Auckland's Sky Tower illuminated in Christmas colours during the month of December
Auckland's Sky Tower illuminated in Christmas colours during the month of December

Christmas traditions in New Zealand are similar to those in Australia in that they incorporate a mix of British and North American traditions, such as Christmas symbols featuring winter iconography. However, the timing of Christmas occurring during the Southern Hemisphere's summer season has resulted in the development of some local traditions as a result of the warmer weather. New Zealand Christmas dishes include summer fruits and vegetables, a variety of meats and seafood, and pavlova (a meringue-based dessert popular in Australasia). The New Zealand Christmas tree, the pōhutukawa, is displayed as well as the traditional Northern European tree.

Christmas (Māori: Kirihimete),[1] observed on 25 December, became widely celebrated in the late 19th century among Pākehā (European) settlers. Today, Christmas Day and Boxing Day are both statutory holidays in New Zealand. While Boxing Day is a standard statutory holiday, Christmas Day is one of the few days of the year where all but the most essential businesses and services must close.[2]

History

The Christian festival of Christmas was introduced to New Zealand by missionaries in the early 19th century. There was no known equivalent festival celebrated by Māori prior to European settlement. The first recorded Christmas service on New Zealand shores was in 1814, with Rev. Samuel Marsden delivering a sermon to around 400 Māori at Oihi Bay in the Bay of Islands, at the invitation of chiefs Te Pahi and Ruatara.[3]

In the mid 19th century observance of the Christmas holiday varied along sectarian grounds. English and Irish settlers, who were typically Anglicans and Catholics respectively, brought their own Christmas traditions. Scottish settlers did not widely celebrate Christmas as the Scottish Presbyterian church never placed much emphasis on the Christmas festival, on the grounds that it was unscriptural.[4][5] In the late 19th century the Presbyterians began to embrace Christmas celebrations,[4] and as sectarianism between the different ethnic communities decreased the holiday became widely observed by all New Zealanders—albeit as a low-key, private affair until the late 20th century.

Christmas Day became a bank holiday following the Bank Holidays Act 1873, and all workers were entitled to a day off for Christmas as a result of the Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act 1894. The Public Holidays Act 1910 further established Christmas Day and "the day after Christmas Day"[6] (Boxing Day) as non-working days.[7]

Imagery and decorations

The December-flowering pōhutukawa (Metrosideros excelsa) is an often-used Christmas symbol in New Zealand.
The December-flowering pōhutukawa (Metrosideros excelsa) is an often-used Christmas symbol in New Zealand.

New Zealanders celebrate Christmas with traditional Northern Hemisphere winter imagery mixed with local and biblical imagery. Native plants, ferns, and flaxes are displayed alongside traditional Christmas flowers such as mistletoe, and biblical stars and angels.[5] The pōhutukawa, which produces large crimson flowers in December, is an often used symbol for Christmas in New Zealand, and subsequently the pōhutukawa has become known as the New Zealand Christmas tree.[8][5]

Some homeowners decorate the exterior of their houses. Displays range from the modest to elaborate, sometimes with hundreds of lights and decorations depicting seasonal motifs such as Christmas trees, Santa Claus, reindeer, or nativity scenes.[citation needed] Particular regions have a tradition for elaborate displays, and attract a great amount of pedestrian and vehicular traffic during the Christmas season. This is despite the longer days, with dusk ranging from 9:05 p.m. in Gisborne (New Zealand's most northeasterly city) to as late as 10:20 p.m. in Invercargill (the most southwesterly city).[9]

Food

See also: List of Christmas dishes

Pavlova is a popular Christmas dessert in New  Zealand
Pavlova is a popular Christmas dessert in New Zealand

Families traditionally gather for a Christmas Day lunch. While a formal dinner indoors remains traditional, barbecue lunches have increased in popularity since the 2000s, with around 43% of New Zealanders having a barbecue lunch in 2019.[5][10]

Christmas lunches commonly include lamb, ham, beef, root vegetables such as potato and kumara (sweet potato) and a variety of salads.[10] As appropriate for the often warm summer temperatures of the day, it has become popular to serve cold meats and seafood (such as eel).[5][11] Traditional Northern Hemisphere Christmas foods, such as turkey and brussels sprouts, were common in the past and continue to be eaten by a minority.[10] Similarly, sweet dishes include both traditional British Christmas desserts (such as Christmas cake, Christmas pudding, fruit mince pies, and trifle)[5][10] and local desserts such as pavlova topped with summer fruits (such as strawberries and raspberries) or kiwifruit.[10][12][13]

Parades

Christmas display, featuring Santa Claus and reindeer, on a shop on Queen street, Auckland, 2013
Christmas display, featuring Santa Claus and reindeer, on a shop on Queen street, Auckland, 2013

Several Christmas themed parades are held in New Zealand. A popular event is Auckland's Santa Parade down Queen Street.[14] This features numerous floats and marching bands and attracts large crowds every year. It is held late November to accommodate holidaymakers and is seen as the preamble to the later festivities. The tradition of Carols by Candlelight is popular in New Zealand, especially in Auckland and Christchurch, where there are usually large outdoor carol-singing gatherings known as Christmas in the Park.[15]

Retail

The lead-up to Christmas is the busiest shopping season in New Zealand. Paymark, who provides EFTPOS services to 70 percent of retailers, recorded a total spend of $8.6 billion of transactions through its network in the six weeks leading up to Christmas 2019. On Christmas Eve 2019, the Paymark network processed 199 transactions per second at peak times.[16]

Black Friday sales began to be adopted by New Zealand retailers in 2013, largely to remain competitive with US-based online retailers. In 2015, major retailers such as The Warehouse, Noel Leeming and Harvey Norman offered Black Friday sales,[17] and by 2018 were joined by Farmers, JB Hi-Fi, Briscoes and Rebel Sport.[18] Paymark processed $253 million in transactions though its network on Black Friday 2019, overtaking Boxing Day for the first time.[19]

Media

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

As Christmas falls in summer, watching television is not as strong a part of New Zealand Christmas traditions as many northern hemisphere countries. Most regular television series and current affairs shows go off-air from mid-December to mid-to-late January.

Many television channels rerun Christmas-themed films in the weeks leading up to and including Christmas Day, such as Miracle on 34th Street, National Lampoon's Christmas Vacation, The Polar Express, Dr. Seuss' How the Grinch Stole Christmas and various film versions of A Christmas Carol.

No advertising is allowed on New Zealand television or radio on Christmas Day, a rule that also applies on Good Friday and Easter Sunday.[20]

References

  1. ^ "Kirihimete". maoridictionary.co.nz. Māori Dictionary. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  2. ^ "Holidays Act 2003 No 129 (as at 30 September 2008), Public Act". Parliamentary Counsel Office. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
  3. ^ "Marsden's first Christmas". New Zealand Geographic. Retrieved 14 November 2021.
  4. ^ a b Stenhouse, John; Wood, G. A. (2005). Christianity, Modernity and Culture: New Perspectives on New Zealand History. ATF Press. p. 154. ISBN 978-1-920691-33-2.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Swarbrick, Nancy (16 September 2016). "Public holidays – Easter, Christmas and New Year". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
  6. ^ "Public Holidays Act 1910" (PDF). New Zealand Parliament. Retrieved 7 May 2020 – via www.austlii.edu.au.
  7. ^ Swarbrick, Nancy (16 September 2016). "Public holidays – public holidays legislation". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
  8. ^ "Pohutukawa trees". Ministry of Culture and Heritage (New Zealand). Retrieved 6 September 2012.
  9. ^ "Sunrise and sunset times in Invercargill, December 2020". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  10. ^ a b c d e "Lamb, ham or turkey? Survey discovers what Kiwis eat on Christmas day". NZ Herald. Retrieved 18 November 2021.
  11. ^ "Christmas in New Zealand". New Zealand Tourism Guide. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  12. ^ Sargent, Ewan (19 December 2018). "Pavlova was born for the role of Kiwi Christmas dessert". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
  13. ^ Leach, Helen (2008). The Pavlova Story: A Slice of New Zealand's Culinary History. Otago University Press. pp. 11–31. ISBN 978-1-877372-57-5.
  14. ^ Block, George (24 November 2019). "In pictures: Sweltering Auckland Santa parade goes off with bang". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
  15. ^ "Stellar line-up of local talent for Christmas in the Park | Scoop News". Scoop.co.nz. 19 November 2019. Retrieved 7 May 2020.
  16. ^ "Christmas spending surpasses last year, reaching $8.6 billion". Stuff. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
  17. ^ Dougan, Patrice (27 November 2015). "Black Friday mania to hit New Zealand". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 27 November 2015.
  18. ^ "Black Friday sales madness sweeps country, set to break record". NZ Herald. 23 November 2018 – via www.nzherald.co.nz.
  19. ^ "Spending habits are changing with Kiwis spending more on Black Friday than Boxing Day". Stuff. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
  20. ^ "New Zealand Broadcasting Act 1989". Government of New Zealand. Retrieved 21 December 2014.