West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire within England
West Yorkshire within England
Coordinates: 53°45′N 1°40′W / 53.750°N 1.667°W / 53.750; -1.667
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Constituent countryEngland
RegionYorkshire and the Humber
Established1 April 1974
Preceded byWest Riding of Yorkshire
OriginLocal Government Act 1972
Time zoneUTC+0 (GMT)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+1 (BST)
UK ParliamentList of MPs
PoliceWest Yorkshire Police
Ceremonial county
Lord LieutenantEdmund Anderson
High SheriffJonathan Thornton[1] (2020–21)
Area2,029 km2 (783 sq mi)
 • Rank29th of 48
 • Rank4th of 48
Density1,172/km2 (3,040/sq mi)
  • 76.6% White
  • 15.9% S. Asian
  • 3.1% Black
  • 2.8% Mixed
  • 1.7% Other
Metropolitan county
GovernmentWest Yorkshire Combined Authority
MayorTracy Brabin (L)
Admin HQLeeds
GSS codeE11000006

Districts of West Yorkshire
Metropolitan districts
  1. Leeds
  2. Wakefield
  3. Kirklees
  4. Calderdale
  5. Bradford

West Yorkshire is a metropolitan and ceremonial county in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England. It borders North Yorkshire to the north and east, South Yorkshire and Derbyshire to the south, Greater Manchester to the south-west, and Lancashire to the west. The city of Leeds is the largest settlement.

The county, established in 1974, has an area of 2,029 km2 (783 sq mi) and a population of 2.3 million, making it the fourth-largest ceremonial county by population. Large parts of West Yorkshire are urban; many settlements are part of the West Yorkshire built-up area, which has a population of 1.78 million. The largest settlements are Leeds (516,298), Bradford (366,187), Huddersfield (162,949), and Wakefield (109,766). The west of the county is more rural. The county is governed by five metropolitan boroughs: City of Bradford, Calderdale, Kirklees, City of Leeds and City of Wakefield, which collaborate through West Yorkshire Combined Authority.

The western part of West Yorkshire is in the South Pennines, and contains a small part of the Peak District National Park. It is characterised by steep valleys and is the source of the River Calder, which flows past Wakefield before meeting the Aire, which flows through Leeds, near Castleford. The landscape becomes flatter in the east, and the county boundary is on the edge of the Vale of York.

Remnants of strong coal, wool and iron ore industries remain in the county, having attracted people over the centuries, and this can be seen in the buildings and architecture. Several railways and the M1, M621, M606, A1(M) and M62 motorways traverse the county.


See also: List of civil parishes in West Yorkshire

Body Headquarters
West Yorkshire Combined Authority Leeds City Centre
West Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Service Birkenshaw
West Yorkshire Joint Services Morley
West Yorkshire Police Wakefield
City of Bradford Metropolitan District Council Bradford City Hall
Calderdale Council Halifax Town Hall
Kirklees Council Huddersfield Town Hall
Leeds City Council Leeds Civic Hall
Wakefield Council County Hall, Wakefield

West Yorkshire County Council was abolished in 1986 and its five districts effectively became unitary authorities. The metropolitan county, covering an area of 2,029 square kilometres (783 sq mi), continues to exist in law and as a geographic frame of reference.[4][5][6]

Since 1 April 2014, West Yorkshire has been a combined authority area, with the local authorities pooling some functions over transport and regeneration as the West Yorkshire Combined Authority. The first Mayor of West Yorkshire, Tracy Brabin, was elected on 6 May 2021, following a devolution deal announced by the government in the March 2020 budget.[7][8]

The conurbation of Bradford, Dewsbury, Halifax, Huddersfield, Leeds and Wakefield makes up the West Yorkshire Built-up Area, which is the fourth-largest in the United Kingdom and the largest within the historic county boundaries of Yorkshire.

In Parliament, 13 out of 22 of West Yorkshire's MPs are Labour and 9 are Conservative. At local level, the councils are generally divided, apart from the Wakefield district, which has long been one of the safest Labour councils in the country.

Some services are provided across the county by West Yorkshire Joint Services and the West Yorkshire Police and West Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Service are also county-wide.


Geology of Yorkshire
Ilkley Moor

The county borders, going anticlockwise from the west: Lancashire, Greater Manchester, Derbyshire, South Yorkshire and North Yorkshire. The terrain of the county mostly consists of the Pennines and its foothills which dominate the west of the county and gradually descend into the Vale of York and Humberhead Levels in the east. Geologically, it lies almost entirely on rocks of carboniferous age which form the inner Southern Pennine fringes in the west[9] and the Yorkshire coalfield further eastwards.[10] In the extreme east of the metropolitan county there are younger deposits of Magnesian Limestone.[11] Areas in the west such as Bradford and Calderdale are dominated by the scenery of the eastern slopes of the South Pennines, dropping from upland in the west down to the east, and dissected by many steep-sided valleys while a small part of the northern Peak District extends into the south west of Kirklees. Large-scale industry, housing, public and commercial buildings of differing heights, transport routes and open countryside conjoin. The dense network of roads, canals and railways and urban development, confined by valleys creates dramatic interplay of views between settlements and the surrounding hillsides, as shaped the first urban-rural juxtapositions of David Hockney. Where most rural the land crops up in the such rhymes and folklore as On Ilkla Moor Baht 'at, date unknown, the early 19th century novels and poems of the Brontë family often in and around Haworth and long-running light comedy-drama Last of the Summer Wine in the 20th century.

The carboniferous rocks of the Yorkshire coalfield further east have produced a rolling landscape with hills, escarpments and broad valleys in the outer fringes of the Pennines. In this landscape there is widespread evidence of both current and former industrial activity. There are numerous derelict or converted mine buildings and recently landscaped former spoil heaps.[citation needed] The scenery is a mixture of built up areas, industrial land with some dereliction, and farmed open country. Ribbon developments along transport routes including canal, road and rail are prominent features of the area although some remnants of the pre industrial landscape and semi-natural vegetation still survive. However, many areas are affected by urban fringe pressures creating fragmented and downgraded landscapes and ever present are urban influences from major cities, smaller industrial towns and former mining villages.[citation needed] In the Magnesian Limestone belt to the east of the Leeds and Wakefield areas is an elevated ridge with smoothly rolling scenery, dissected by dry valleys. Here, there is a large number of country houses and estates with parkland, estate woodlands, plantations and game coverts.[citation needed] The rivers Aire and Calder drain the area, flowing from west to east.


See also: History of Leeds and History of Yorkshire

Wakefield's Parish Church was raised to cathedral status in 1888 and after the elevation of Wakefield to diocese, Wakefield Council immediately sought city status and this was granted in July 1888.[12] However the industrial revolution, which changed West and South Yorkshire significantly, led to the growth of Leeds and Bradford, which became the area's two largest cities (Leeds being the largest in Yorkshire). Leeds was granted city status in 1893 and Bradford in 1897. The name of Leeds Town Hall reflects the fact that at its opening in 1858 Leeds was not yet a city, while Bradford renamed its Town Hall as City Hall in 1965.[13]

Post-1974 Pre-1974
Metropolitan county Metropolitan borough County boroughs Non-county boroughs Urban districts Rural districts

West Yorkshire is an amalgamation of 53 former local government districts, including five county boroughs and ten municipal boroughs.
Bradford Bradford Keighley Baildon • Bingley • Denholme • Ilkley • Queensbury and Shelf[Note 1] •Silsden • Shipley Skipton
Calderdale Halifax Brighouse • Todmorden Elland • Hebden Royd • Queensbury and Shelf[Note 1] • Ripponden • Sowerby Bridge Hepton
Kirklees Huddersfield • Dewsbury Batley • Spenborough Colne Valley • Denby Dale • Heckmondwike • Holmfirth • Kirkburton • Meltham • Mirfield
Leeds Leeds Morley • Pudsey Aireborough • Garforth • Horsforth • Otley • Rothwell Tadcaster • Wharfedale • Wetherby
Wakefield Wakefield Castleford • Ossett • Pontefract Featherstone • Hemsworth • Horbury • Knottingley • Normanton • Stanley Hemsworth • Osgoldcross • Wakefield
  1. ^ a b Queensbury and Shelf Urban District was split between Bradford and Calderdale in 1974: Queensbury civil parish became part of Bradford; Shelf civil parish became part of Calderdale.

West Yorkshire was formed as a metropolitan county in 1974, by the Local Government Act 1972, and corresponds roughly to the core of the historic West Riding of Yorkshire and the county boroughs of Bradford, Dewsbury, Halifax, Huddersfield, Leeds, and Wakefield.

West Yorkshire Metropolitan County Council inherited the use of West Riding County Hall at Wakefield, opened in 1898, from the West Riding County Council in 1974. Since 1987 it has been the headquarters of Wakefield City Council.[14]

The county initially had a two-tier structure of local government with a strategic-level county council and five districts providing most services.[15] In 1986, throughout England the metropolitan county councils were abolished. The functions of the county council were devolved to the boroughs; joint-boards covering fire, police and public transport; and to other special joint arrangements.[16] Organisations such as the West Yorkshire Police (governed by the West Yorkshire Police and Crime Commissioner) continue to operate on this basis.

Although the county council was abolished, West Yorkshire continues to form a metropolitan and ceremonial county with a Lord Lieutenant of West Yorkshire and a High Sheriff.

Green belt

Further information: South and West Yorkshire Green Belt

West Yorkshire contains green belt interspersed throughout the county, surrounding the West Yorkshire Urban Area. It was first drawn up in the 1950s. All the county's districts contain large portions of green belt.


West Yorkshire has close ties with Lancashire in terms of history, local identity and infrastructure including with the War of the Roses and Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway.[17][18] Up until the 19th century, the town of Todmorden was in Lancashire but was moved into Yorkshire.[19] In the 1974 boundary review. The towns of Earby and Barnoldswick were moved into the Pendle district of Lancashire.[20] The civil parish of Saddleworth in Oldham was the only part of West Riding of Yorkshire to be moved into the county of Greater Manchester. The villages in the parish border the towns of Huddersfield and Holmfirth. There is a strong identity debate with Saddleworth residents who still maintain close connections with Yorkshire including the Saddleworth White Rose Society.[21]

Local legislation

West Yorkshire Act 1980
Act of Parliament
Long titleAn Act to re-enact with amendments and to extend certain local enactments in force within the metropolitan county of West Yorkshire; to confer further powers on the West Yorkshire Metropolitan County Council, the City of Bradford Metropolitan Council, the Borough Council of Calderdale, the Council of the Borough of Kirklees, the Leeds City Council and the Council of the City of Wakefield; to make further provision with regard to the environment, local government and improvement of the county; and for other purposes.
Citation1980 c. xiv
Royal assent1 May 1980
Other legislation
Amended by
Status: Amended
Text of statute as originally enacted

The West Yorkshire Act 1980 (c. xiv) was passed to amend existing local acts of Parliament in the West Yorkshire area, and to confer specific powers on West Yorkshire County Council, as well as the City of Bradford Metropolitan District Council, Calderdale Metropolitan Borough Council, Kirklees Council, Leeds City Council and Wakefield Council.


See also: List of settlements in West Yorkshire by population

Population density in the 2011 census in West Yorkshire.
The county's boroughs
District Area km2 Population Density
City of Bradford 366.42 523,100 1,346
Calderdale 363.92 200,100 545
Kirklees 408.61 401,000 975
City of Leeds 551.72 761,100 1,360
City of Wakefield 338.61 321,600 949
The county's settlements by metropolitan borough
Metropolitan borough Seat Other places
City of Bradford
Bradford City Hall, Bradford Addingham, Baildon, Bingley, Burley in Wharfedale, Cottingley, Crossflatts, Cross Roads, Cullingworth, Denholme, East and West Morton, Eccleshill, Eldwick, Esholt, Great Horton, Gilstead, Harden, Haworth, Ilkley, Keighley, Manningham, Menston, Oakworth, Oxenhope, Queensbury, Riddlesden, Saltaire, Sandy Lane, Shipley, Silsden, Stanbury, Steeton, Thornbury, Thornton, Tong, Undercliffe, Wibsey, Wilsden.
Halifax Town Hall, Halifax Bailiff Bridge, Boothtown, Brighouse, Copley, Cragg Vale, Elland, Greetland, Hebden Bridge, Heptonstall, Hipperholme, Holywell Green, Luddendenfoot, Mytholmroyd, Norwood Green, Rastrick, Ripponden, Rishworth, Shelf, Shibden, Sowerby Bridge, Todmorden
Huddersfield Town Hall, Huddersfield Almondbury, Batley, Birkby, Birkenshaw, Birstall, Cleckheaton, Dalton, Denby Dale, Dewsbury, Emley, Golcar, Gomersal, Hartshead, Hartshead Moor, Heckmondwike, Holmfirth, Honley, Kirkburton, Kirkheaton, Linthwaite, Liversedge, Marsden, Meltham, Mirfield, New Mill, Norristhorpe, Roberttown, Scammonden, Shelley, Shepley, Skelmanthorpe, Slaithwaite, Thornhill
City of Leeds
Leeds Civic Hall, Leeds Allerton Bywater, Beeston, Boston Spa, Collingham, Garforth, Guiseley, Harewood, Harehills, Headingley, Holbeck, Horsforth, Hyde Park, Gipton, Kippax, Kirkstall, Ledsham, Ledston, Methley, Middleton, Morley, New Farnley, Otley, Oulton, Pool-in-Wharfedale, Pudsey, Rothwell, Rawdon, Scarcroft, Scholes, Stourton, Swillington, Walton (Leeds), Wetherby, Yeadon, Woodhouse
City of Wakefield
West Riding County Hall, Wakefield Ackworth, Alverthorpe, Castleford, Crigglestone, Crofton, Durkar, Fairburn Ings, Featherstone, Ferrybridge, Fitzwilliam, Hemsworth, Horbury, Knottingley, Newmillerdam, Normanton, Nostell, Ossett, Outwood, Pontefract, Ryhill, Sandal, Sharlston, Stanley, Walton (Wakefield), West Bretton, Wrenthorpe
Ethnic Group Year
1971 estimations[22] 1981 estimations[23] 1991 census[24] 2001 census[25] 2011 census[26] 2021 census[27]
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
White: Total 96.6% 1,937,375 93.7% 1,911,618 91.7% 1,842,813 88.6% 1,819,818 81.8% 1,801,352 76.6%
White: British 1,798,413 86.5% 1,746,295 78.4% 1,693,845 72.0%
White: Irish 18,859 0.9% 14,910 0.7% 13,893 0.6%
White: Gypsy or Irish Traveller 1,660 0.1% 2,311 0.1%
White: Roma 3,982 0.2%
White: Other 25,541 1.2% 56,953 2.6% 87,321 3.7%
Asian or Asian British: Total 100,191 4.8% 136,824 6.6% 185,907 9% 291,547 13.1% 372,728 15.9%
Asian or Asian British: Indian 29,352 36,762 42,430 2.0% 53,152 2.4% 62,407 2.7%
Asian or Asian British: Pakistani 60,803 84,978 122,210 5.9% 189,708 8.5% 250,497 10.7%
Asian or Asian British: Bangladeshi 3,845 6,344 8,213 0.4% 15,632 0.7% 20,099 0.9%
Asian or Asian British: Chinese 2,912 3,969 5,734 0.3% 10,783 0.5% 12,516 0.5%
Asian or Asian British: Other Asian 3,279 4,771 7,320 0.4% 22,272 1.0% 27,209 1.2%
Black or Black British: Total 20,770 1% 25,135 1.2% 20,771 1% 46,476 2.1% 72,257 3.1%
Black or Black British: African 2,236 2,634 4,216 0.2% 24,685 1.1% 47,888 2.0%
Black or Black British: Caribbean 13,088 15,552 14,409 0.7% 15,581 0.7% 15,588 0.7%
Other Black 5,446 6,949 2,146 0.1% 6,210 0.3% 8,781 0.4%
Mixed or British Mixed: Total 25,081 1.2% 48,126 2.2% 64,947 2.8%
Mixed: White and Black Caribbean 11,263 0.5% 20,827 0.9% 23,573 1.0%
Mixed: White and Black African 1,842 0.1% 4,624 0.2% 7,756 0.3%
Mixed: White and Asian 8,049 0.4% 15,098 0.7% 21,014 0.9%
Mixed: Other Mixed 3,927 0.2% 7,577 0.3% 12,604 0.5%
Other: Total 8,363 10,923 4,639 0.2% 20,091 0.9% 40,295 1.7%
Other: Arab 9,212 0.4% 11,515 0.5%
Other: Any other ethnic group 4,639 0.2% 10,879 0.5% 28,780 1.2%
Non-White: Total 3.4% 129,326 6.3% 172,882 8.3% 236,398 11.4% 406,240 18.2% 550,227 23.4%
Total 100% 2,066,701 100% 2,084,500 100% 2,079,211 100% 2,226,058 100% 2,351,579 100%

West Yorkshire is ethnically diverse, hosting large populations of multiple ethnic minority groups. Most notably, the city of Bradford is well known for its large concentration of British Pakistanis, the highest by percentage in the country. Leeds and Kirklees also have large British Pakistani populations. Kirklees also hosts a large population of British Indians. West Yorkshire is home to a large Eastern European population, particularly British Poles. Ethnic minorities totalled to over 21% of West Yorkshire's population in 2011.[28]


See also: List of ceremonial counties in England by gross value added


Leeds has since attracted investment from financial institutions, to become a recognised financial centre, with many banks, building societies and insurance companies having offices in the city. Wakefield has also attracted many service-based industries, in particular call centres. Two of the big four supermarkets are from West Yorkshire. Morrisons is based in Bradford, while Asda is based in Leeds.

West Yorkshire grew up around several industries. Wakefield, Castleford, Pontefract and South and East Leeds were traditional coal mining areas.


Bradford, Halifax and Huddersfield grew through the development of woollen mills. Leeds' traditional industry was the manufacturing of cloth while heavier engineering industries facilitated growth in South Leeds.

The Heavy Woollen District covered towns such as Dewsbury, Batley, Morley, Ossett, Cleckheaton and Heckmondwike. The woollen and cloth industries declined throughout the twentieth century.


The Rhubarb Triangle is wholly in West Yorkshire and still produces the vegetable in considerable quantities.[29] Twelve farmers who farm within the Rhubarb Triangle applied to have the name "Yorkshire forced rhubarb" added to the list of foods and drinks that have their names legally protected by the European Commission's Protected Food Name scheme.[30] The application was successful and the farmers in the Rhubarb Triangle were awarded Protected Designation of Origin status (PDO) in February 2010. Food protected status accesses European funding to promote the product and legal backing against other products made outside the area using the name. Other protected names include Stilton cheese, Champagne and Parma Ham.


The last pit in West Yorkshire to close was Hay Royds Colliery at Denby Dale in 2012 after a flood.[31]

Film and television productions

Several films and television series have been filmed in West Yorkshire's historic areas, particularly around the town of Halifax.[32][33] For example, portions of the BBC television series Happy Valley were filmed in Huddersfield; in addition to exteriors, some of the studio filming was done at North Light Film Studios at Brookes Mill, Huddersfield. As well, interiors for the BBC's Jamaica Inn, for the BBC's Remember Me and for ITV series Black Work, were also filmed at the studios.[34][35][36][37] More recently, many of the exteriors of the BBC series Jericho were filmed at the nearby Rockingstone Quarry and some interior work was done at North Light Film Studios.[38]


Titus Salt's mill in Saltaire, Shipley is an UNESCO World Heritage Site

See also: § Places of interest

Urban tourism varies. National interest features include sporting stadia, museums, theatre and galleries. Royal Armouries is in Leeds, as is the Leeds Playhouse (formerly the West Yorkshire Playhouse), Opera North and The Grand Theatre. The First Direct Arena in Leeds seats around 15,000 people. Sheffield Arena is also popular, as is the Bradford Alhambra, St Georges Hall and the Media and Science Museum in Bradford. Leeds is the most popular shopping destination in West Yorkshire, probably Yorkshire and rivals Manchester having claim to Briggate, the Headrow, Trinity Leeds, Victoria Gate, the Victoria and Northern Quarters, the biggest indoor market in Europe and the White Rose Centre, as well as many 'first outside of London' labels such as Harvey Nichols and Victoria's Secret. Leeds is also a popular nightlife destination domestically, which is not surprising given its accessibility and central location. All cities are well connected via rail and road, Leeds railway station is an important hub seeing 29.7 million passengers 2015–16, making it the fourth busiest station in the UK after London stations, Birmingham New Street and Glasgow Central. It is the busiest in Northern England.

Signposted walks follow rivers and the escarpment of the Pennines, which is scaled in meandering stages and tunnels by the recreational Leeds-Liverpool Canal and Rochdale Canal, navigable by barge, canoe or kayak. Other tourism features include abbeys, castles, countryside walks, landscapes, picturesque villages, architecture, stately homes, tea rooms, real ale breweries, farmer's markets, restaurants and hiking in villages including Hebden Bridge, Ilkley with its scenic riversides, cherry blossoms and suspension bridge and equally in Wharfedale, Otley.


Leeds Bradford Airport

West Yorkshire lies in arguably the most strategic part of Yorkshire: the M62, M1 and the A1(M) pass through the county, as well as the internal urban motorways in Leeds and Bradford. West Yorkshire has two mainline railway stations, Leeds and Wakefield Westgate. Leeds railway station is the only Network Rail principal station in Yorkshire and North East England, and one of only three in the North of England along with Manchester Piccadilly and Liverpool Lime Street. Other important railway stations in West Yorkshire include Bradford Interchange, Bradford Forster Square, Huddersfield, Halifax, Dewsbury, Keighley and Shipley. West Yorkshire also has Yorkshire's largest airport, Leeds Bradford Airport.

Unlike South Yorkshire, West Yorkshire has no light transit system; the Leeds Supertram was proposed but was later cancelled after the withdrawal of government funding. Public transport is run under the authority of West Yorkshire Metro.

In October 2021, £830 million of funding was announced for the West Yorkshire Combined Authority to develop mass transit for the region.[39][40]

Additionally, the West Yorkshire Combined Authority won its bids for the Zero Emission Bus Regional Areas (ZEBRA) scheme and Bus Service Improvement Plan (BSIP) scheme, the successful ZEBRA funding will see the introduction of between 179 and 245 zero-emission electric buses with the necessary infrastructure whilst the BSIP plan will give the West Yorkshire Combined Authority £70 million out of a desired £168 million to implement the improvements outlined in the authority's BSIP.[41][42][43][44]


See also: Sport in Leeds, Rugby league in Yorkshire, and West Yorkshire derbies

Headingley Cricket Ground in 2021

Major football clubs in West Yorkshire include Leeds United, Huddersfield Town, and Bradford City.

Rugby league is also big in West Yorkshire. The teams who are, or have been, in the Super League are Bradford Bulls, Castleford Tigers, Halifax Panthers, Huddersfield Giants, Leeds Rhinos, and Wakefield Trinity. Other rugby league clubs in West Yorkshire include Batley Bulldogs, Dewsbury Rams, Featherstone Rovers, Hunslet Hawks and Keighley Cougars. Any combination of these teams playing against each other would be called a West Yorkshire derby even if the rivalry is not as great as other rivalries between teams in the area. The main rugby union club in the county is Yorkshire Carnegie.

Elland Road is the largest stadium in the area, hosting Leeds United. The Headingley Stadium, a stadium complex also in Leeds, consists of a cricket and a rugby ground. The cricket ground is home of the Yorkshire County Cricket Club and the rugby ground is home to Leeds Rhinos. In Huddersfield, the John Smith's Stadium is home to Huddersfield Town and Huddersfield Giants. In Bradford, Valley Parade is the home of Bradford City, whereas the Odsal Stadium is the home of the Bradford Bulls. Other stadiums include Wheldon Road (Castleford), The Shay (Halifax), Belle Vue (Wakefield), Mount Pleasant (Batley), Crown Flatt (Dewsbury), Post Office Road (Featherstone), John Charles Centre for Sport (Hunslet) and Cougar Park (Keighley).

There are two racecourses in West Yorkshire: Pontefract and Wetherby.

West Yorkshire also used to host regular speedway meetings, having the Halifax Dukes and the Bradford Dukes teams. Odsal Stadium used to host BriSCA stock cars. Leeds has a hill climb event at Harewood speed Hillclimb.

Places of interest

Historic environment

See also: List of Museums in West Yorkshire, List of historic houses in West Yorkshire, and List of castles in West Yorkshire

Accessible open space Accessible open space
Amusement/Theme Park
Country Park Country Park
English Heritage
Forestry Commission
Heritage railway Heritage railway
Historic house Historic House
Places of Worship Places of Worship
Museum (free)
Museum (free/not free)
National Trust National Trust


Natural environment


See also


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