A collar, also known as collar of an order, is an ornate chain, often made of gold and enamel, and set with precious stones, which is worn about the neck as a symbol of membership in various chivalric orders. It is a particular form of the livery collar, the grandest form of the widespread phenomenon of livery in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Period. Orders which have several grades often reserve the collar for the highest grade (usually called the Grand Cross). The links of the chain are usually composed of symbols of the order, and the badge (also called "decoration", "cross" or "jewel") of the order normally hangs down in front. Sometimes the badge is referred to by what is depicted on it; for instance, the badge that hangs from the chain of the Order of the Garter is referred to as "the George".
Main article: Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation
The first of the Orders of Knighthood were the military orders of crusaders who used red, green or black crosses of velvet on their mantles, to distinguish their brotherhoods. Later the members of knightly orders used rings, embroidered dragons and even garters as the symbol of their order. In the late Middle Ages the knights wore their insignia ever more prominently and medaillons, crosses and jewels in the shape of animals began to be worn on chains around the neck, known as livery collars.
In the fourteenth century, Amadeus VI, Count of Savoy (1343–1383) instituted the Order of the Collar. The order was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary The primary and oldest insignia of the order is its collar. It consists of a solid gold medallion of the collar, which portrays the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary by the Archangel Gabriel. The medallion is surrounded by three intertwined Savoyan knots, decorated with small crosses fleury, and in the upper center, between two of the Savoyan knots, a cluster of rays with a dove, representing the Holy Spirit, is depicted also in gold.
Animated by a similar Marian devotion, the fashion of these collars spread at the same time as the fashion of wearing rosaries as necklaces spread across Europe reaching England in the fifteenth century.
Collars of various devices are worn by the knights of some of the European orders of knighthood. The custom was begun by Philip III, Duke of Burgundy, who gave his Knights of the Golden Fleece badges depicting a golden fleece: it was composed of "gold filigree plaques, simulated black and white enamel firestones, and golden fleece pendant".
Main article: Collar of the Order of Saint Michael
Following this new fashion, Louis XI of France, when instituting his Order of St. Michael in 1469, gave the knights collars composed of scallop shells linked on a chain, most famously honouring Raoul de Lannoy after the siege of Quesnoy. The chain was doubled by Charles VIII. The first official portrait of a King of France wearing the collar of the order was that of King Louis XII in 1514 and since then, all other Kings have followed that tradition until the order lapsed in 1830; the Order of Liberation claimed to be its continuation in 1945 and it had its own grand collar made by master goldsmith Gilbert Poillerat, which President Charles de Gaulle wore on his official portrait, preferring its Cross of Lorraine to the symbols attached to the Grand Collier of the Legion of Honour.
While the order of Saint Michael was exclusively male, Queen Anne of Austria with the help of her chaplain French Dominican friar François Arnoul established the Order of the Celestial Collar of the Sacred Rosary in 1647, proving once again the connection between the collar and the rosary as an instrument of devotion. The statues of the new order were associated to instructions for fifty devout maidens and all virtuous souls, in order to renew Marian devotion and encourage the holiness of women active in the Catholic Church in France.
Until the reign of Henry VIII, the Order of the Garter, like most ancient of the great knightly orders, had no collar. But the Tudor king wished to match the continental sovereigns in all things as described in the statues signed on January 5, 1508, by the Register of the Order, and sent to the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian. The present collar of the Garter knights, with its golden knots and its buckled garters enclosing white roses set on red roses, has its origin in the Tudor age. In 1672, British antiquary Elias Ashmole, described a change from the original collar worn prescribed by King Henry VIII for the collar of the Order of the Garter said to be "a gold collar, coupled together by several pieces of links in fashion of garters, with a vermillion rose, and the image of Saint George hung thereat". Most of the British orders of knighthood now have collars and they are still worn on special occasions, known as collar days. The Distinguished Service Order, the Order of Merit, the Order of the Companions of Honour and the Imperial Service Order are the exceptions.
After the 17th century the heyday of the collar was over. They were worn only on ceremonial occasions and replaced in daily life by stars pinned to the breast, and badges suspended from ribbons. Many orders retained their collars and when orders were divided into several ranks or grades the collar was usually reserved for the highest rank. The notable exception is Portugal.
At the end of the 18th century most of the European orders had only one rank; that of Knight and although they usually had collars, the cross or badge was now worn on a ribbon around the neck or over the right shoulder. When the orders became more democratic several ranks were introduced and only the highest grade, the "Grand Commanders" or "Grand Crosses", wore collars. The Netherlands never had collars but several Belgian, most of the Austrian and Prussian orders, and several Portuguese orders had collars. In Portugal all the members of these orders of knighthood wear a collar but the collars of the Grand Cross are more elaborate.
Since the beginning of the 19th century, the collar has been used as the insignia of office of the Grand Master of the order. Napoleon I introduced the Grand aigle (Grand Eagle) to replace the Grand Cross as the highest rank in his Legion of Honour. Napoleon dispensed 15 such golden collars of the Legion among his kinsmen and the highest of his ministers. This collar did not survive his downfall and was abolished in 1815. He also introduced the Grand Collier de la Légion d'Honneur which was the first Grand Collar worn outside of a religious order. The President of France wears the collar of the Order of the Legion of Honour. Nowadays, the collar is often a rank above that of a Grand Cross and it is reserved for the president and foreign heads of state as it is in Brazil.
In heraldry, most members of orders are permitted to display the collar of their order on their coat of arms (if they are in fact entitled to wear the collar). There are often very strict rules as to how exactly the collar is to be displayed. Normally it will entirely encircle the escutcheon (shield), or the collar may be partially hidden by it. Sometimes, only a part of the collar and the badge will extend below the escutcheon.
Collars of different orders are often depicted in the heraldic achievement of various monarchs, encircling the escutcheon. Though the standard achievement used most often may depict specific collars, this does not preclude the use of or substitution with other collars to which someone may be entitled to. Some achievements depict multiple collars while others depict only one; The coat of arms of the Norwegian monarch only depicts the collar of the Order of St. Olav encircling the shield while that of Denmark's depicts the collars of the nation's two chivalric orders: the Order of the Elephant and the Order of Dannebrog. In the greater arms of Sweden, the collar of the Order of Seraphim is used. The collar of the Order of Leopold is also depicted in the national arms of Belgium.
When a member of an order dies, they are not usually buried with the collar, but it may be displayed on a pillow placed on the coffin (along with other decorations that the member may have) during the funeral. Many orders require that after the death of a member of the order, the collar and perhaps other insignia be returned to the issuing authority. Often, the requirement is that a male relative personally return the award to the order.
Many orders also do have a chain as an ornament that is worn at more official ceremonial occasions (worn by knights of a single class order or members of the highest class of a multi-class order). However, in some orders Collar is a separate rank above that of Grand Cross, i.e.:
* indicates that the insignia must be returned upon the death of the recipient
† indicates that the order is now dormant but has not been formally abolished