Carmine Infantino
Infantino in October 2010
Born(1925-05-24)May 24, 1925
Brooklyn, New York City, New York, U.S.
DiedApril 4, 2013(2013-04-04) (aged 87)
Manhattan, New York City, New York, U.S.
Area(s)Penciller, Editor, Publisher
Notable works
Detective Comics, Flash,
Showcase, Star Wars
AwardsNational Cartoonists Society Award, various Alley Awards. Expanded list.

Carmine Infantino (/ɪnfənˈtn/; May 24, 1925[1] – April 4, 2013)[2][3] was an American comics artist and editor, primarily for DC Comics, during the late 1950s and early 1960s period known as the Silver Age of Comic Books. Among his character creations are the Black Canary and the Silver Age version of DC superhero the Flash with writer Robert Kanigher, the stretching Elongated Man with John Broome, Barbara Gordon the second Batgirl with writer Gardner Fox, Deadman with writer Arnold Drake, and Christopher Chance, the second iteration of the Human Target with Len Wein.

He was inducted into comics' Will Eisner Award Hall of Fame in 2000.

Early life and family

Carmine Infantino was born via midwife in his family's apartment in Brooklyn, New York City. His father, Pasquale "Patrick" Infantino, born in New York City, was originally a musician who played saxophone, clarinet, and violin, and had a band with composer Harry Warren. During the Great Depression he turned to a career as a licensed plumber. Carmine Infantino's mother, Angela Rosa DellaBadia, emigrated from Calitri, a hill town northeast of Naples, Italy.[4]

Infantino attended Public Schools 75 and 85 in Brooklyn before going on to the School of Industrial Art (later renamed the High School of Art and Design) in Manhattan.[5] During his freshman year of high school, Infantino began working for Harry "A" Chesler, whose studio was one of a handful of comic-book "packagers" who created complete comics for publishers looking to enter the emerging field in the 1930s–1940s Golden Age of Comic Books. As Infantino recalled:

I used to go around as a youngster into companies, go in and try to meet people — nothing ever happened. One day I went to this place on 23rd Street, this old broken-down warehouse, and I met Harry Chesler. Now, I was told he was a mean guy and he used people and he took artists. But he was very sweet to me. He said, 'Look, kid. You come up here, I'll give you a dollar a day, just study art, learn, and grow.' That was damn nice of him, I thought. He did that for me for a whole summer.[5]

Infantino was the uncle of musician Jim Infantino, whose 2003 album They're Everywhere featured a song called "The Ballad of Barry Allen". Infantino created the artwork for the album cover.[6]


With Frank Giacoia penciling, Infantino inked the feature "Jack Frost" in USA Comics #3 (cover-dated Jan. 1942), from Timely Comics, the forerunner of Marvel Comics. He wrote in his autobiography that

...Frank Giacoia and I were in constant contact. One day in '40 we decided to go up to Timely Comics ... to see if we could get some work. They gave us a script called 'Jack Frost' and that story became our first published work. Frank did the pencils and I did the inking. Joe Simon was the editor and he offered us both a staff job. Frank quit school and took the job. I wanted desperately to quit school and I told my father that it was a great opportunity. He said, 'No way! You're gonna finish school.' Things were very bad, he was desperate for money, but he wouldn't let me quit school. He said, 'School comes first. If you're that good, the job will be there later.' I can't love the man enough for that. So Frank took the job and I didn't. I was 15 or 16 and I just kept making my rounds in the early '40s, looking for freelance work while continuing my studies.[7]

Infantino would eventually work for several publishers during the decade, drawing Human Torch and Angel stories for Timely; Airboy and Heap stories for Hillman Periodicals;[8] working for packager Jack Binder, who supplied Fawcett Comics; briefly at Holyoke Publishing; then landing at DC Comics. Infantino's first published work for DC was "The Black Canary", a six-page Johnny Thunder story in Flash Comics #86 (Aug. 1947) that introduced the superheroine the Black Canary.[9] Infantino's long association with the Flash mythos began with "The Secret City" a story in All-Flash #31 (Oct.–Nov. 1947).[10] He additionally became a regular artist of the Golden Age Green Lantern and the Justice Society of America.[8]

During the 1950s, Infantino freelanced for Joe Simon and Jack Kirby's company, Prize Comics, drawing the series Charlie Chan. Back at DC, during a lull in the popularity of superheroes, Infantino drew Westerns, mysteries, science fiction comics.[8]

The Silver Age

In 1956, DC editor Julius Schwartz assigned writer Robert Kanigher and artist Infantino to the company's first attempt at reviving superheroes: an updated version of the Flash that would appear in issue #4 (Oct. 1956) of the try-out series Showcase. Infantino designed the now-classic red uniform with yellow detail (reminiscent of the original Fawcett Captain Marvel), striving to keep the costume as streamlined as possible, and he drew on his design abilities to create a new visual language to depict the Flash's speed, using both vertical and horizontal motion lines to make the figure a red and yellow blur. The eventual success of the new, science-fiction-oriented Flash heralded the wholesale return of superheroes, and the beginning of what fans and historians call the Silver Age of comics.[11]

Showcase #4 (Oct. 1956): The Silver Age starts. Cover art by Carmine Infantino and Joe Kubert.

Infantino drew "Flash of Two Worlds," a landmark[12] story published in The Flash #123 (Sept. 1961) that introduced Earth-Two, and more generally the concept of the multiverse, to DC Comics.[13] Infantino continued to work for Schwartz in his other features and titles, most notably "Adam Strange" in Mystery in Space, succeeding the character's initial artist, Mike Sekowsky. In 1964, Schwartz was made responsible for reviving the faded Batman titles. Writer John Broome and artist Infantino jettisoned the sillier aspects that had crept into the series (such as Ace the Bathound, and Bat-Mite) and gave the "New Look" Batman and Robin a more detective-oriented direction and sleeker draftsmanship that proved a hit combination.[14]

Other features and characters Infantino drew at DC include "The Space Museum", and Elongated Man. With Gardner Fox, Infantino co-created the Blockbuster in Detective Comics #345 (Nov. 1965)[15] and Barbara Gordon as a new version of Batgirl in Detective Comics #359 (Jan. 1967).[16] Writer Arnold Drake and Infantino created the supernatural superhero Deadman in Strange Adventures #205 (Oct. 1967).[17][18] This story included the first known depiction of narcotics in a story approved by the Comics Code Authority.[19]

DC Comics editorial director

In late 1966/early 1967, Infantino was tasked by Irwin Donenfeld with designing covers for the entire DC line. Stan Lee learned this and approached Infantino with a $22,000 offer to move to Marvel. Publisher Jack Liebowitz confirmed that DC could not match the offer, but could promote Infantino to the position of art director. Initially reluctant, Infantino accepted what Liebowitz posed as a challenge, and stayed with DC.[20] When DC was sold to Kinney National Company, Infantino was promoted to editorial director. He started by hiring new talent, and promoting artists to editorial positions. He hired Dick Giordano away from Charlton Comics, and made artists Joe Orlando, Joe Kubert and Mike Sekowsky editors. New talents such as artist Neal Adams and writer Denny O'Neil were brought into the company. Several of DC's older characters were revamped by O'Neil including Wonder Woman;[21] Batman; Green Lantern and Green Arrow; and Superman.[22]

In 1970, Infantino signed on Marvel Comics' star artist and storytelling collaborator Jack Kirby to a DC Comics contract. Beginning with Superman's Pal Jimmy Olsen, Kirby created his Fourth World saga that wove through that existing title and three new series he created. After the "Fourth World" titles were canceled, Kirby created several other series for DC including OMAC, Kamandi, The Demon, and, together with former partner Joe Simon for one last time, a new incarnation of the Sandman before returning to freelancing for Marvel in 1975.[2]

DC Comics publisher

Infantino was made DC's publisher in early 1971, during a time of declining circulation for the company's comics, and he attempted a number of changes. In an effort to increase revenue, he raised the cover price of DC's comics from 15 to 25 cents, simultaneously raising the page-count by adding reprints and new backup features.[23] Marvel met the price increase, then dropped back to 20 cents; DC stayed at 25 cents for about a year, a decision that ultimately proved bad for overall sales.[24][25]

Infantino and writer Len Wein co-created the "Human Target" feature in Action Comics #419 (December 1972).[26] The character was adapted into a short-lived ABC television series starring Rick Springfield which debuted in July 1992.[27]

After consulting with screenwriter Mario Puzo on the plots of both Superman: The Movie and Superman II,[28][29] Infantino collaborated with Marvel on the historic company-crossover publication Superman vs. the Amazing Spider-Man. In January 1976, Warner Communications replaced Infantino with magazine publisher Jenette Kahn, a person new to the comics field. Infantino returned to drawing freelance.[30]

Later career

Spider-Woman #8 (Nov. 1978). Cover art by Infantino and Steve Leialoha.

Infantino later drew for a number of titles for Warren Publishing and Marvel, including the latter's Star Wars,[31] Spider-Woman,[32] and Nova. His brief collaboration with Jim Shooter saw the introduction of Paladin in Daredevil #150 (Jan. 1978).[33] During Infantino's tenure on the Star Wars series, it was one of the industry's top selling titles.[34] In 1981, he returned to DC Comics and co-created a revival of the "Dial H for Hero" feature with writer Marv Wolfman in a special insert in Legion of Super-Heroes #272 (February 1981).[35] He and writer Cary Bates crafted a Batman backup story for Detective Comics #500 (March 1981).[36][37] Infantino returned to The Flash title with issue #296 (April 1981) and drew the series until its cancellation with issue #350 (October 1985). He drew The Flash #300 (Aug. 1981), which was in the Dollar Comics format,[38] and was one of the artists on the double-sized Justice League of America #200 (March 1982), his chapter featuring both the Flash and the Elongated Man, characters he had co-created.[39]

He was one of the contributors to the DC Challenge limited series in 1986.[40] Other projects in the 1980s included penciling The Daring New Adventures of Supergirl,[41] a Red Tornado miniseries, and a comic book tie-in to the television series V. In 1990, he followed Marshall Rogers as artist of the Batman newspaper comic strip and drew the strip until its cancellation the following year.[42] During the 1990s Infantino also taught at the School of Visual Arts before retiring.[43] Despite his retirement, Infantino made appearances at comic conventions in the early 21st century.[44]

In 2004, he sued DC for rights to characters he alleged he had created while he was a freelancer for the company. These included several Flash characters including Wally West, Iris West, Captain Cold, Captain Boomerang, Mirror Master, and Gorilla Grodd, as well as the Elongated Man and Batgirl.[45] The lawsuit was dismissed in September of that same year.[46]

One of his final stories for the company appeared in DC Comics Presents: Batman #1 (Sept. 2004), a tribute to the then-recently deceased Julius Schwartz.[47]

Artist Nick Cardy commented on the popular but apocryphal anecdote, told by Julius Schwartz, about Infantino firing Cardy over not following a cover layout, only to rehire him moments later when Schwartz praised the errant cover art:

[A]t one of the conventions ... I said, 'You know, Carmine, Julie Schwartz wrote something in [his autobiography] that I don't remember at all and it doesn't sound like you at all'. And I told him the incident ... and he said, 'That's crazy. You know I always loved your work. Gee, you were one of the best artists in the business. The guy's crazy'. So I said, 'Okay, come on'. We went over to Julie Schwartz's table and we told him what our problem was. And Carmine and I said, 'We don't remember the incident'. So Julie said, 'Well, it's a good story, anyway'. [laughs] And that was it. He let it go at that. [laughs] He just made it up.[48]

Infantino wrote or contributed to two books about his life and career: The Amazing World of Carmine Infantino (Vanguard Productions, ISBN 1-887591-12-5), and Carmine Infantino: Penciler, Publisher, Provocateur (Tomorrows Publishing, ISBN 1-60549-025-3).


Infantino died on April 4, 2013, at the age of 87 at his home in Manhattan.[3]


In season three of The CW TV show "The Flash", episode 22 is titled "Infantino Street".[49]

In the 2023 Amazon Prime Video Christmas special, Merry Little Batman, Infantino appears in a cameo via archive audio.[50]


Infantino's awards include:


DC Comics

Marvel Comics

Warren Publishing


  1. ^ Miller, John Jackson (June 10, 2005). "Comics Industry Birthdays". Comics Buyer's Guide. Iola, Wisconsin. Archived from the original on February 18, 2011.
  2. ^ a b Sunu, Steve (April 4, 2013). "Carmine Infantino Passes Away at Age 87". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on June 30, 2013. Retrieved April 4, 2013.
  3. ^ a b Fox, Margalit (April 5, 2013). "Carmine Infantino, Reviver of Batman and Flash, Dies at 87". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 12, 2022.
  4. ^ Carmine Infantino with J. David Spurlock, The Amazing World of Carmine Infantino: An Autobiography. Lebanon, New Jersey: Vanguard Productions, 2000; ISBN 1-887591-11-7, pp. 12–13
  5. ^ a b "The Carmine Infantino Interview". The Comics Journal. Seattle, Washington: Fantagraphics Books. November 1996. Archived from the original on May 7, 2013.
  6. ^ Evanier, Mark (November 8, 2003). "Jim's Big Ego". News From Me. Archived from the original on November 11, 2023. Retrieved November 11, 2023.
  7. ^ Infantino, J. David Spurlock, p. 19
  8. ^ a b c Carmine Infantino at the Grand Comics Database
  9. ^ Wallace, Daniel; Dolan, Hannah, ed. (2010). "1940s". DC Comics Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. pp. 55–56. ISBN 978-0-7566-6742-9. Debuting as a supporting character in a six-page Johnny Thunder feature written by Robert Kanigher and penciled by Carmine Infantino, Dinah Drake [the Black Canary] was originally presented as a villain...The Black Canary's introduction in August [1947]'s Flash Comics #86 represented [Infantino's] first published work for DC. ((cite book)): |first2= has generic name (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  10. ^ Wallace "1940s" in Dolan, p. 56 "The first Carmine Infantino art of the Flash character appeared in this issue's twelve-page adventure "The Secret City" was Infantino's work on the Flash that would become the cornerstone of his career.
  11. ^ Irvine, Alex "1950s" in Dolan, p. 80 "The arrival of the second incarnation of the Flash in [Showcase] issue #4 is considered to be the official start of the Silver Age of comics."
  12. ^ "Julius Schwartz". The Daily Telegraph. London, United Kingdom. February 24, 2004. Archived from the original on November 10, 2012. Retrieved March 18, 2012.
  13. ^ McAvennie, Michael "1960s" in Dolan, p. 103 "This classic Silver Age story resurrected the Golden Age Flash and provided a foundation for the Multiverse from which he and the Silver Age Flash would hail."
  14. ^ McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 110: "The Dark Knight received a much-needed facelift from new Batman editor Julius Schwartz, writer John Broome, and artist Carmine Infantino. With sales at an all-time low and threatening the cancelation of one of DC's flagship titles, their overhaul was a lifesaving success for DC and its beloved Batman."
  15. ^ Forbeck, Matt; Dougall, Alastair, ed. (2014). "1960s". Batman: A Visual History. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 88. ISBN 978-1465424563. Gardner Fox and penciller Carmine Infantino introduced the villain Blockbuster in this issue. ((cite book)): |first2= has generic name (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  16. ^ McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 122 "Nine months before making her debut on Batman, a new Batgirl appeared in the pages of Detective Comics ... Yet the idea for the debut of Barbara Gordon, according to editor Julius Schwartz, was attributed to the television series executives' desire to have a character that would appeal to a female audience and for this character to originate in the comics. Hence, writer Gardner Fox and artist Carmine Infantino collaborated on 'The Million Dollar Debut of Batgirl!'"
  17. ^ Greenberger, Robert (2008). "Deadman". In Dougall, Alastair (ed.). The DC Comics Encyclopedia. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-7566-0592-6.
  18. ^ McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 125 "In a story by scribe Arnold Drake and artist Carmine Infantino, circus aerialist Boston Brand learned there was much more to life after his death...Deadman's origin tale was the first narcotics-related story to require prior approval from the Comics Code Authority."
  19. ^ Cronin, Brian (September 24, 2009). "Comic Book Legends Revealed #226". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on January 26, 2012. Retrieved December 22, 2011. One comic that I know preceded the 1971 amendment [to the Comics Code] was Strange Adventures #205, the first appearance of Deadman! ... a clear reference to narcotics, over three years before Marvel Comics would have to go without the Comics Code to do an issue about drugs.
  20. ^ Ro, Ronin. Tales to Astonish: Jack Kirby, Stan Lee and the American Comic Book Revolution, p. 117-118 (Bloomsbury, 2004)
  21. ^ McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 131 "Carmine Infantino wanted to rejuvenate what had been perceived as a tired Wonder Woman, so he assigned writer Denny O'Neil and artist Mike Sekowsky to convert the Amazon Princess into a secret agent. Wonder Woman was made over into an Emma Peel type and what followed was arguably the most controversial period in the hero's history."
  22. ^ In, respectively, Wonder Woman #178 (Sept.-Oct. 1968), Detective Comics #395 (Jan. 1970), Green Lantern #76 (April 1970), and Superman #233 (Jan. 1971) at the Grand Comics Database
  23. ^ McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p.144: "Although decreasing sales and inflation dictated a hefty cover price increase from 15 to 25 cents, Infantino saw to it that extra pages containing classic reprints and new back-up features were added to DC titles."
  24. ^ McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 150: "Despite its renewed excitement, and a mid-year cover price decrease to 20 cents, DC's line of superhero comics was experiencing uneven sales results in 1972."
  25. ^ Levitz, Paul (2010). 75 Years of DC Comics The Art of Modern Mythmaking. Cologne, Germany: Taschen. p. 451. ISBN 978-3-8365-1981-6. Marvel took advantage of this moment to surpass DC in title production for the first time since 1957, and in sales for the first time ever.
  26. ^ McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 153: "Starting as a back-up feature in the pages of Action Comics, scribe Len Wein and artist Carmine Infantino introduced Christopher Chance, a master of disguise who would turn himself into a human target – provided you could meet his price."
  27. ^ "Human Target on ABC". Retrieved January 31, 2011
  28. ^ Amash, Jim; Nolen-Weathington, Eric (2010). Carmine Infantino: Penciler, Publisher, Provocateur. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing. p. 125. Archived at Google Books. Retrieved April 7, 2013.
  29. ^ Stroud, Bryan (December 31, 2011). "Carmine Infantino interview". The Silver Age Sage. Archived from the original on October 18, 2016. My name was supposed to be on the script. I was supposed to be on the film, and then when they dumped me they took my name off the thing. You can't fight that, but I did a lot of work on that. An awful lot...I worked on Superman I and II and saved both plots. They're pretty good, I think.
  30. ^ Hughes, Joseph (April 4, 2013). "The Flash and Batgirl Co-Creator Carmine Infantino Passes Away At 87". ComicsAlliance. Retrieved April 4, 2013.
  31. ^ Edwards, Ted (1999). "Adventures in the Comics". The Unauthorized Star Wars Compendium. New York, New York: Little, Brown and Company. p. 79. ISBN 9780316329293. [The series' creative team] locked into place beginning with issue 11, when Archie Goodwin and Carmine Infantino took over.
  32. ^ Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1970s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 101. ISBN 978-0756692360. Writer Marv Wolfman and penciling legend Carmine Infantino reintroduced fans to Spider-Woman in this new series all about the female wall-crawler. ((cite book)): |first2= has generic name (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  33. ^ Sanderson, Peter; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2008). "1970s". Marvel Chronicle A Year by Year History. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 184. ISBN 978-0756641238. ((cite book)): |first2= has generic name (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  34. ^ Miller, John Jackson (March 7, 1997), "Gone but not forgotten: Marvel Star Wars series kept franchise fans guessing between films", Comics Buyer's Guide, no. 1216, Iola, Wisconsin, p. 46, The industry's top seller? We don't have complete information from our Circulation Scavenger Hunt for the years 1979 and 1980, but a very strong case is building for Star Wars as the industry's top-selling comic book in 1979 and its second-place seller (behind Amazing Spider-Man) in 1980.
  35. ^ Manning, Matthew K. "1980s" in Dolan, p. 192 "Within a sixteen-page preview in Legion of Super-Heroes #272...was "Dial 'H' For Hero," a new feature that raised the bar on fan interaction in the creative process. The feature's story, written by Marv Wolfman, with art by Carmine Infantino, saw two high-school students find dials that turned them into super-heroes. Everything from the pair's civilian clothes to the heroes they became was created by fans writing in. This concept would continue in the feature's new regular spot within Adventure Comics."
  36. ^ Manning "1980s" in Dolan, p. 193
  37. ^ Greenberger, Robert (December 2013). "Memories of Detective Comics #500". Back Issue! (69). Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing: 54–57.
  38. ^ Weiss, Brett (December 2013). "The Flash #300". Back Issue! (69). Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing: 58–60.
  39. ^ Sanderson, Peter (September–October 1981). "Justice League #200 All-Star Affair". Comics Feature (12/13). New Media Publishing: 17.
  40. ^ Greenberger, Robert (August 2017). "It Sounded Like a Good Idea at the Time: A Look at the DC Challenge!". Back Issue! (98). Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing: 37.
  41. ^ Manning "1980s" in Dolan, p. 198 "With the guidance of writer Paul Kupperberg and prolific artist Carmine Infantino, Supergirl found a home in the city of Chicago in a new ongoing series."
  42. ^ Greenberger, Robert; Manning, Matthew K. (2009). The Batman Vault: A Museum-in-a-Book with Rare Collectibles from the Batcave. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Running Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7624-3663-7. Shortly after the 1989 feature [film], Batman even returned to the funny pages for a bit, in a comic strip by writer William Messner-Loebs...Lacking enough support from various papers to make it financially feasible, the new comic strip folded after two years, despite Carmine Infantino trying his hand at its art chores.
  43. ^ Coville, Jamie (May 2007). "Interview with Carmine Infantino". Archived from the original on February 5, 2014. Retrieved August 31, 2012.
  44. ^ Michael Eury; Murphy Anderson (2005). The Justice League Companion: A Historical and Speculative Overview of the Silver Age Justice League of America. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing. p. 111. ISBN 1893905489.
  45. ^ Brady, Matt (June 15, 2004). "Looking at Infantino's Complaint". Newsarama. Archived from the original on September 14, 2007.
  46. ^ Best, Daniel (June 14, 2011). "Carmine M Infantino v. DC Comics et al: The Fight For The Flash". 20th Century Danny Boy. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016.
  47. ^ Manning, Matthew K. "2000s" in Dougall (2014), p. 275: "Owing to Schwartz's role in guiding the era of the 'New Look' Batman in the 1960s, writer Geoff Johns and artist Carmine Infantino told a modern Batman tale that included a 1966-flavored TV show version of the Dynamic Duo."
  48. ^ Beck, Spencer (December 2005). "Nick Cardy: Man and Super Man". Back Issue! (13). Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing: 6.
  49. ^ Burlingame, Russ (September 5, 2017). "The Flash Gets an Easter Egg Right in the Title As Time Runs Out to Save Iris". Retrieved September 5, 2017.
  50. ^ Spry, Jeff (December 5, 2023). "How 'Merry Little Batman' Director Mike Roth Unwrapped a Yuletide Dark Knight Tale". Retrieved December 5, 2023.
  51. ^ "Division Awards Comic Books". National Cartoonists Society. 2013. Archived from the original on December 16, 2013. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
  52. ^ a b c "1961 Alley Awards". Hahn Library Comic Book Awards Almanac. Archived from the original on April 24, 2012. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
  53. ^ a b "1962 Alley Awards". Hahn Library Comic Book Awards Almanac. Archived from the original on April 24, 2012. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
  54. ^ "1963 Alley Awards". Hahn Library Comic Book Awards Almanac. Archived from the original on August 7, 2011. Retrieved December 16, 2013.
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  58. ^ Marx, Barry, Cavalieri, Joey and Hill, Thomas (w), Petruccio, Steven (a), Marx, Barry (ed). "Carmine Infantino DC Revitalized" Fifty Who Made DC Great, p. 37 (1985). DC Comics.
  59. ^ "Inkpot Award Winners". Hahn Library Comic Book Awards Almanac. Archived from the original on July 9, 2012.
Preceded byn/a The Flash artist 1959–1967 Succeeded byRoss Andru Preceded bySheldon Moldoff Detective Comics artist 1964–1967 Succeeded bySheldon Moldoff Preceded bySal Buscema Nova artist 1977–1979 Succeeded byn/a Preceded byn/a Spider-Woman artist 1978–1979 Succeeded byFrank Springer Preceded byHoward Chaykin Star Wars artist 1978–1981 Succeeded byWalt Simonson Preceded byDon Heck The Flash artist 1981–1985 Succeeded byn/a