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Asaf Jahi Dynasty
Nizams of Hyderabad
Coat of Arms of the Nizam of Hyderabad
Azmet Jah, current head of Asaf Jahi family and IX titular Nizam of Hyderabad
Founded31 July 1724
FounderAsaf Jah I
Final rulerOsman Ali Khan
TitlesNizam-ul-Mulk
Nawab
Style(s)His Exalted Highness
Estate(s)Chowmahalla Palace
Deposition17 September 1948

The Asaf Jahi was a Muslim dynasty that ruled the Hyderabad State.[1] The family came to India in the late 17th century and became employees of the Mughal Empire. They were great patrons of Persian culture, language, and literature, and the family found ready patronage.

The dynasty was founded by Mir Qamar-ud-Din Siddiqi, a Viceroy of the Deccan—(administrator of six Mughal governorates) under the Mughal emperors from 1713 to 1721. He intermittently ruled after Aurangzeb's death in 1707 and under the title Asaf Jah in 1724. The Mughal Empire crumbled and the Viceroy of the Deccan, Asaf Jah I, declared himself independent, whose domain extended from the Narmada river in the North to Trichinopoly in the South and Masulipatnam in the east to Bijapur in the west.[2]

History

Nawab Khwaja Abid Siddiqi, the grandfather of the first Nizam, was born in Aliabad near Samarkand in the kingdom of Bukhara in modern-day Uzbekistan. His father, Alam Shaik, was a well-known Sufi and celebrated man of letters. Khwaja Abid's mother was from the family of Mir Hamdan, a distinguished Syed of Samarkhand. The first Nizam's mother was the daughter of Sadullah Khan, the Grand vizier (1645-1656) of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan.[3]

After succeeding in the war of succession, Aurangzeb made him the Governor of Ajmer and subsequently of Multan with the title of Qalich Khan. He served the Emperor with distinction particularly during the early years of Aurangzeb's reign while he was consolidating and restoring peace in his newly acquired territory.[4]

Asaf Jah's father Ghazi ud-Din Khan Feroze Jung I was a military general under Aurangzeb. Under the command of Feroze Jung, Hyderabad was sieged and later occupied by the Mughals.[5]

Asaf Jah I

Main article: Asaf Jah I

Qamaruddin Khan, Asaf Jah I

The founder of this dynasty was Mir Qamaruddin Khan, a noble and a courtier of the Mughal Muhammad Shah, who negotiated a peace treaty with Nadirshah got disgusted with the intrigues that prevailed in Delhi. He was on his way back to the Deccan, where, earlier he was a Subedar. But he had to confront Mubariz Khan, as a result of a plot by the Mughal emperor to kill the former. Mubariz Khan failed in his attempt and he was himself slain. This one took place in AD 1724, and henceforth Mir Qamaruddin, who assumed the title of Nizam-ul-Mulk, conducted himself as an independent ruler. Earlier, while he was one of the Ministers of the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah, the latter conferred on him the title of Asaf Jah. Thus begins the Asaf Jahi rule over Golconda with the capital at Aurangabad.[6]

Asaf Jah II

Main article: Asaf Jah II

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The fourth son of the Nizam-ul-Mulk, Nizam Ali Khan was born on 24 February 1734. He assumed the Subedari of the Deccan at the age of 28 years and ruled the Deccan for almost 42 years - the longest period among the Nizams.[7] His reign was one of the most important chapters in the history of the Asaf Jahi dynasty. Among his efforts to consolidate the Nizam empire was the shift of the Deccan capital from Aurangabad to Hyderabad. He ruled the Deccan at a most critical period and got very successful support from the House of Paigah.[8] He protected the Deccan from the attack of the Marathas and Tippu Sultan of Mysore by signing a mutual protection treaty with the British.

After a reign that played a pivotal role in the establishment of the Nizam dynasty, Nizam Ali Khan Siddiqi died in 1803 at the age of 69. He was buried at the Mecca Masjid[citation needed] alongside the tomb of his mother Umda Begum.

Asaf Jah III

Main article: Asaf Jah III

Mir Akbar Ali Khan Siddiqi Sikander Jah, Asaf Jah III was born on 11 November 1768. After the death of Nizam Ali Khan, he became the Subedar Jah was ratified by the emperor Shah Alam II and also conferred all his father's titles on Sikander Jah.[9]

Asaf Jah IV

Main article: Asaf Jah IV

Mir Farkhunda Ali Khan Siddiqi Nusir-ud-Dawlah was born in Bidar on 25 April 1794. He was the eldest son of Sikander Jah and after his father's death, he succeeded him on 23 May 1829.[10][11]

Asaf Jah V

Main article: Asaf Jah V

Mir Tahniath Ali Khan Siddiqi Afzal-ud-daula was born on 11 October 1827. He was the eldest son of Nawab Nasir-ud-daula. He ascended the throne on 18 May 1857 and Indian mutiny was started on 17 July 1857 Rohillas attacked the residency but Sir Salar Jung put down the attack with a firm hand. Similarly, trouble started in Solapur but the Maharaja of Solapur was unable to control it.[citation needed]

Asaf Jah VI

Main article: Asaf Jah VI

Mir Mahboob Ali Khan was born on 17 August 1866. He was the only son of Nawab Afzal-ud-Daula Asaf Jah V. When his father died he was two years and seven months old. He was installed as the Munsab by Sir Salar Jung I, Nawab Rasheeduddin Khan, Shams ul Ummra and the residents, there functioned as the Reyab. Shar-ul-Ummul died on 12 December 1881 and Salar Jung became the sole regent. He was remembered as administrator and regent till his death.[12][13] after the death of Sir Salar Jung I Sir Viqar-ul-Umra became the next Regent and guardian of Mahboob Ali Khan and served as Prime Minister of Hyderabad[14]

He is popularly known for his efforts to abolish the practice of Sati[15] and for having supernatural healing powers against Snakebite.[16]

Asaf Jah VII

Main article: Asaf Jah VII

Mir Osman Ali Khan was born in Hyderabad on 5 April 1886 at Purani Haveli. Since he was the heir-apparent, great attention was paid to his education, and eminent scholars were engaged to teach him English, Urdu, Persian. On 14 April 1906, he married Dulhan Pasha Begum, daughter of Nawab Jahangir Jung, at Eden Bagh, at the age of 21.[17]

He is credited for various reforms in education and development and remembered for being a truly secular[18] King by giving yearly donations to various temples.[19] He made large donations to educational institutions in India and abroad. He donated Rs 10 Lakh to the Banaras Hindu University[20] and Rs 5 Lakh to the Aligarh Muslim University.[21]

He set up the Osmania University,[22] Osmania General Hospital, Osmania Medical College, State Bank of Hyderabad, South India's first airport -the Begumpet Airport, Nizamia Observatory, Government Nizamia General Hospital, etc.[23]

The Nizam was reported to have fathered 34 children including 16 sons and 18 daughters[24][25][26][27][28][29]

Others

Descendants of Asaf Jah VII

Asaf Jahi rulers of Hyderabad

Image Titular Name Personal Name Date of birth Nizam From Nizam Until Date of death
Nizam-ul-Mulk, Asaf Jah I
نظام‌الملک آصف جاہ
Mir Qamar-ud-din Khan
20 August 1671 31 July 1724 1 June 1748
Nasir Jung
نصیرجنگ
Mir Ahmed Ali Khan 26 February 1712 1 June 1748 16 December 1750
Muzaffar Jung
مظفرجنگ
Mir Hidayat Muhi-ud-din Sa'adullah Khan ? 16 December 1750 13 February 1751
Salabat Jung
صلابت جنگ
Mir Sa'id Muhammad Khan 24 November 1718 13 February 1751 8 July 1762
(deposed)
16 September 1763
Nizam-ul-Mulk, Asaf Jah II
نظام‌الملک آصف جاہ دوم
Mir Nizam Ali Khan 7 March 1734 8 July 1762 6 August 1803
Sikander Jah, Asaf Jah III
سکندر جاہ ،آصف جاہ سوئم
Mir Akbar Ali Khan 11 November 1768 6 August 1803 21 May 1829
Nasir-ud-Daula, Asaf Jah IV
ناصر الدولہ ،آصف جاہ چہارم
Mir Farqunda Ali Khan 25 April 1794 21 May 1829 16 May 1857
Afzal-ud-Daula, Asaf Jah V
افضال الدولہ ،آصف جاہ پنجم
Mir Tahniyath Ali Khan 11 October 1827 16 May 1857 26 February 1869
Asaf Jah VI
آصف جاہ شیشم
Mir Mahbub Ali Khan
میر محبوب علی خان
17 August 1866 26 February 1869 29 August 1911
Asaf Jah VII
آصف جاہ ہفتم
Mir Osman Ali Khan
میر عثمان علی خان
6 April 1886 29 August 1911 17 September 1948
(deposed)
24 February 1967

Nasir Jung, Muzaffar Jung and Salabat Jung:- * These three rulers are not enumerated in the order of the Asaf Jah's, mainly because they were not granted the title of ASAF JAH by the Mughal Emperor.

Titular

Titular Name Personal Name Date of birth Nizam From Nizam Until Date of Death Note(s)
Asaf Jah VIII
آصف جاہ ہشتم
Mir Barkat Ali Khan
میر برکت علی خان
6 October 1933 24 February 1967 5 November 1971

(deposed)

15 January 2023 Government of India recognised him in 1964 as heir-apparent to Asaf Jah VII, and following his grandfather's demise in 1967, he succeeded to his rank, dignity, and title. His coronation took place at Chowmahalla Palace on April 6, 1967, and he was recognised as Ruler of Hyderabad on April 14, 1964, by the Government of India. However, due to 26th Amendment to the Constitution of India, he ceased to enjoy his princely pensions, titles, and privileges.
Asaf Jah IX
آصف جاہ نہم
Mir Muhammad Azmet Ali Khan
میر محمد عظمت علی خان
23 July 1960 20 January 2023 Azmet Jah acceded to the throne of the former Hyderabad State on 14 January 2023, following the death of Asaf Jah VIII.[32] Azmat Jah's ceremonial coronation took place on 20 January 2023, at Chowmahalla Palace.[32][better source needed]

Family tree

Genealogy of the Asaf Jahi dynasty
Murrah
ibn Ka'b
Taym ibn
Murrah
Kilab ibn
Murrah
Sa'd
ibn Taym
Qusayy
ibn Kilab
Ka'b
ibn Sa'd
Abd Manaf
ibn Qusayy
Amr ibn
Ka'b
Hashim ibn
Abd Manaf
Amir
ibn Amr
Abd al-Muttalib
ibn Hashim
Uthman
ibn Amir
Abdullah ibn
Abd al-Muttalib
Abu Bakr
al-Siddiq
Prophet
Muhammad
20
generations
Shihab ud-Din
Umar
al-Suhrawardi
14
generations
Abdul Rahman
Azizzan
Khan
Siddiqi
Bayafandi
Allahdad
Khan
Siddiqi
Bayafandi
Khawaja
Isma'il Khan
Siddiqi
Bayafandi
?
Kilich KhanSa'adullah
Khan
Ghazi ud-Din
Khan
Firuz Jung I
Safia Khanum
Nizam ul-Mulk
Asaf Jah I

(1)
r. 1724-1748
Nasir Jung
(2)
r. 1748-1750
Salabat Jung
(4)
r. 1751-1762
Nizam ul-Mulk
Asaf Jah II

(5)
r. 1762-1803
Khair un-Nisa
Begum
Sikandar Jah
Asaf Jah III

(6)
r. 1803-1829
Muzaffar Jung
(3)
r. 1750-1751
Nasir ud-Daulah
Asaf Jah IV

(7)
r. 1829-1857
Afzal ud-Daulah
Asaf Jah V

(8)
r. 1857-1869
Salar Jung I
Asaf Jah VI
(9)
r. 1869-1911
Amat uz-Zahra
Asaf Jah VII
(10)
r. 1911-1948
– Titular –
1948-1967
Abdul Majid II
Azam Jah
Prince of
Berar
Durru Shehvar
Sultan
Asaf Jah VIII
(11)
– Titular –
1967-1971
Head of
House
1971-2023
Asaf Jah IX
(12)
Head of
House
2023-present

See also

References

  1. ^ "How the Nizams 'stole' Hyderabad: Understanding origins of Asaf Jah dynasty". 16 September 2022.
  2. ^ Gurusamy, Mohan (18 October 2016). "Celebrating a long gone Hyderabad". The Deccan Chronicle. Retrieved 5 July 2021.
  3. ^ Hyderabad Affairs. Talbot Bros. 1883.
  4. ^ Kate, P. V. (1987). Marathwada under the Nizams, 1724-1948. Delhi, India: Mittal Publications. ISBN 978-81-7099-017-8.
  5. ^ Holister, John Norman (1953). The Shia of India (PDF). p. 125. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 October 2018. Retrieved 3 September 2023.
  6. ^ "Nizams". Archived from the original on 16 April 2007.
  7. ^ Taher Mohamed (2021). Handbook of Research on the Role of Libraries, Archives, and Museums in Achieving Civic Engagement and Social Justice in Smart Cities. IGI Global. p. 110. ISBN 9781799883654.
  8. ^ "Journal: Humanities. Section A., Volumes 33-36". University of Madras. 1961. p. 141.
  9. ^ "SECUNDERABAD: ORIGINS, TALES & ARMY CONNECTION". February 2017.
  10. ^ "Mir Farkhunda Ali Khan Nasir-ud-daula - Asaf Jah IV of Hyderabad, India". Archived from the original on 7 December 2018. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  11. ^ "Nasir-ud-Daula & Afzal-ud-daula | Telangana History: From Nizam's to Integration into Indian Union".
  12. ^ "NIZAM OF HYDERABAD DEAD.; Premier Prince of the Indian Empire Had an Annual Income of $10,000,000". The New York Times. 30 August 1911.
  13. ^ Chakraberty, Sumit (16 September 2012). "Staying at Falaknuma is like holding a mirror up to our past". DNA. Retrieved 22 October 2018.
  14. ^ bhopal14.
  15. ^ "Letters leave a rich legacy of rulers".
  16. ^ "Picturing the 'Beloved'".
  17. ^ "Nizam VII cared more for people than himself". 26 May 2018.
  18. ^ "Nizam Hyderabad Mir Osman Ali Khan was a perfect secular ruler". 13 August 2015.
  19. ^ "Nizam gave funding for temples and Hindu educational institutions". Archived from the original on 8 July 2018. Retrieved 30 September 2018.
  20. ^ "Nizam gave funding for temples, and Hindu educational institutions | | Mission Telangana". 8 July 2018. Archived from the original on 8 July 2018.
  21. ^ "Why we need Minority Character for Aligarh Muslim University, Jamia or Hamdard". milligazette. 9 July 2018. Archived from the original on 9 July 2018. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
  22. ^ "Osmania University first to teach in blend of Urdu & English - Times of India". The Times of India.
  23. ^ "Reminiscing the seventh Nizam's enormous contribution to education".
  24. ^ Mir Ayoob Ali Khan (19 February 2018). "Last surviving son of Nizam, Fazal Jah, dies". Archived from the original on 20 February 2018. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  25. ^ "Last Surviving son of seventh Nizam passes away in Hyderabad". Archived from the original on 18 December 2018. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  26. ^ "Nizam's heirs seek Pakistani intervention to unfreeze bank account". indiatoday. 20 July 2012. Archived from the original on 18 December 2018. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  27. ^ Mohla, Anika. "From richest to rags in seven generations". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 14 August 2015. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
  28. ^ "India finally settles £1million Nizam dispute". Archived from the original on 11 April 2019. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  29. ^ "A prince's ransom | the Guardian | guardian.co.uk". TheGuardian.com. Archived from the original on 9 February 2018. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  30. ^ "A treasure lost: Nizam scion". Deccan Chronicle. 15 October 2016. Retrieved 16 September 2018.
  31. ^ "Nizam's family wants hangar collapse probe - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 16 September 2018.
  32. ^ a b "Azmat Jah becomes the next Nizam of Hyderabad; here's all you need to know about him". The Economic Times. Retrieved 21 January 2023.