All About Eve
Theatrical release poster
Directed byJoseph L. Mankiewicz
Screenplay byJoseph L. Mankiewicz
Based on"The Wisdom of Eve"
by Mary Orr
Produced byDarryl F. Zanuck
Starring
CinematographyMilton R. Krasner
Edited byBarbara McLean
Music byAlfred Newman
Production
company
Distributed by20th Century-Fox
Release date
  • October 13, 1950 (1950-10-13) (New York City)[1]
Running time
138 minutes[2]
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$1.4 million[3][4]
Box office$8.4 million[5]

All About Eve is a 1950 American drama film written and directed by Joseph L. Mankiewicz, and produced by Darryl F. Zanuck. It is based on the 1946 short story (and subsequent 1949 radio drama) "The Wisdom of Eve" by Mary Orr, although Orr does not receive a screen credit.

The film stars Bette Davis as Margo Channing, a highly regarded but aging Broadway star, and Anne Baxter as Eve Harrington, an ambitious young fan who maneuvers herself into Channing's life, ultimately threatening Channing's career and her personal relationships. The film co-stars George Sanders, Celeste Holm, Gary Merrill, and Hugh Marlowe, and features Thelma Ritter, Marilyn Monroe in one of her earliest roles, Gregory Ratoff, Barbara Bates and Walter Hampden.

All About Eve held its world premiere in New York City on October 13, 1950.[1] Praised by critics at the time of its release, it received a record 14 nominations[notes 1] at the 23rd Academy Awards, becoming the only film in Oscar history to receive four female acting nominations (Davis and Baxter as Best Actress, Holm and Ritter as Best Supporting Actress). It went on to win six awards, including Best Picture, as well as Best Director and Best Adapted Screenplay, Mankiewicz's second consecutive wins in both categories. Widely considered as among the greatest films of all time, in 1990, it became one of 25 films selected for preservation in the United States Library of Congress's National Film Registry, deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".[6] The film was ranked No. 16 on AFI's 1998 list of the 100 best American films.[7][8]

Plot

Bette Davis as Margo Channing
Anne Baxter as Eve Harrington

Broadway star Margo Channing recently turned 40 and worries about what advancing age will mean for her career. After a performance of Margo's latest play, Margo's close friend, Karen Richards, wife of the play's author Lloyd Richards, brings besotted fan Eve Harrington backstage to meet Margo. In Margo's dressing room, Eve tells Karen, Lloyd, and Margo's maid Birdie, that she followed Margo's last theatrical tour to New York City after seeing her perform in San Francisco. She tells an engrossing story of growing up poor in Wisconsin and losing her young husband, Eddie in the South Pacific during World War II. Margo, moved by Eve's story, takes her into her home as her assistant, upsetting Birdie.

Eve quickly manipulates her way into Margo's life, acting as both secretary and adoring fan. She places a long-distance phone call to Margo's boyfriend Bill Sampson when Margo forgets his birthday. Margo grows increasingly distrustful and bitter toward Eve, particularly after catching Eve taking a bow to an empty theater while pretending to wear Margo's costume. Margo asks producer Max Fabian to hire Eve at his office, but instead, Eve becomes Margo's understudy without Margo's knowledge.

The film's trailer

As Margo's irritation grows, Karen sympathizes with Eve. Hoping to humble Margo, Karen conspires for her to miss a performance so that Eve can perform. Eve invites the city's theater critics to attend the performance – including the acerbic Addison DeWitt. Eve's performance is a triumph. Later that night, Bill rejects Eve's attempts to seduce him. Instead, Addison takes an interest in Eve. He interviews her for a column, harshly criticizing Margo for resisting younger talent.

Margo and Bill announce their engagement at dinner with Lloyd and Karen. Eve summons Karen to the ladies' room and, after first appearing regretful, delivers an ultimatum: Karen must recommend her to Lloyd to play Cora, the lead role in Lloyd's new play. Otherwise, she will reveal Karen's part in Margo's missed performance. When Karen returns to the table, Margo surprisingly announces that she does not wish to play Cora, saying she is too old for the role.

Eve is cast as Cora. Just before the new play's premiere in New Haven, Eve reveals her next plan to Addison: to marry Lloyd, who she claims loves her, so that he can write plays for her to star in. Angered with Eve's audacity, Addison says he knows her backstory is entirely lies; her real name is Gertrude Slescynski, she was never married, and she was paid to leave town over an affair with her married boss. He also says Lloyd would never leave Karen for Eve. Addison then blackmails Eve, saying she now "belongs" to him.

Months later, Eve is a Broadway star headed for Hollywood. While accepting an award at a banquet, she thanks Margo, Bill, Lloyd, and Karen as all four coldly stare back. Eve skips the after-party and returns home where she encounters Phoebe, a teenage fan who slipped into her apartment and fell asleep. Phoebe professes her adoration and tries ingratiating herself with Eve, then begins packing her trunk. Eve invites her to stay over rather than take the long subway ride back to Brooklyn. While Eve is resting, Addison brings Eve's award to the door and is greeted by Phoebe, who admits she chose her own name. Addison realizes Phoebe will do to Eve what Eve did to Margo. When she is alone, Phoebe puts on Eve's elegant cloak and poses in front of a floor-length mirror, holding the award and bowing.

Cast

A young and unknown Marilyn Monroe as Miss Casswell in a scene with Anne Baxter, Bette Davis and George Sanders

Production

Joseph L. Mankiewicz in 1950

Development

The story of All About Eve originated in an anecdote related to Mary Orr by actress Elisabeth Bergner. While performing in The Two Mrs. Carrolls during 1943 and 1944, Bergner allowed a young fan to become part of her household and employed her as an assistant, but later regretted her generosity when the woman attempted to undermine her. Referring to her only as "the terrible girl", Bergner related the events to Orr, who used it as the basis for her short story "The Wisdom of Eve" (1946). In the story, Orr gives the girl an even more ruthless character and allows her to succeed in stealing the older actress's career and the husband of the unnamed female narrator. Bergner later confirmed the basis of the story in her autobiography Bewundert viel, und viel gescholten (Greatly Admired and Greatly Scolded).

In 1949, Joseph Mankiewicz was considering a story about an aging actress and, upon reading "The Wisdom of Eve," felt that the conniving girl would be a useful element. He sent a memo to Darryl F. Zanuck saying it "fits in with an original idea [of mine] and can be combined. Superb starring role for Susan Hayward." Mankiewicz presented a film treatment of the combined stories under the title Best Performance. He changed the main character's name from Margola Cranston to Margo Channing and retained several of Orr's characters – Eve Harrington, Lloyd and Karen Richards and Miss Casswell – while removing Margo's husband completely and replacing him with a new character, Bill Sampson. The intention was to depict Margo in a new relationship and allow Eve to threaten Margo's professional and personal lives. Mankiewicz also added the characters Addison DeWitt, Birdie Coonan, Max Fabian and Phoebe.

Zanuck was enthusiastic and provided numerous suggestions for improving the screenplay. In some sections, he felt that Mankiewicz's writing lacked subtlety or provided excessive detail. He suggested diluting Birdie Coonan's mistrust of Eve so the audience would not recognize Eve as a villainess until much later in the story. Zanuck reduced the screenplay by about 50 pages and chose the title All About Eve from the opening scene in which Addison DeWitt says that he will soon tell "more of Eve ... All about Eve, in fact."[10]

The principal cast of All About Eve. (Left to right) Gary Merrill, Bette Davis, George Sanders, Anne Baxter, Hugh Marlowe and Celeste Holm

Casting

Among the actresses originally considered to play Margo Channing were Mankiewicz's original inspiration Susan Hayward, who was rejected by Zanuck as "too young", Marlene Dietrich, dismissed as "too German" and Gertrude Lawrence, who was ruled out when her lawyer insisted that she not have to drink or smoke in the film and that the script would be rewritten to allow her to sing a torch song.[11] Zanuck favored Barbara Stanwyck, but she was not available. Tallulah Bankhead was considered, as was Joan Crawford, who was working on the film The Damned Don't Cry.[12]

The role went to Claudette Colbert, but she withdrew after an injury shortly before filming began. Mankiewicz briefly considered Ingrid Bergman before offering the role to Bette Davis.[11] Davis, who had recently ended an 18-year association with Warner Bros. after several poorly received films, accepted the role, saying later that the script was among the best that she had ever read. Margo had been originally conceived as genteel and knowingly humorous, but with the casting of Davis, Mankiewicz revised the character to introduce abrasive qualities. Mankiewicz praised Davis for her professionalism and for the caliber of her performance.

Anne Baxter had spent a decade in supporting roles and had won the 1946 Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for The Razor's Edge. She won the role of Eve after Jeanne Crain, the first choice, became pregnant. Crain was at the height of her popularity and had established a career playing likable heroines; Zanuck believed that she lacked the "bitch virtuosity" required by the part and that audiences would not accept her as a deceitful character.

Mankiewicz greatly admired Thelma Ritter and wrote the character of Birdie Coonan for her after working with her on A Letter to Three Wives in 1949. As Coonan is the only character immediately suspicious of Eve Harrington, Mankiewicz was confident that Ritter would contribute a shrewd characterization that cast doubt on Eve and provided a counterpoint to the more theatrical personalities of the other characters. Marilyn Monroe, relatively unknown at the time, was cast as Miss Casswell, referred to by DeWitt as a "graduate of the Copacabana School of Dramatic Art."

Monroe won the part after a lobbying campaign by her agent,[13] despite Zanuck's initial antipathy and belief that she was better suited to comedy.[citation needed][13] The inexperienced Monroe was cowed by Davis, and it took 11 takes to complete the scene in the theater lobby; when Davis barked at her, Monroe left the set to vomit.[13] Smaller roles were filled by Gregory Ratoff as the producer Max Fabian, Barbara Bates as Phoebe and Walter Hampden as the host of the award ceremony.[10] Hampden was the president of the prestigious Players Club in New York, a club for actors that gives a lifetime achievement award.

Reception

Bette Davis and Gary Merrill

Box office

The film earned $3.1 million in receipts in the United States during its release,[14] more than double its original budget of $1.4 million.[3][4] To date the film has a cumulative gross of $8.4 million,[5] more than five times its production costs.

Critical response

All About Eve received overwhelmingly positive reviews from critics upon its release on October 13, 1950, at a New York City premiere. The film's competitor, Sunset Boulevard, released the same year, drew similar praise, and the two were often favorably compared. Film critic Bosley Crowther of The New York Times loved the picture, stating that "a fine Darryl Zanuck production, excellent music and an air of ultra-class complete this superior satire."[15] Variety called it "a literate, adult film" with "exceedingly well-cast performances,"[16] while Harrison's Reports called it "a fascinating, continually absorbing story about Broadway theatrical people, given a mature treatment and penetrated with realistic dialogue and flashes of slick, sardonic humor."[17] John McCarten of The New Yorker called it "a thoroughly entertaining movie."[18]

Writing in 2000, film critic Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun Times praised the film, saying of Bette Davis that "veteran actress Margo Channing in All About Eve was her greatest role."[19] Boxoffice.com stated that it "is a classic of the American cinema – to this day the quintessential depiction of ruthless ambition in the entertainment industry, with legendary performances from Bette Davis, Anne Baxter and George Sanders anchoring one of the very best films from one of Hollywood's very best Golden Era filmmakers: Joseph L. Mankiewicz."[20]

As of 2021 review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, All About Eve holds an approval rating of 99% based on 107 reviews, with an average rating of 9.30/10. The site's critics consensus reads: "Smart, sophisticated, and devastatingly funny, All About Eve is a Hollywood classic that only improves with age."[21] In 2019 Metacritic assigned a weighted average score of 98 out of 100, based on 15 critics, indicating "universal acclaim".[22]

Thematic content

Critics and academics have delineated various themes in the film. Rebecca Flint Marx, in her Allmovie review, notes the antagonism (active hostility or opposition) that existed between Broadway and Hollywood at the time, stating that the "script summoned into existence a whole array of painfully recognizable theatre types, from the aging, egomaniacal grand dame to the outwardly docile, inwardly scheming ingenue to the powerful critic who reeks of malignant charm."[23] Abel Green, writing in Variety said, "The snide references to picture people, the plug for San Francisco ("an oasis of civilization in the California desert") and the like are purposeful and manifest an intelligent reflex from a group of hyper-talented people towards the picture business."[16]

Roger Ebert, in his review in The Great Movies, says Eve Harrington is "a universal type", and focuses on the aging actress plot line, comparing the film to Sunset Boulevard.[24] Similarly, Marc Lee's 2006 review of the film for The Daily Telegraph describes a subtext "into the darker corners of show business, exposing its inherent ageism, especially when it comes to female stars."[25] Kathleen Woodward's 1999 book, Figuring Age: Women, Bodies, Generations (Theories of Contemporary Culture), also discusses themes that appeared in many of the "aging actress" films of the 1950s and 1960s, including All About Eve. She reasons that Margo has three options: "To continue to work, she can perform the role of a young woman, one she no longer seems that interested in. She can take up the position of the angry bitch, the drama queen who holds court (the deliberate camp that Susan Sontag finds in this film). Or she can accept her culture's gendered discourse of aging which figures her as in her moment of fading. Margo ultimately chooses the latter option, accepting her position as one of loss."[26]

Gary Merrill as Bill Sampson
George Sanders as Addison DeWitt

All About Eve has long been a favored film among gay audiences, likely due to its campy overtones (in part due to the casting of Davis) and its general sophistication. Davis, who long had a strong gay fan base, expressed support for gay men in her 1972 interview with The Advocate.[27][28][29]

Awards and honors

Award Category Nominee(s) Result
Academy Awards[30] Best Motion Picture Darryl F. Zanuck (for 20th Century-Fox) Won
Best Director Joseph L. Mankiewicz Won
Best Actress Anne Baxter Nominated
Bette Davis Nominated
Best Supporting Actor George Sanders Won
Best Supporting Actress Celeste Holm Nominated
Thelma Ritter Nominated
Best Screenplay Joseph L. Mankiewicz Won
Best Art Direction-Set Decoration – Black-and-White Art Direction: Lyle R. Wheeler and George Davis;
Set Decoration: Thomas Little and Walter M. Scott
Nominated
Best Cinematography – Black-and-White Milton R. Krasner Nominated
Best Costume Design – Black and White Edith Head and Charles LeMaire Won
Best Film Editing Barbara McLean Nominated
Best Scoring of a Dramatic or Comedy Picture Alfred Newman Nominated
Best Sound Recording Thomas T. Moulton Won
Bodil Awards Best American Film Joseph L. Mankiewicz Won
British Academy Film Awards Best Film from any Source Won
Cahiers du Cinéma Best Film Joseph L. Mankiewicz 5th Place
Cannes Film Festival Grand Prix Nominated
Special Jury Prize Won
Best Actress Bette Davis Won
Directors Guild of America Awards Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Motion Pictures Joseph L. Mankiewicz Won
Dorian Awards Timeless Award Won
Golden Globe Awards Best Motion Picture – Drama Nominated
Best Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama Bette Davis Nominated
Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture George Sanders Nominated
Best Supporting Actress – Motion Picture Thelma Ritter Nominated
Best Director – Motion Picture Joseph L. Mankiewicz Nominated
Best Screenplay – Motion Picture Won
Kinema Junpo Awards Best Foreign Language Film Won
Nastro d'Argento Best Foreign Actress Bette Davis Won
National Board of Review Awards Top Ten Films Won
National Film Preservation Board National Film Registry Inducted
New York Film Critics Circle Awards Best Film Won
Best Director Joseph L. Mankiewicz Won
Best Actress Bette Davis Won
Online Film & Television Association Awards Hall of Fame – Motion Picture Inducted
Picturegoer Awards Best Actress Anne Baxter Nominated
Bette Davis Nominated
Producers Guild of America Awards PGA Hall of Fame – Motion Pictures Won
Writers Guild of America Awards Best Written American Comedy Joseph L. Mankiewicz Won
Best Written American Drama Nominated

Later recognition and rankings

In 1990, All About Eve was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant."[6] The Academy Film Archive preserved All About Eve in 2000.[31] The film received in 1997 a placement on the Producers Guild of America Hall of Fame. The film has been selected by the American Film Institute for many of their 100 Years lists.

Year Category Nominee Rank
1998 AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies All About Eve 16
2003 AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes and Villains Eve Harrington (Villain) 23
2005 AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes "Fasten your seatbelts. It's going to be a bumpy night." 9
2007 AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition) All About Eve 28

When AFI named Bette Davis #2 on its list of the greatest female American screen legends, All About Eve was the film selected to highlight Davis' legendary career. The Writers Guild of America has ranked the film's screenplay as the fifth greatest ever written.[32]

Sarah Siddons Award

The film opens with the image of a fictitious award trophy, described by DeWitt as the "highest honor our theater knows: the Sarah Siddons Award for Distinguished Achievement." The statuette is modeled after the famous painting of Siddons costumed as the tragic Muse by Joshua Reynolds, a copy of which hangs in the entrance of Margo's apartment and often visible during the party scene. In 1952, a small group of distinguished Chicago theater-goers began to give an award with that name, which was sculpted to look like the one used in the film. It has been given annually, with past honorees including Bette Davis and Celeste Holm.

Adaptations

The first radio adaptation was a one-hour broadcast on Lux Radio Theatre on CBS Radio on October 1, 1951, with Bette Davis, Gary Merrill and Anne Baxter reprising their original roles.[33] Lux Radio Theatre did a follow-up adaptation on November 23, 1954, this time on NBC radio with Ann Blyth and Claire Trevor playing the lead roles, with Trevor replacing Ida Lupino when she became ill and was unable to attend the broadcast.[34]

A radio version of All About Eve starring Tallulah Bankhead as Margo Channing was presented on NBC's The Big Show by the Theatre Guild of the Air on November 16, 1952. Bankhead and many contemporary critics felt that the characterization of Margo Channing was patterned on her, a long-rumored charge denied by both Mankiewicz and Davis,[35] but attested by costume designer Edith Head.[10] Additionally, Bankhead's rivalry with her understudy (Lizabeth Scott) during the production of The Skin of Our Teeth[36] is cited as an alternative hypothesis for the origin of Mary Orr's The Wisdom of Eve, the original short story that formed the basis for the film.[37][38] Bette Davis played three roles on film that Tallulah Bankhead had originated – Dark Victory, Jezebel and The Little Foxes, much to Bankhead's chagrin. Bankhead and Davis were considered to be somewhat similar in style.[39] Several decades later Davis called Channing "the essence of a Tallulah Bankhead kind of actress" in an interview with Barbara Walters.[40] The production is notable in that Mary Orr, of The Wisdom of Eve, played the role of Karen Richards. The cast also featured Alan Hewitt as Addison DeWitt (who narrated), Beatrice Pearson as Eve Harrington, Don Briggs as Lloyd Richards, Kevin McCarthy as Bill Samson, Florence Robinson as Birdie Coonan, and Stefan Schnabel as Max Fabian.[39]

In 1970, All About Eve was the inspiration for the stage musical Applause, with book by Betty Comden and Adolph Green, lyrics by Lee Adams, and music by Charles Strouse. The original production starred Lauren Bacall as Margo Channing, and it won the Tony Award for Best Musical that season. It ran for four previews and 896 performances at the Palace Theatre on Broadway. After Bacall left the production, she was replaced by Anne Baxter in the role of Margo Channing.

In 2019, a stage adaptation of All About Eve premiered at the Noël Coward Theatre in London, directed by Ivo van Hove and starring Gillian Anderson as Margo Channing, Julian Ovenden as Bill, and Lily James as Eve Harrington.[41]

In popular culture

References

Notes

  1. ^ This feat was only matched by the 1997 film Titanic and the 2016 film La La Land.

Citations

  1. ^ a b All About Eve at the American Film Institute Catalog
  2. ^ "All About Eve (A)". British Board of Film Classification. October 2, 1950. Retrieved December 6, 2014.
  3. ^ a b Solomon, Aubrey (1988). Twentieth Century Fox: A Corporate and Financial History. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. p. 245. ISBN 978-0810842441., OCLC 856785920.
  4. ^ a b Behlmer, Rudy (1990). Behind the Scenes: The Making Of... Samuel French. p. 208. ISBN 978-0573606007.
  5. ^ a b Box Office Information for All About Eve. The Numbers. Retrieved November 11, 2012.
  6. ^ a b "National Film Registry" Archived March 28, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Library of Congress. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
  7. ^ "America's Greatest Movies". AFI. Retrieved August 8, 2009.
  8. ^ Gamarekian, Barbara (October 19, 1990). "Library of Congress Adds 25 Titles to National Film Registry". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 14, 2020.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i Tinée, Mae (November 3, 1950). "Scintillating, Sharp - That's 'All About Eve'". Chicago Tribune. Chicago, Illinois. p. 39 – via Newspapers.com.
  10. ^ a b c Staggs, Sam (2001). All About "All About Eve". St Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0312273156, OCLC 47637783
  11. ^ a b "All About Eve: Notes". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
  12. ^ "Cast-aphrocies". Legendary Joan Crawford. Archived from the original on September 5, 2016. Retrieved April 20, 2016.
  13. ^ a b c Miller, Frank. "All About Eve". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
  14. ^ "Top 20 Films of 1950 by Domestic Revenue". Box Office Report. Archived from the original on June 15, 2008.
  15. ^ Crowther, Bosley (October 14, 1950). "Movie Review – All About Eve". The New York Times.
  16. ^ a b Green, Abel (September 13, 1950). "All About Eve". Variety: 6.
  17. ^ "'All About Eve' with Bette Davis, Anne Baxter and Celeste Holm". Harrison's Reports: 146. September 16, 1950.
  18. ^ McCarten, John (October 21, 1950). "The Current Screen Holm". The New Yorker. p. 128.
  19. ^ Ebert, Roger. "All About Eve (1950)". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on July 9, 2007.
  20. ^ Boxoffice.com[permanent dead link]
  21. ^ "All About Eve (1950)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved February 12, 2021.
  22. ^ "All About Eve Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved April 27, 2019.
  23. ^ Marx, Rebecca Flint. All About Eve review on AllMovie. Retrieved August 8, 2009.
  24. ^ Ebert, Roger. "All About Eve (1950)" Archived July 9, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, "Great Movies by Roger Ebert" on RogerEbert.com, November 6, 2000.
  25. ^ Lee, Marc (July 7, 2006). "Must-have movies: All About Eve (1950)". The Daily Telegraph. (London). Retrieved August 8, 2009.
  26. ^ Woodward, Kathleen M., ed. (1999). Figuring Age: Women, Bodies, Generations. Indiana University Press. pp. 242–243. ISBN 978-0-2532-1236-8.
  27. ^ Burston, Paul (November 22, 2007). "She's better, she's Bette". The Times (London).
  28. ^ Cleto, Fabio (1999). Camp: Queer Aesthetics and the Performing Subject. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-1171-3, OCLC 928236270
  29. ^ Sikov, Ed (September 30, 2008). Dark Victory: The Life of Bette Davis. New York: Macmillan. p. 406. ISBN 978-0-8050-8863-2.
  30. ^ "The 23rd Academy Awards (1951) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved August 10, 2014.
  31. ^ "Preserved Projects". Academy Film Archive.
  32. ^ "101 Greatest Screenplays". Writers Guild of America, West. Retrieved December 23, 2016.
  33. ^ "Generic Radio Workshop OTR Script: Lux Radio Theater". genericradio.com. Retrieved April 20, 2016.
  34. ^ "Radio Highlights". Toledo Blade. November 23, 1954. p. 4 (Peach Section). Retrieved May 16, 2021.
  35. ^ "All About Eve: Trivia". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved April 20, 2016.
  36. ^ Mary Orr, "The Wisdom of Eve," Cosmopolitan, May 1946, pp. 72–75, 191–95
  37. ^ Kirle, Bruce (October 24, 2005). Unfinished Show Business: Broadway Musicals as Works-in-process (1st ed.). Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. pp. 191–194. ISBN 978-0-8093-2667-9.
  38. ^ Kilgallen, Dorothy (June 24, 1943). "The Voice Of Broadway: The $64 Questions". Olean Times Herald. p. 13. Retrieved April 24, 2022.
  39. ^ a b Source: liner notes, All About Eve, Moving Finger LP MF002
  40. ^ Bette Davis Interview by Barbara Walters Pt1. June 1, 2008. Archived from the original on December 11, 2021. Retrieved April 20, 2016 – via YouTube.
  41. ^ "All About Eve in London to star Gillian Anderson and Lily James: details confirmed". LondonTheatre.co.uk. September 21, 2018. Retrieved February 12, 2019.
  42. ^ "A New Sue Ann" Starpulse.com[dead link]
  43. ^ Castro, Daniel (April 27, 2004). "Autor assume influência em 'Celebridade'" [Author admits Celebridade's influence]. Folha de S. Paulo (in Portuguese). Retrieved October 1, 2023.
  44. ^ Strong, Martin C. "All About Eve biography". The Great Rock Bible. Archived from the original on July 25, 2015. Retrieved July 24, 2015.
  45. ^ IMDB review by John Roman Baker.
  46. ^ "The Simpsons on Fox". TV Guide. Retrieved April 18, 2009.
  47. ^ De Vito, John; Tropea, Frank (2007). The Immortal Marilyn. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-8108-5866-4. OCLC 70061082. Retrieved March 6, 2015.
  48. ^ "Quantum Leap Season 5 Episode 18 Goodbye Norma Jean". TV Guide. Archived from the original on March 17, 2015. Retrieved March 6, 2015.

Further reading

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