 sq mi (4,680 km2)
Basin features
Official nameMersey Estuary
Designated20 December 1995
Reference no.785[1]

The River Mersey (/ˈmɜːrzi/) is a major river in North West England. Its name derives from Old English and means "boundary river", possibly referring to its having been a border between the ancient kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria.[2] For centuries it has formed part of the boundary between the historic counties of Lancashire and Cheshire.[3]

The Mersey starts at the confluence of the River Tame and River Goyt in Stockport. It flows westwards through south Manchester, then into the Manchester Ship Canal at Irlam, becoming a part of the canal and maintaining its water levels. After 4 miles (6.4 km) it exits the canal, flowing towards Warrington where it widens. It then narrows as it passes between Runcorn and Widnes. The river widens into a large estuary, which is 3 miles (4.8 km) across at its widest point near Ellesmere Port. The course of the river then turns northwards as the estuary narrows between Liverpool and Birkenhead on the Wirral Peninsula to the west, and empties into Liverpool Bay. In total the river flows 69 miles (111 km).[4]

Part of the Mersey Railway, a rail tunnel between Birkenhead and Liverpool opened in 1886. Two road tunnels pass under the estuary from Liverpool: the Queensway Tunnel opened in 1934 connecting the city to Birkenhead, and the Kingsway Tunnel, opened in 1971, to Wallasey. A road bridge, completed in 1961 and later named the Silver Jubilee Bridge, crosses between Runcorn and Widnes, adjacent to the Runcorn Railway Bridge which opened in 1868. A second road bridge, the Mersey Gateway, opened in October 2017, carrying a six-lane road connecting Runcorn's Central Expressway with Speke Road and Queensway in Widnes.[5] The Mersey Ferry operates between Pier Head in Liverpool and Woodside in Birkenhead and Seacombe, and has become a tourist attraction offering cruises that provide an overview of the river and surrounding areas.

Water quality in the Mersey was severely affected by industrialisation, and in 1985, the Mersey Basin Campaign was established to improve water quality and encourage waterside regeneration. In 2009 it was announced that the river is "cleaner than at any time since the industrial revolution" and is "now considered one of the cleanest in the UK". The Mersey Valley Countryside Warden Service manages local nature reserves such as Chorlton Ees and Sale Water Park.

The river gave its name to Merseybeat, developed by bands from Liverpool, notably the Beatles. In 1965 it was the subject of the top-ten hit single "Ferry Cross the Mersey" by Gerry and the Pacemakers.


Its name is derived from the Anglo-Saxon mǣres, 'of a boundary' and ēa, 'a river'.[3] The Mersey was possibly the 'border river' between Mercia and Northumbria.[2] Its Welsh name is Afon Merswy.


The Mersey is formed from three tributaries: the River Etherow, the River Goyt and the River Tame. The modern accepted start of the Mersey is at the confluence of the Tame and Goyt, in central Stockport, Greater Manchester. However, older definitions, and many older maps, place its start a few miles up the Goyt at Compstall; for example the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica states "It is formed by the junction of the Goyt and the Etherow a short distance below Marple in Cheshire on the first-named stream." The 1784 John Stockdale map shows the River Mersey extending to Mottram, and forming the boundary between Cheshire and Derbyshire.[6] In the west of Stockport it flows at the base of a cliff below the road called Brinksway before reaching flat country. An early Ordnance Survey map indicates the spring at Red Hole on the border of Cheshire and Yorkshire at the head of one of the Etherow's longest headwaters, as being the Source of the River Mersey.[7]

Stockport to Warrington

The River Mersey empties into the Manchester Ship Canal at Irlam.

From Central Stockport the river flows through or past Heaton Mersey, Didsbury, Northenden, Chorlton-cum-Hardy, Stretford, Sale, Ashton on Mersey, Urmston and Flixton, then at Irlam flows into the Manchester Ship Canal, which is the canalised section of the River Irwell at this point. The old course of the Mersey has been obliterated by the canal past Hollins Green to Rixton although the old river bed can be seen outside Irlam and at Warburton. At Rixton the River Bollin enters the canal from the south and the Mersey leaves the canal to the north, meandering through Woolston, where the ship canal company's dredgings have formed the Woolston Eyes nature reserve, and on to Warrington.

During the construction of the Manchester Ship Canal, the original course of the river through Wilderspool (which is north of Stockton Heath and Lower Walton) was diverted westward into a canalised section. Wilderspool Causeway remains the only remnant of the original eastern bank of the Mersey at this point in Warrington. Part of the original river channel became Warrington Dock (Walton Lock) in the ship canal. In the 1960s, the former river channel was filled. The area is now Wilderspool Causeway Park. At the western end of the canalised section in Warrington is the old entrance to the former Runcorn to Latchford Canal. This waterway was abandoned with the construction of the ship canal. It was constructed because the Mersey is tidal from Howley Weir in Warrington. The canal let river traffic reach Warrington during low tides.

During high spring tides, water levels often top the Howley Weir. Before construction of the ship canal, work to improve navigation on the Mersey included Woolston New Cut, bypassing a meander, and Howley Lock for craft to avoid the weir; the new cut and lock are still evident. The island formed between the weir and the lock is known locally as "Monkey Island".

Runcorn Gap

Aerial view of the Runcorn Gap

West of Warrington the river widens, and then narrows as it passes through the Runcorn Gap between the towns of Runcorn and Widnes, in Halton. The Manchester Ship Canal passes through the gap to the south of the river. The gap is bridged by the Silver Jubilee Bridge and Runcorn Railway Bridge. Another crossing, the Mersey Gateway road bridge opened in October 2017, and is situated about 1 mile upstream from the Runcorn Gap where the river is considerably wider.


An aerial image of the estuary in 1962

From the Runcorn Gap, the river widens into a large estuary, which is 3 miles (4.8 km) wide at its widest point near Ellesmere Port. The course of the river then heads north, with Liverpool to the east and the Wirral Peninsula to the west. The Manchester Ship Canal enters the river at Eastham Locks. The eastern part of the estuary is much affected by silting, and part of it is marked on modern maps as dry land rather than tidal. The wetlands are of importance to wildlife, and are listed as a Ramsar site.[1]

Most of the conurbation on both sides of the estuary is known as Merseyside. The estuary narrows between Liverpool and Birkenhead, where it is constricted to a width of 0.7 miles (1.1 km), between Albert Dock in Liverpool and the Woodside ferry terminal in Birkenhead. On the Liverpool side, Liverpool Docks stretch for over 7.5 miles (12.1 km), the largest enclosed interconnected dock system in the world. American author Herman Melville described Liverpool Docks as being comparable to the pyramids in the vast scale of their construction. The docks were built out into the river bed. The Mersey Docks and Harbour Board used granite from a quarry it owned in Scotland for construction of the quays. Birkenhead grew quickly in the 19th century following the introduction of steamships, the earliest being the wooden paddle steamer Elizabeth in 1815.[8] Docks were developed along with a shipbuilding industry, flour milling and soap manufacture on the river's Cheshire bank.[9]

Seaforth Dock, a freeport on the Liverpool side of the estuary where it meets Liverpool Bay, opened in 1971. The dock deals with around 500,000 containers, over 1.2 million tonnes of oil, over 2.5 million tonnes of grain and animal feed, 452,000 tonnes of wood per year. About 25% of all container traffic between the UK and USA passes through the port making it one of the most successful in the world and known as the "Atlantic Gateway".[10] Liverpool was the first UK port with radar assisted operations.[10]

The tidal bore, seen from near the Silver Jubilee Bridge, Widnes

The river empties into Liverpool Bay on the Irish Sea, after a total course of 69 miles (111 km). From 4 metres (13.1 ft) neap tide to 10 metres (32.8 ft) spring tide, the River Mersey has the second highest tidal range in Britain – second only to the River Severn. The narrows in the river estuary between Dingle Point on the Liverpool banks to New Brighton on the Wirral, forces water to flow faster creating a deep channel along the section of river.

For 200 years an admiral was appointed as a conservator to ensure the river remained navigable. Mary Kendrick was the first woman to the post and she had spent years studying a Mersey barrage in the 1980s.[11]

Taylor's Bank is a large sandbank extending out to sea on the north side of the channel entrance to the river on which many ships have come to grief over the years.[12][13]

River crossings

View of the Mersey Gateway bridge

Historically the lowest bridging point on the Mersey was at Warrington where there has been a bridge since medieval times.[14][15] The first ferry across the estuary was introduced in medieval times by monks from Birkenhead Priory. They transported travellers or accommodated them at the priory in bad weather.

Countless people died on the River Mersey until the advent of safe passage via bridges and tunnels.[16] Many of these deaths were of people who earned their living on the river, either as mariners or dock workers. The majority of mariners to die worked on the Mersey flat boats and drowned due to the weather conditions or poor craft maintenance, although many ordinary civilians perished too.[16] Another ferry existed at Runcorn Gap and by today's safety standards was highly dangerous. Passengers had to traverse wooden planks over the mud flats to reach the ferry boats which themselves were often poorly maintained and leaking. Even the steps down to the river bank were described as "beautifully slippery". In the dark the ferry was particularly worrying as there were few or no lights and the journey was only undertaken on a "needs must" basis. Complaints about the appalling conditions were reported in the local and national press consistently for over 40 years.[16]

In the early 19th century steam operated ferries were introduced.[9] The Mersey Ferry, managed and operated by Merseytravel, operates between Pier Head in Liverpool and Woodside in Birkenhead and Seacombe. It has become a tourist attraction offering cruises that provide an overview of the river and surrounding areas.[17]

The Mersey Railway completed its tunnel through the estuary's underlying Triassic sandstone using manual labour in 1885. Intended as a pneumatic railway, the company opted for steam trains from its opening until it was electrified in 1903. The centre of the running tunnel is between 30 feet (9.1 m) and 70 feet (21.3 m) below the river bed. The railway is now part of the Merseyrail network.[18] Two road tunnels pass under the estuary from Liverpool. By road, the Queensway Tunnel opened in 1934 connecting the city to Birkenhead, and the Kingsway Tunnel, opened in 1971, connects with Wallasey.

Further upstream, the Runcorn Railway Bridge over the river at Runcorn Gap was built in the 1860s for the London and North Western Railway on the mainline between London and Liverpool. It had a cantilevered footway providing an alternative crossing to a ferry.[19] In 1905 the now demolished Widnes-Runcorn Transporter Bridge opened and took cars and passengers via a cable car. The Silver Jubilee Bridge, completed in 1961, is immediately adjacent.[20]

East of Warrington, the M6 motorway crosses the river and the Manchester Ship Canal on the Thelwall Viaduct. When the viaduct opened in 1963, it was the longest motorway bridge in England.[21] A second viaduct alongside opened in 1995; northbound traffic uses the old viaduct and southbound the new.

A new 6-lane bridge, the "Mersey Gateway", between Runcorn and Widnes began its construction phase in May 2014 and opened just after midnight on 14 October 2017.[5] At the same time the Silver Jubilee Bridge was closed to undergo maintenance for approximately 6–12 months, but will remain open to pedestrians and cyclists.[22] The new bridge uses tolls and the existing Silver Jubilee Bridge will also be tolled.


Water quality in the Mersey was severely affected by industrialisation, and in 1985, the Mersey Basin Campaign was established to improve water quality and encourage waterside regeneration. In 2002, oxygen levels that could support fish along the entire length were recorded for the first time since industry began on the Mersey.[23]

In 2009 it was announced that the river is "cleaner than at any time since the industrial revolution" and is "now considered one of the cleanest [rivers] in the UK".[24]

Sediment pollution

Persistent organic and mercury (Hg) pollution contained within sediments of the Mersey estuary have been evaluated by British Geological Survey.[25][26] Mersey river sediments from outer to inner estuary (Alfred Dock to Widnes) contain a variety of common organic pollutants, including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) with concentrations which fall in the middle of the range of similarly industrial-urban river-estuaries.[25] The distribution of individual PAH compounds suggests that the Mersey has contaminants mainly derived from combustion sources such as vehicle exhaust as well as coal burning. The distribution of the toxic heavy metal Mercury (Hg) has been assessed by measuring 203 sediments taken from shallow cores (0.4 – 1.6 m) extracted from both the main river and adjacent salt marshes.[26] The average amount of Hg in the Mersey was found to be 2 mg/kg with the highest amounts of 5 mg/kg occurring below the surface at concentrations harmful to sediment dwelling biota. The vertical rise and fall in Hg pollution observed at four Mersey salt marshes indicated a decline in metal pollution since the 1980s.[26]


Salmon have returned to the river[27] and have been seen jumping at Woolston and Howley Weirs between September and November. Salmon parr and smolt have been caught in the Mersey's tributaries, the River Goyt and the River Bollin.[28] Atlantic grey seals from Liverpool Bay occasionally venture into the estuary[29] along with bottlenose dolphin and harbour porpoise. Otter tracks have been observed near Fiddlers Ferry.[30] Other fish in the estuary include cod, whiting, dab, plaice and flounder.[31] Spiny dogfish, mackerel and tope feed on shrimp and whitebait in the estuary.[31] For ducks, the estuary is important to common shelducks and Eurasian teal.[32] Waders include redshank, black-tailed godwit, dunlin, pintail and turnstone.[33][34]

Environmental designations

The section of the estuary between Runcorn Railway Bridge and Bromborough, including Hale Duck Decoy and Mount Manisty, is designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest, the SSSI citation describing it as an "internationally important site for wildfowl".[35] There are further SSSIs at New Ferry[36] and Mersey Narrows.[37] The Mersey Estuary,[1] and the Mersey Narrows and North Wirral Foreshore,[38] are also Ramsar sites.


Ferry across the Mersey, June 2005
Egg Buoy near Egremont, Wallasey

Capt. William Gill of the Isle of Man Steam Packet Company, charted a safe, navigable channel (the Victoria Channel) through the treacherous uncharted waters of the estuary in 1836.[39]

Since the construction of the Manchester Ship Canal, large commercial vessels do not usually navigate the estuary beyond Garston on the north bank, or the locks into the ship canal at Eastham. Deep-water channels are maintained to both. Until the early 20th century, commercial traffic bound for further upstream carried cargo in large flat-bottomed sailing barges known as Mersey Flats to Howley Wharf in Warrington and (via the Sankey Canal) to St Helens. Motor barges delivered to riverside factories at Warrington until at least the 1970s, but nowadays only pleasure craft and yachts use the upper estuary and the tidal river where a number of sailing clubs are based. On most high tides, seagoing yachts with masts raised can navigate as far upstream as Fiddlers Ferry – about 3.1 mi (5.0 km) downstream of Warrington – where there is a small marina accessed via a river lock. Although river craft can continue upstream to Howley Weir, there are no landing or mooring facilities. Before construction of the ship canal, a lock bypassing Howley Weir allowed navigation further upstream via a straight "cut" avoiding a meander around Woolston.


The Mersey Valley Countryside Warden Service manages local nature reserves such as Chorlton Ees and Sale Water Park recreational sites and provides an educational service along the Mersey from Manchester to the Manchester Ship Canal. [40]

It is possible to canoe on parts of the river between Stockport and Carrington.[41] Liverpool Sailing Club located at Garston Coastal Park on the north bank of the estuary has a 1000 feet slipway giving access to river for water sports.[42]

The wooded suburban stretch of the river from above Howley Weir to Woolston is also used for recreational and competitive rowing, operated from the Warrington Rowing Club.[citation needed]

Angling has become popular on some stretches of the river as fish such as perch, barbel, grayling, carp, roach, chub, trout, pike, bream and dace have been caught. Warrington Anglers Association have fishing rights on a large stretch of the River through most of Warrington. Prince Albert Angling Society also have a small stretch near Rixton.[citation needed]

The river has also faced problems regarding the poaching of fish despite a strict 'catch and release' policy imposed on anglers for ecological reasons which applies to most UK waterways.[43]

Mersey barrage

Proposals continue for the construction of the Mersey Barrage, a tidal scheme to generate electricity and create another crossing of the river.[44] Very high spring tides can generate a tidal bore from Hale as far upstream as Warrington. On 7 December 2022, the Liverpool City Region mayor announced cooperation between the City Region and K-water of South Korea, who built and operates the Sihwa Lake Tidal Power Station, in order to construct a similar operation on the River Mersey.[45]

In popular culture

The river gave its name to Merseybeat, developed by bands from Liverpool, notably the Beatles. In 1965 it was the subject of the top-ten hit single "Ferry Cross the Mersey" by Gerry and the Pacemakers, and a musical film of the same name. The Liverpool poets published an anthology of their work, The Mersey Sound, in 1967.

The river's stretch through Manchester is the main theme in the Stone Roses song "Mersey Paradise", included on the B-side of the 12" version of their 1989 hit "She Bangs the Drums", and on their 1992 compilation album Turns into Stone.

The Tall ships' fleet has visited the Mersey on four occasions, first in 1984, then in 1992, 2008 and 2012.[46][47]

The traditional song "Leaving of Liverpool" mentions the river in its opening line.[48]

Religious significance

The Mersey is considered sacred by British Hindus, and worshipped in a similar way to the River Ganges. Festival of Immersion ceremonies are held annually on the river, in which clay figures representing the Hindu Lord Ganesha, the elephant deity riding a mouse, are submerged in the river from a ferry boat. Followers throw flowers, pictures and coins into the river.[49][50]


The River Tame (left) and the River Goyt (right) meeting to form the Mersey in Stockport

From its lowest point, moving upstream, confluences and tributaries of the Mersey catchment include:

See also


  1. ^ a b c "Mersey Estuary". Ramsar Sites Information Service. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  2. ^ a b Arrowsmith, Peter (1997). Stockport: a History. Stockport: Stockport Metropolitan Borough Council. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-905164-99-1.
  3. ^ a b Mills, A D (1998). A dictionary of English place-names. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 240. ISBN 978-0-19-280074-9.
  4. ^ Clayton, Phil (2012). Headwaters: Walking to British River Sources (First ed.). London: Frances Lincoln Limited. p. 126. ISBN 9780711233638.
  5. ^ a b "Mersey Gateway Bridge is now open | The Mersey Gateway Project". merseygateway.co.uk. Archived from the original on 27 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  6. ^ John Stockdale (12 April 1794). "Environs of Mottram in Longendale". spinningtheweb.org.uk. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011.
  7. ^ "Yorkshire Sheet 280". National Library of Scotland. Ordnance Survey. Retrieved 13 January 2022.
  8. ^ Mersey ferries (PDF), Liverpool Museums, retrieved 24 August 2012
  9. ^ a b River Mersey, National Oceanography Centre, archived from the original on 2 February 2012, retrieved 24 August 2012
  10. ^ a b "Merseyside History, Seaforth Dock". Mersey Reporter. Archived from the original on 14 July 2011.
  11. ^ "A tribute to Mary Kendrick MBE". hrwallingford.com. Retrieved 21 June 2020.
  12. ^ "Liverpool (Approaches, Docks and Marina): Liverpool docks and Marina 2018: Visitmyharbour.com". visitmyharbour.com.
  13. ^ Blott, Simon J. (2006). "Long-term morphological change and its causes in the Mersey Estuary, NW England". Geomorphology. 81 (1–2): 185–206. Bibcode:2006Geomo..81..185B. doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2006.04.008.
  14. ^ Warrington Background and analysis, merseyforest.org.uk, archived from the original on 19 June 2013, retrieved 25 August 2012
  15. ^ Warrington Bridge, Engineering timelines, retrieved 25 August 2012
  16. ^ a b c Title; Across the Gap. Author; Jean M. Morris. Year 2016. Publisher; Springfield Farrihy Publishing; pp. 204–237
  17. ^ "River Explorer Cruises". Mersey Ferries. Archived from the original on 23 July 2010. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
  18. ^ Mersey Railway, Engineering Timelines, retrieved 25 August 2012
  19. ^ Runcorn Rail Bridge, Engineering Timelines, retrieved 25 August 2012
  20. ^ Historic England, "Runcorn Widnes Road Bridge (1130421)", National Heritage List for England, retrieved 25 August 2012
  21. ^ M6 Warrington to Preston (J20 to J29), accessed on 4 August 2012
  22. ^ "Future of the Silver Jubilee Bridge | The Mersey Gateway Project". merseygateway.co.uk. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  23. ^ "Mersey cleanest for 200 years". BBC News. 9 May 2003.
  24. ^ Smith, Mark (24 September 2009). "Mersey 'cleanest since industrial revolution'". Runcorn Weekly News. Trinity Mirror North West & North Wales. p. 7.
  25. ^ a b Vane, C. H.; Harrison, I.; Kim, A. W. (March 2007). "Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from the Mersey Estuary, U.K." Science of the Total Environment. 374 (1): 112–126. Bibcode:2007ScTEn.374..112V. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.12.036. ISSN 0048-9697. PMID 17258286.
  26. ^ a b c Vane, C. H.; Jones, D. G.; Lister, T. R. (2009). "Mercury contamination in surface sediments and sediment cores of the Mersey estuary, UK". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 58 (6): 940–946. Bibcode:2009MarPB..58..940V. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2009.03.006. ISSN 0025-326X. PMID 19356771.
  27. ^ Ikediashi, Charles (2012). "The origins of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) recolonizing the River Mersey in northwest England". Ecology and Evolution. 2 (10): 2537–2548. Bibcode:2012EcoEv...2.2537I. doi:10.1002/ece3.353. PMC 3492779. PMID 23145338.
  28. ^ Billington, Sam. "Salmon behaviour in the Mersey Catchment" (PDF). Environment Agency. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 March 2014.
  29. ^ Atlantic grey seal, Cheshire Region Biodiversity Project, archived from the original on 6 August 2012, retrieved 25 August 2012
  30. ^ Otters return to once-polluted River Mersey, BBC News, 23 November 2011, retrieved 25 August 2012
  31. ^ a b "Making the most of the Mersey" (PDF). Liverpool Hope University. p. 25. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 August 2003.
  32. ^ "Mersey Estuary". RSPB. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
  33. ^ "Flocking to the Mersey" (PDF). Mersey Basin. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
  34. ^ "Waterbird population trend analysis of the Mersey Estuary SPA, Mersey Narrows & North Wirral Foreshore pSPA and Ribble & Alt Estuaries SPA". Natural England. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
  35. ^ Natural England (1985). "Mersey Estuary (SSSI citation)" (PDF). Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  36. ^ Natural England (2000). "New Ferry (SSSI citation)" (PDF). Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  37. ^ Natural England (2000). "Mersey Narrows (SSSI citation)" (PDF). Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  38. ^ "The Mersey Narrows and North Wirral Foreshore". Ramsar Sites Information Service. Ramsar. 7 May 2013. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  39. ^ Discovering the Channel, isle-of-man.com, retrieved 25 August 2012
  40. ^ Welcome to the Mersey Valley Countryside Warden Service, Mersey Valley Countryside Warden Service, archived from the original on 21 September 2012, retrieved 27 August 2012
  41. ^ Canoe trail of the River Mersey, Canoe England, retrieved 27 August 2012
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  43. ^ "Pair guilty of illegal fish poaching". Warrington Guardian. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  44. ^ "Mersey Tidal Power Feasibility Study | Mersey Tidal Power". Archived from the original on 8 August 2013.
  45. ^ "Plans for huge barrage across River Mersey progress after new agreement". 6 December 2022.
  46. ^ "Tall Ships to return to Liverpool after River Mersey event added", Liverpool Daily Post, retrieved 27 August 2012
  47. ^ "Tall Ships". BBC. Retrieved 24 August 2019.
  48. ^ Irish Songs. "Collection of Irish Song Lyrics". irishsongs.com. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  49. ^ "River Mersey festival celebrates Hindus birthday of Lord Ganesh". Liverpool Daily Post. 23 September 2010. Archived from the original on 20 September 2012.
  50. ^ "River marks religious ceremony". BBC News. 14 September 2008.

Further reading

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