A dynastic order, monarchical order, or house order is an order under royal patronage. Such an order is bestowed by, as a legitimate fons honorum, a sovereign or the head of a once-sovereign ruling family. These are often considered part of the cultural patrimony of the ruling family. Dynastic orders were often founded or maintained to reward service to a monarch or their subsequent dynasty.
A national or state order is the equivalent term for orders (e.g., of merit) conferred by sovereign states but not bestowed by ruling dynasties.
Dynastic orders are under the exclusive control of a monarch and are bestowed without the advice of the political leadership (prime minister or cabinet). A recent report by the British Government mentioned that there is "one remaining exercise that has been identified of the Monarch's truly personal, executive prerogative: that is, the conferment of certain honours that remain within her gift (the Orders of Merit, of the Garter, of the Thistle and the Royal Victorian Order)."
Generally, dynastic or house Orders are granted by the monarch for whatever reason the monarch may deem appropriate whereas other orders, often called Merit Orders, are granted on the recommendation of government officials to recognize individual accomplishments or services to the nation.
The term dynastic order is also used for those orders that continue to be bestowed by former monarchs and their descendants after they have been removed from power. For instance, the website of Duarte Pio de Bragança, a pretender to the throne of Portugal using the title Duke of Braganza, asserts that the Order of the Immaculate Conception of Vila Viçosa, "being a Dynastic Order of the House of Bragança and not an Order of State, continued to be conferred by the last King Dom Manuel II, in the exile." On the basis of his succession to King Manuel II, Duarte Pio continues to award those orders of the Kingdom of Portugal not taken over by the Portuguese Republic.
The Portuguese Republic views things somewhat differently, regarding all the royal orders as extinct following the 5 October 1910 revolution with some of them revived in republican form in 1918. For official purposes, Portugal simply ignores the orders awarded by the royal pretender, Duarte Pio. Although no one is prosecuted for accepting orders from Dom Duarte, including himself, Portuguese law requires government permission to accept any official award, either from Portugal or foreign powers; the awards of Dom Duarte simply do not appear anywhere on either list.
A similar situation exists in Italy, where the Republican Government regards the orders of the former kings to have been abolished but the last king's heir continues to award them. However, the Italian situation is unique, since the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus is one of the few orders of knighthood that has been explicitly recognized by a papal bull, in which Pope Gregory XII gave the House of Savoy the right to confer that knighthood in perpetuity. Thus, under principles of international law, the Italian heir to the throne in exile asserts that control of the Savoy dynastic orders exists separate from the Kingdom of Italy so that he retains the right to award the orders, and accompanying privileges." The Royal family of Savoy aditional the Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation which is their highest ranked order of Knighthood. In addition to this the Order of Merit of Savoy is a Dynastic order knighthood given out by the head of the Royal House of Savoy, Order of chivalry. Following the demise of the last reigning monarch Umberto II of Italy in 1983, the Order of the Crown of Italy was replaced in 1988 by the Order of Merit of Savoy which was instituted by his heir, the current head of the former Royal House, Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples. While the Ordine al merito d'Savoia it has never been a national order, it is subsidiary to the Civil Order of Savoy which was the Order of Merit and it has around 2,000 members and, as with the Order of the Crown of Italy previously, it is entrusted to the Chancellor of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus.
In addition to this Italy contains orders of the royal House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies which still confer their Dynastic Knightly orders. The most interesting of which is the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George because the Italian Republic recognises the order as an Order of Chivalry under Law n° 178 of 1951 authorises the Italian citizens awarded with the Constantinian decoration to show them as authoritatively recognised also by the Italian State Council in its decision number 1869/81. Therefore those citizens lawfully awarded with Constantinian decorations can ask to use them on the territory of the Italian Republic by Presidential Decree or Decree of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. By Decree of the President of the Republic, in 1973 the National Italian Association of the Knights of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of St. George. Additionally there is the Royal Order of Francis I of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. One branch of the family (led by Prince Carlo, Duke of Castro) claims that the Order of Francis I was attached to the crown not the state, and thus awards it as a dynastic order. The other branch (led by Infante Carlos, Duke of Calabria) regards the Order of Francis I as a state order that became extinct when the Borbon-Two Sicilies royal family accepted the abolition of their monarchy and the state's inclusion in the Kingdom of Italy.
A third situation of mutual co-existence is maintained in Russia, where, since the fall of communism, the orders of Saint Andrew, Saint George, and Saint Catherine have been reinvented as State Orders of Merit of the Russian Federation. However, the Russian Imperial Orders of Saint Andrew, Saint George, Saint Catherine, Saint Anna, Saint Vladimir, and Saint Stanislav have continued to be awarded since the revolution by the successive heads of the Imperial House of Romanov Grand Duke Kirill Vladimirovich, Grand Duke Vladimir Kirillovich, and Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna. In addition, Dynastic Orders of Knighthood were revived and new ones created under Grand Duke Kirill (Order of Saint Nicholas the Wonderworker), Grand Duke Vladimir (Order of St. Michael the Archangel), and Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna (Order of St. Anastasia). Awards of these honours are allowed to be worn in Russia, and enjoy semi-official recognition by the church and the state; for example, on 14 December 2001 the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation legalized the wearing of the Order of Saint Nicholas the Wonderworker in Russia by military persons on active duty.
In Central Europe, the head of the Habsburg family had the right to dispose of the Order of the Golden Fleece even after 1918. The very extensive treasure and the associated archive are in the Vienna Treasury. The Republic of Austria has expressly confirmed this. During the Nazi era, many Habsburg goods and orders were expropriated and dissolved. The USSR maintained this state of affairs during the Cold War to prevent any opposition among its oppressed peoples. After the collapse of communism, the order of St. George was reactivated by the Habsburg family as a Central European dynasty order. With both the Order of the Golden Fleece and the Order of St. George, deserved personalities are made knights today.
There are many dynastic orders of knighthood, primarily in Europe. Today, dynastic orders include those still being bestowed by a reigning monarch, those bestowed by the head of a royal house in exile, and those that became extinct. Although it is sometimes asserted that the heads of former reigning houses retain the right to their dynastic orders but cannot create new ones, that view is challenged by others who believe that the power to create orders remains with a dynasty forever. In a few cases, formerly reigning families are accused of "fudging" the issue by claiming to revive long extinct orders or by changing non-dynastic state orders into dynastic ones. One example of this is the Order of Saint Michael of the Wing, which is sometimes described as a revival of a long dormant order last awarded in the eighteenth century but also described as a new order created in 2004. Finally, there is the example of a Russian pretender Maria Vladimirovna who published a decree on 20 August 2010 to create the entirely new Imperial Order of the Holy Great Martyr Anastasia.
Main article: Papal orders of knighthood
Although some former royal families and their supporters claim that Roman Catholic Church formally recognizes their right to award various orders, the Vatican denies all such assertions. On 16 October 2012, the Vatican Secretary of State renewed its formal announcement that it only recognizes the orders issued by the Pope, namely:
The Secretary of State cautioned that "other orders, whether of recent origin or mediaeval foundation, are not recognised by the Holy See...To avoid any possible doubts, even owing to illicit issuing of documents or the inappropriate use of sacred places, and to prevent the continuation of abuses which may result in harm to people of good faith, the Holy See confirms that it attributes absolutely no value whatsoever to certificates of membership or insignia issued by these groups, and it considers inappropriate the use of churches or chapels for their so-called 'ceremonies of investiture.'"
The Royal Victorian Order is a dynastic order of knighthood and a house order of chivalry recognising distinguished personal service to the order's Sovereign
But the world has changed somewhat since 1430 including that the Sovereign of the Order of the Golden Fleece is not a reigning monarch: Archduke Karl of Austria....Nevertheless, only briefly in Der österreichische Orden vom Goldenen Vlies. Geschichte und Probleme (1971) did Annemarie Weber characterize its nature as an entity with an Austria-recognized international legal personality, its existence dependent upon its recognition in international politics.
Dynastic Orders of Knighthood are a category of Orders belonging to the heraldic patrimony of a dynasty, often held by ancient right. These differ from the early military and religious Orders and from the later Orders of Merit belonging to a particular State, having been instituted to reward personal services rendered to a dynasty or an ancient Family of princely rank
No processo cível, a Casa Real invocou que a expressão..."o uso das insígnias e denominações das Ordens Dinásticas são pertença da Casa Real portuguesa e do senhor D. Duarte". (In civil proceedings, the Royal House has argued..."the use of emblems and names of the Dynastic Orders are owned by the Portuguese Royal House and Dom Duarte.")
((cite web)): Missing or empty
Royal Order of Francis I remains an ancient, dynastic and internationally recognised institution. The Order, which is neither a state decoration of the Italian Republic or the Holy See, has continued to be conferred long after the overthrow of King Francesco II, in 1861. Today the Order is bestowed by HRH The Duke of Castro, as Head of the Royal Houseof Bourbon of the Two Sicilies, and a great-great-great grandson of the Order's founder.
The Order was not awarded after 1920, however, and as a state merit award was allowed to become extinct
St Michael's Wing in Portugal founded by the said King Alphonse 1165 or 1171 after his obtaining a notable Victory over Moors and Alberto King of Seville in which Battle MICHAEL the Arch Angel is said to appear on the right Side of Alphonse and fight against them. This Order is now out of use. (1732), Gieseler, John C. L. (also known as Johann K.L. Gieseler (2009). A Text-Book of Church History. BiblioBazaar. pp. 447–48. ISBN 978-1-116-21129-0., and Almeida, Gomes Abrunhosa Marques de and Manuel Ângelo (2007). Precedentes histórico-teóricos dos regionalismos dos Açores e da Galiza. Santiago de Compostela: Univ Santiago de Compostela. p. 187.
It is an order of the kingdom of the Two Sicilies, a political entity that disappeared 143 years ago. There are currently rival claimants to be head of the dynasty that once ruled the Two Sicilies, and one claimant has of late begun to bestow that order, although it had been discontinued. The fact that it was clearly a state order, and that it fell into disuse for so long before being resurrected by one claimant, makes it a little odd.
Juíza vinca que Portugal é uma República, desvalorizando herança. O Tribunal Cível de Lisboa acaba de dar razão a Nuno da Câmara Pereira num conflito que o opunha a D. Duarte de Bragança, obrigando este último a desistir da denominação Real Ordem de São Miguel de Ala, uma ordem que criou em 2004. (Judge stresses that Portugal is a Republic, and values heritage. The Civil Court of Lisbon has just ruled in favor of Nuno da Câmara Pereira in a conflict with Dom Duarte de Bragança, forcing the latter to give up the name the Royal Order of Saint Michael of the Wing, an order created in 2004.)
re-established a long dormant Order, that of Saint Michael of the Wing, with members across Europe and a handful in the United States (now reformed as an Association rather than an Order)
Real Ordem de São Miguel de Ala, uma ordem que criou em 2004. (Royal Order of Saint Michael of the Wing, an order created in 2004.)
Vatican City, (VIS) – In response to frequent requests for information concerning the recognition by the Holy See of Equestrian Orders dedicated to the saints or to holy places, the Secretariat of State considers it opportune to reiterate what has already been published, namely that, other than its own Equestrian Orders (the Supreme Order of Christ, the Order of the Golden Spur, the Pian Order, the Order of Saint Gregory the Great, and the Order of Pope Saint Sylvester), the Holy See recognises and supports only the Sovereign Military Order of Malta – also known as the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta – and the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem. The Holy See foresees no additions or innovations in this regard. All other orders, whether of recent origin or mediaeval foundation, are not recognised by the Holy See. Furthermore, the Holy See does not guarantee their historical or juridical legitimacy, their ends or organisational structures. To avoid any possible doubts, even owing to illicit issuing of documents or the inappropriate use of sacred places, and to prevent the continuation of abuses which may result in harm to people of good faith, the Holy See confirms that it attributes absolutely no value whatsoever to certificates of membership or insignia issued by these groups, and it considers inappropriate the use of churches or chapels for their so-called "ceremonies of investiture".
The brevet is awarded in agreement with the head of the Ottonian branch of the House of Nassau (The Netherlands).
Now, as always, the decision to award an Order remains with the Master of the Order, HM The Queen, and is hers alone.
((cite web)): External link in
There are two such orders...the Order of the House of Orange... conferred on persons who have rendered special service to the Royal House...The Queen is Grand Master of the Order of the House of Orange.
The Royal House of Bavaria (Wittelsbach)...The Order of St George, Defender of the Faith in the Immaculate Conception...The Order of St Hubert
|first=has generic name (help)
The Royal House of Bourbon-Orleans, The Order of the Holy Ghost...The Order of St. Michael of France
|first=has generic name (help)
The Duke and Duchess of Anjou and their daughter were recently received in private audience by Pope Benedict XVI, when the head of the Bourbon dynasty wore the cordon and plaque of the Order of the Holy Ghost, of which he claims to be hereditary Grand Master. This news will give immense pleasure to French legitimists and traditionalists who have never abandoned the principles of Throne and Altar and for whom Louis XX is the embodiment of the France of Saint Louis and his descendants, the Most Christian Kings.
En qualité de chef de la Maison de Bourbon, il est le Grand-maître des ordres de Saint-Michel (fondé par Louis XI) et du Saint-Esprit (fondé par Henri III).
Archduchess Regina von Habsburg....was Protectress of the Order of the Starry Cross, an all-female Roman Catholic order founded in the 17th century; Grand Mistress of the Order of Elisabeth, a similar organisation
Although Otto was the heir to the Austrian Empire, he was unusual among "pretenders" in electing to ignore his aristocratic title, preferring to style himself Dr Otto von Habsburg; in 1979 he was voted into the European Parliament as Christian Democrat member for North Bavaria and served for the next 20 years, becoming the highly-regarded Father of the House and its only member to have been born before the First World War. He never claimed the throne of Austria, and in 2000 renounced his sovereignty of the Order of the Golden Fleece, the last sign of his leadership of the Imperial Family.
She herself was Protectress of the Order of the Starry Cross, an all-female Roman Catholic order founded in the 17th century
After Regina, she will be the head of our Order!
Podgorica – December 2007. HRH Crown Prince Nicholas II of Montenegro has decreed three delegation Knights into the Royal Order of Danilo I. The awards of Knight Grand Cross have been awarded to the Constantinian Order’s Grand Magistral Delegate for Inter-Religious Relations, HE Anthony Bailey, and to HE Ambassador Dr Peter Löw. Dr Martin Vorderwülbecke was decreed to the rank of Knight Commander. The awards were made in recognition of their contribution to interfaith and charitable work within Montenegro. The Montenegro dynasty ruled from 1711 and in 2007 Montenegro regained its full independence following a referendum to separate from Serbia. The first Montenegrin state Order was established by HRH Prince Danilo Petrovic in 1853, as the Order of Danilo I for the independence of Montenegro in 1852-53. This Decoration is still awarded to prominent champions of the preservation of Montenegrin independence and the conditions by which the Order is awarded were defined by Statute. Many deserving men and women have been awarded the Order of Prince Danilo I over time including foreigners. The illustrious list includes many decorated servicemen during the World Wars and a host of other notables, including Queen Victoria and King Edward VII of Great Britain. Recent recipients include HE The President of the Republic of Montenegro, HMEH Fra’ Andrew Bertie, Prince and Grand Master of the Order of Malta, HSH Sovereign Prince Albert II of Monaco, HRH The Duke of Braganza, HRH The Count of Paris and other senior members of reigning and non-reigning dynasties. The Order is recognised by the Republic of Montenegro.
The Order is given to members of the Dynasty and kinsmen exclusively and is not an Order that is generally given beyond that. The Order was not bestowed in 1996 while Montenegro remained a non-sovereign state. In 2008, celebrating the passage of 300 years since the first Petrovic Njegoš rulers ascent, the Crown Prince of Montenegro bestowed the Order in recognition of this landmark.
The Order of Saint Peter is the House Order of the Royal House of Montenegro and the present Grand Master is H.R.H. Crown Prince Nikola of Montenegro and the Grand Chancellor is John Gvozdenović Kennedy. The Order consists of a single class, and is normally reserved for members of the Royal Family and their kinsmen and in exceptional circumstances prominent foreign citizens.
He also claimed to be head of the Constantinian Order of St George.
I have the honour of being the Grand Master of the order of Our Lady of Conception.
Alin 1. La data de 5 ianuarie 2005 a fost reinviat "Ordinul Carol I", ca Ordin dinastic, de familie. (On 5 January 2005, the Order of Carol I was revived as a dynastic-family Order.)
Heads of the Order...Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna
On 1 August (19 July O.S) 1929, in fulfilment of the intentions of the Tsar-Martyr Nicholas II and in honor of his memory as the Supreme Commander of the valiant Imperial Army and Navy of old, Our Grandfather the Emperor Kirill I of blessed memory, established the Order of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker, the purpose of which was to award the veterans of the Great War of 1914-1918.
Two examples of Catholic Dynastic Orders conferred by a Sovereign in exile are "the Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation" and the "Order of SS. Maurice and Lazarus", both belonging to the Royal House of Savoy and taken by ex-King Umberto of Italy into exile (1946)....King Umberto II died in exile on 18 March 1983. The Grand Mastership of the Order of the Most Holy Annunciation and the Order of SS. Maurice and Lazarus passed to the King's son, Prince Victor Emmanuel, who became the Head of the Royal House of Savoy on the death of his father. Both Orders belong now in the category of Catholic Dynastic Orders bestowed by a legitimate successor of a Sovereign in exile.
|first=has generic name (help)