Lodbrok is a floating crane, here in the harbor of Ystad 2020.

A crane vessel, crane ship, crane barge, or floating crane is a ship with a crane specialized in lifting heavy loads, typically exceeding 1,500 t (1,476 long tons; 1,653 short tons) for modern ships. The largest crane vessels are used for offshore construction.[1]

The cranes are fitted to conventional monohulls and barges, but the largest crane vessels are often catamaran or semi-submersible types which provide enhanced stability and reduced platform motion. Many crane vessels are fitted with one or more rotating cranes. Some of the largest crane vessels use fixed sheerlegs instead; in these designs, the crane cannot rotate relative to the ship, and the vessel must be manoeuvered to place loads. Other vessels use large gantry cranes and straddle the load.[1]

Types

There are several major configurations of crane vessel, usually with overlapping ranges of functionality, but each has at least one major advantage over the others in some circumstances, and consequently all these arrangements coexist.[1]

Crane ships

Seagoing monohull with heavy lift luffing and slewing crane

Conventional seagoing self propelled monohulls with heavy lift crane equipment. [1]

Sheer-legs barges

Taklift 4 Sheer-leg barge

Main article: Floating sheerleg

A Sheer-legs barge is a barge with sheer-legs mounted at one end, which can lift loads and luff the sheer-legs to adjust the reach, but cannot swing the load independently of the hull orientation. A typical arrangement has a substantial A-frame hinged at the stern, supported by stays to the bow. When the load has been lifted, the barge is maneuvered to the position where the load is to be lowered by onboard thrusters or tugs, and the load is lowered. A sheer-legs barge always keeps the load in the line of maximum static stability, and may use ballasting at the bow to increase longitudinal righting moment to compensate for the load. The sheer-legs arrangement is more economical to manufacture and maintain than a slewing crane, but may be less convenient as the whole vessel must be moved to precise position for lifting and lowering. It is usual to luff the sheer-legs before lifting to a position suitable for both lifting and setting the load, as luffing under load is generally slow, and there is seldom any need.[1]

Hammerhead crane barges

Catamaran HLV Svanen with hammerhead crane

A heavy lift hammerhead crane barge has a fixed hammerhead crane, which neither slews nor luffs, but has a constant reach. They are operated in a similar way to sheer-legs barges. This arrangement may be mounted on a catamaran barge which allows it to straddle a bridge pier to lower a prefabricated section into place.[1]

Catamaran gantry cranes

Catamaran gantry crane vessel VB-10,000

Catamaran heavy lift barges that consist of two barges connected by gantry cranes across the top have been used in sheltered water like harbours and rivers. To reduce listing moments on the barges, the gantries may be attached to the hulls by pinned joints at the ends, allowing some independent roll. The gantry trusses are usually fitted at both ends of the barges, allowing lifts of long loads.[1]

Semi-submersibles

Semi-submersible Balder

Main article: Semi-submersible platform

Semi-submersible crane platforms have advantages where the water is too deep or the bottom composition unsuitable for a jack-up, and the water conditions are frequently too rough for efficient use of conventional hulls. The semi-submersible hull form has a lesser and slower response to waves and swell, due to reduced waterplane area, and stability and righting moment are adjustable by ballasting to suit the load. The gaps between the columns also allow waves to pass between then with little impact on the vessel. Disadvantages are lower inherent stability, and much greater cost and complexity.[1]

The low waterplane area causes a low heave response, and this can be utilised to function as a tension leg platform by using vertical mooring lines to anchor piles or clump weights on the seabed sufficient to prevent heave in the prevailing sea state. In this configuration heave sensitive operations can be done with precision and control.[1]

Revolving derrick barge

Revolving derrick barge Weeks 533 lifting Enterprise

A revolving derrick barge is a slewing crane mounted on a barge, which can be rotated independently of the hull when carrying a load. These are highly versatile, but also expensive, complex, and have some limitations, particularly in the sea states in which they can safely operate. They are usually operated from a fixed position, and use the slewing and luffing capabilities of the derrick to position the crane tip for picking and setting the load[1]

The arrangement is a compromise of structural and stability requirements balanced against reach versatility, load capacity, and cost. One of the advantages of the slewing derrick is the ability to reach loads carried on the deck of the vessel itself. Compared to land-based cranes, the additional dynamic loads and motion in a seaway complicate the operation and safety. Position and movement of the boom tip are affected by all six degrees of freedom, magnified by distance from the centres of motion of the vessel, and varying during a lifting operation as the position of the tip is moved relative to the vessel.[1]

Jack-up construction barge

Main article: Jack-up rig

A Jack-up construction barge is a barge fitted with four to eight legs, each with a jacking system that can grip the leg and move it up or down relative to the hull, lock it in place and move back along the leg to grip it again for a further jacking operation. The hull is lifted clear of the wave tops in the working position, and the mass of the barge and any additional load is supported by the bases of the legs, which should preferably spread the load as evenly as possible. During the jack-up operation the barge is secured in place by a taut mooring spread of anchors. Once at working height the legs can be released one at a time and driven deeper with pile driving hammers for greater stability. Removal is basically a similar procedure in reverse, with the legs being pulled out of the bottom ground one at a time after the hull is afloat, while the anchor spread limits side forces imposed by waves. Water jetting, sustained tension, and/or low pressure water injection at the base of the leg may be used to release firmly embedded legs. These rigs are free from motion response to sea conditions, but need occasional calm conditions to move. Performance is strongly dependent on seabed characteristics.[1]

Capacity

The three main measures of capacity are load, reach, and lift height. Other factors of importance are hull draught, depth to which the hook can be lowered (for offshore work), and sea state limits for transit and lifting.[1]

Operation and safety

The interaction of the six degrees of freedom of the vessel, the response to the sea state and wind, and the position and motion of the upper block due to crane geometry and operational motion, can make the upper block describe a complex three-dimensional path in space. The load path is even more complex, and there may be various resonances of vessel, crane and load which must be managed, generally by passing through those conditions as soon as reasonably practicable, but motion compensation systems may help at times. Accelerations, jerk loads and impacts between the load and surroundings must be minimised and limited to levels which do not cause unacceptable damage. Some of these responses are inherent to the combination of vessel, crane and load, and others depend on sea state and wind forces. Pick up and set down are the critical stages for impact loads. During pickup there may be relative movement between the support on which the load stands and the hook, and if the load cannot be lifted clear before the gap closes, there will be impact. Similarly when setting the load down, it should be done as smoothly as possible, and once in contact should be allowed to settle as soon as possible to avoid re-lifting and pounding on the base structure.[1]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2023)

Applications

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2023)

History

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources in this section. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

In medieval Europe, crane vessels which could be flexibly deployed in the whole port basin were introduced as early as the 14th century.[2]

During the age of sail, the sheer hulk was used extensively as a floating crane for tasks that required heavy lift. At the time, the heaviest single components of ships were the main masts, and sheer hulks were essential for removing and replacing them, but they were also used for other purposes. Some crane vessels had engines for propulsion, others needed to be towed with a tugboat.

USS Kearsarge as Crane Ship No. 1

In 1920, the 1898-built battleship USS Kearsarge was converted to a crane ship when a crane with a capacity of 250 tons was installed. Later it was renamed Crane Ship No. 1.[3] It was used, amongst other things, to place guns and other heavy items on other battleships under construction. Another remarkable feat was the raising of the submarine USS Squalus in 1939.

In 1942, the crane ships a.k.a. "Heavy Lift Ships" SS Empire Elgar (PQ 16), SS Empire Bard (PQ 15), and SS Empire Purcell (PQ 16) were sent to the Russian Arctic ports of Archangelsk, Murmansk and Molotovsk (since renamed Sererodvinsk). Their role was to enable the unloading of the Arctic convoys where port installations were either destroyed by German bombers or were non existent (as at Bakaritsa quay Archangel).[4][5][6]

In 1949, J. Ray McDermott had Derrick Barge Four built, a barge that was outfitted with a revolving crane capable of lifting 150 tons. The arrival of this type of vessel changed the direction of the offshore construction industry. Instead of constructing oil platforms in parts, jackets and decks could be built onshore as modules. For use in the shallow part of the Gulf of Mexico, the cradle of the offshore industry, these barges sufficed.

In 1963, Heerema converted a Norwegian tanker, Sunnaas, into a crane vessel with a capacity of 300 tons, the first one in the offshore industry that was ship-shaped. It was renamed Global Adventurer. This type of crane vessel was better adapted to the harsh environment of the North Sea.

SSCV Thialf in a Norwegian fjord

Semi-submersible giants

In 1978, Heerema had two semi-submersible crane vessels built, Hermod and Balder, each with one 2,000 ton and one 3,000 ton crane. Later both were upgraded to a higher capacity. This type of crane vessel was much less sensitive to sea swell, so that it was possible to operate on the North Sea during the winter months. The high stability also allowed for heavier lifts than was possible with a monohull. The larger capacity of the cranes reduced the installation time of a platform from a whole season to a few weeks. Inspired by this success similar vessels were built. In 1985 DB-102 was launched for McDermott, with two cranes with a capacity of 6,000 tons each. Micoperi ordered M7000 in 1986, designed with two cranes of 7,000 tons each.

However, due to an oil glut in the mid 1980s, the boom in the offshore industry was over, resulting in collaborations. In 1988, a joint venture between Heerema and McDermott was formed, HeereMac. In 1990 Micoperi had to apply for bankruptcy. Saipem – in the beginning of the 1970s a large heavy lift contractor, but only a small player in this field at the end of the 1980s – acquired M7000 from Micoperi in 1995, later renaming it Saipem 7000. In 1997 Heerema took over DB-102 from McDermott after discontinuation of their joint venture.[7] The ship was renamed Thialf and subsequently was upgraded in 2000 to a lifting capacity of twice 7,100 tons.

Thialf can use both cranes in tandem to lift 14,200 t (14,000 long tons; 15,700 short tons) at a radius of 31.2 m (102 ft); in comparison, Saipem 7000 can use both cranes to lift a smaller load of 14,000 t (14,000 long tons; 15,000 short tons) at a wider radius of 41 m (135 ft).[8]

Lifting records

A heaviest single lift record was set in 2000 by Thialf for lifting the 11,883 t (11,695-long-ton; 13,099-short-ton) Shearwater topsides for Shell.[9][10] Saipem 7000 set a new record in October 2004 for the 12,150 t (11,960-long-ton; 13,390-short-ton) lift of Sabratha Deck.[11][12]

Under dynamic positioning, Saipem 7000 set another record in 2010 by lifting the 11,600 t (11,400-long-ton; 12,800-short-ton) BP Valhall Production topsides.[12]

Shortly after it was completed, Sleipnir completed a record lift of 15,300 t (15,100 long tons; 16,900 short tons) for the topsides of the Leviathan project for Noble Energy, in September 2019.[13]

Heavy lift vessels

Heavy Lift Vessels, sorted by capacity[14][15]
Vessel name Company Built Flag Lifting capacity (t) Type Identifier Image
Sleipnir Heerema Marine Contractors 2019 Panama 20,000[16] (10,000 + 10,000 tandem, revolving) Semi-submersible IMO number9781425
Pioneering Spirit Allseas 2014 Malta 5,000 (tub crane only)[17] Monohull IMO number9593505
20,000 (Jacket Lift System sheerleg)[18]
48,000 (Topside Lift System)[19]
Thialf Heerema Marine Contractors 1985 Panama 14,200[20] (7,100 + 7,100 tandem, revolving) Semi-submersible IMO number8757740
Saipem 7000 Saipem 1987 The Bahamas 14,000[21] (7,000 + 7,000 tandem, revolving) Semi-submersible IMO number8501567
Zhen Hua 30 ZOMC (ZPMC / Offshore Tech joint venture) 2016 Hong Kong 12,000[22] (7,000 revolving) Monohull IMO number9107021
Hyundai-10000 Hyundai Heavy Industries 2015 South Korea 10,000[23] Sheerleg Monohull MMSI number: 440680000
Svanen Van Oord 1991 The Bahamas 8,700[24] Catamaran IMO number9007453
Hermod Heerema Marine Contractors 1978 Panama 8,100[25] (4,500 + 3,600 tandem; 4,500 + 2,700 revolving) Semi-submersible (scrapped)[26] IMO number7710214
Lanjing CNOOC 1990 Hong Kong 7,500[27] (4,000 revolving) Monohull IMO number8907527
VB-10,000 Versabar Inc. 2010 United States 6,800[28] Catamaran MMSI number: 367490050
Balder Heerema Marine Contractors 1978 Panama 6,300[29] (3,600 + 2,700 tandem; 3,000 + 2,000 revolving) Semi-submersible IMO number7710226
Les Alizés Jan De Nul 2023 Luxembourg 5,000[30] Monohull IMO number9911032
Aegir[31][32] Heerema Marine Contractors 2012 Panama 5,000[33] Monohull IMO number9605396
Orion DEME Offshore 2019 Belgium 5,000[34] Monohull IMO number: 9825453
https://deme-group.com
Courtesy of DEME (https://deme-group.com)
Asian Hercules III Asian Lift (Keppel Fels/Smit International JV) 2015 Singapore 5,000[35] Sheerleg Monohull IMO number9660396
Seven Borealis Subsea 7 2012 The Bahamas 5,000[36] Monohull IMO number9452787
Oleg Strashnov Seaway Heavy Lifting 2011 Cyprus 5,000[37] Monohull IMO number9452701
HL 5000 Deep Offshore Technology ? Iran 4,500[38] Sheerleg Barge
Oceanic 5000 Oceanic Marine Contractors 2011 Barbados 4,400[39] Monohull IMO number9559145
Kaisho
(海翔)
Yorigami Maritime Construction Co., Ltd. ? Japan 4,100[40] Sheerleg Barge
Gulliver Scaldis 2018 Luxembourg 4,000[41] (2,000 + 2,000 tandem) Sheerleg Barge IMO number9774094
Yosho
(洋翔)
Yorigami Maritime Construction Co., Ltd. ? Japan 4,000[42] Sheerleg Barge
DB 50 J. Ray McDermott 1986 Panama 3,800[43] (3,200 revolving) Monohull IMO number8503539
Lan Jiang CNOOC 2001 China 3,800[44] (2,500 revolving) Monohull IMO number9245641
Swiber Kaizen 4000 Swiber Offshore 2012 Panama 3,800[45] Monohull MMSI number: 357978000
Musashi Fukada Salvage & Marine Works Co., Ltd. 1974 Japan 3,700[46] Sheerleg Barge
Vessel name Company Built Flag Lifting capacity (t) Type Identifier Image
Yoshida No. 50
(第50吉田号)
Yoshida Gumi, Ltd. ? Japan 3,700[47] Sheerleg Barge
L 3601 Sembcorp Marine 2012 Singapore 3,600[48] Sheerleg Barge
OOS Gretha OOS International 2012 Marshall Islands 3,600[49] (1,800 + 1,800 tandem) Semi-submersible IMO number9650963
Samho 4000 Samho Ind. Co. Ltd 2009 South Korea 3,600[50] Sheerleg Barge MMSI number: 440111280
Rambiz Scaldis 1976 Belgium 3,300[51] (1,700 + 1,600 tandem) Sheerleg Barge IMO number9136199
Asian Hercules II Asian Lift (Keppel Fels/Smit International JV) 1985 Singapore 3,200[52] Sheerleg Monohull IMO number8639297
DB 101 (ex-Narwhal) J. Ray McDermott 1978 Saint Kitts and Nevis 3,200[14] Semi-submersible (scrapped) IMO number7709069
Tian Yi Hao Zhongtie Major Bridge Engineering Group ? China 3,000[53][54][55] Catamaran MMSI number: 412591260
Saipem Constellation Saipem 2014 Panama 3,000[56] Monohull IMO number9629756
Fuji Fukada Salvage & Marine Works Co., Ltd. ? Japan 3,000[46] Sheerleg Barge
Yoshida No. 28
(第28吉田号)
Yoshida Gumi, Ltd. ? Japan 3,000[57] Sheerleg Barge
Swiber PJW3000 Swiber Offshore 2010 Panama 3,000[45] Barge MMSI number: 370210000
Wei Li Shanghai Salvage 2010 China 3,000[58] Monohull IMO number9597628
SADAF 3000 Darya Fan Qeshm Industries Company 1985 Iran 3,000[59] Sheerleg Barge IMO number8415512
Samho 3000 Samho Ind. Co. Ltd ? South Korea 3,000[50] Sheerleg Barge MMSI number: 440121590
Bokalift 1 Boskalis 2018 Cyprus 3,000[60] Monohull IMO number9592850
DB 30 J. Ray McDermott 1999 Panama 2,794[61] (2,223 revolving) Monohull MMSI number: 356011000
LTS 3000 L&T-SapuraCrest JV[62] 2010 India 2,722[63] Monohull IMO number9446843
Sapura 3000 SapuraAcergy 2008 Malaysia 2,722[64] Monohull IMO number9391270
Seaway Yudin[65] Seaway Heavy Lifting 1985 Cyprus 2,500[66] Monohull IMO number8219463
Lewek Champion EMAS Chiyoda Subsea 2007 Singapore 2,200[67] Monohull IMO number9377377
Vessel name Company Built Flag Lifting capacity (t) Type Identifier Image
Suruga Fukada Salvage & Marine Works Co., Ltd. ? Japan 2,200[46] Sheerleg Barge
Taklift 4 Smit International 1981 Netherlands 2,200[15] Sheerleg Barge IMO number8010506
Saipem 3000 Saipem 1984 The Bahamas 2,177[68] revolving Monohull IMO number8309165
DB 27 J. Ray McDermott 1974 Panama 2,177[69] (1,270 revolving) Barge IMO number8757685
Kongo Fukada Salvage & Marine Works Co., Ltd. ? Japan 2,050[46] Sheerleg Barge
Mount 2000 ZOMC (ZPMC / Offshore Tech joint venture) 2018 China 2,000[70][71] (1,100 revolving) Monohull IMO number9858008
Quippo Prakash MDL/Quippo/Sapura JV 2010 ? 2,000[72] Monohull
NOR Goliath Coastline Maritime 2009 Marshall Islands 2,000[73] Monohull IMO number9396933
Sampson Coastline Maritime 2010 Panama 2,000[73] Monohull IMO number9429455
Kumyong No.2200 Kum Yong Development Co., Ltd 2009 South Korea 2,000[74] Sheerleg Barge MMSI number: 440011970
Huasteco Grupo Protexa 1960 Mexico 1,800[75] Monohull IMO number5377953
Tolteca CAMSA 1955 Mexico 1,800[76] Monohull IMO number5320522
Matador 3 Bonn Mees 2002 Netherlands 1,800[77] Sheerleg Barge IMO number9272137
Samho 2000 Samho Ind. Co. Ltd ? ? 1,800[50] Sheerleg Barge
Left Coast Lifter Fluor/American Bridge/Granite/Traylor Brothers JV 2009 United States 1,699[78] Sheerleg Barge
Asian Hercules Asian Lift (Keppel Fels/Smit International JV) 1985 Singapore 1,600[79] Sheerleg Barge MMSI number: 563314000
DLB1600 Valentine Maritime Gulf 2013 Panama 1,600[80] (1,200 revolving) Barge IMO number9681651
Shinsho-1600
(神翔-1600)
Yorigami Maritime Construction Co., Ltd. ? Japan 1,600[81] Monohull
Vessel name Company Built Flag Lifting capacity (t) Type Identifier Image
Planned / Under Construction
Vessel name Company Year Lifting capacity Type
OOS Zeelandia OOS International 2022 25,000[82][83] (12,500 + 12,500 tandem) Semi-submersible
OOS Serooskerke OOS International Q2 2019 4,400[84] (2,200 + 2,200 tandem) Semi-submersible
OOS Walcheren OOS International Q4 2019 4,400[85] (2,200 + 2,200 tandem) Semi-submersible

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Gerwick, Ben C. Jr (2007). Construction of Marine and Offshore Structures (third ed.). Taylor and Francis. ISBN 978-0-8493-3052-0.
  2. ^ Michael Matheus: "Mittelalterliche Hafenkräne," in: Uta Lindgren (ed.): Europäische Technik im Mittelalter. 800-1400, Berlin 2001 (4th ed.), p. 346 ISBN 3-7861-1748-9
  3. ^ "Popular Science". google.com. November 1931.
  4. ^ "US Navy list of FLOATING CRANE (N-S-P),YD". Archived from the original on 2017-03-30. Retrieved 2017-03-29.
  5. ^ navsource.org, TD- Cranes
  6. ^ navalhistory.org, By Jon Hoppe
  7. ^ "J. Ray McDermott ends HeereMac joint venture". gasandoil.com.
  8. ^ Mambra, Shamseer (27 December 2017). "The Saipem 7000: One of the Biggest Cranes in the World". Marine Insight. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  9. ^ "Shearwater". Heerema Marine Contractors. Archived from the original on 18 April 2021. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  10. ^ Liu, Gengshen; Li, Huajun (2017). "1: Offshore Platform Topsides and Substructure". Offhsore Platform Integration and Floatover Technology. Beijing: Science Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-7-03-051206-2. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  11. ^ Beckman, Jeremy (1 February 2005). "Libya gas export project sets records". Offshore. Retrieved 21 March 2018. In the event, the deck sailed out of Ulsan on Sept. 28, 2004, weighing 12,100 tonnes, including rigging, having been skidded onto the Dockwise transportation vessel Transshelf using hydraulic and strand jacks.

    On Oct. 30, the Transshelf arrived at the offshore site, following a four-week voyage via the Suez Canal. Two days later, the Saipem 7000 mated the deck to the jacket in a four-hour operation. Certifying authority Lloyd's Register confirmed the weight as a world record for a single lift offshore. However, Saipem should top its own achievement later this year when the same vessel lifts the Piltun platform topsides into place offshore Sakhalin Island.
  12. ^ a b Grimsley, Robin (9 June 2017). "Mammoth lifters: the world's largest cranes (Part 2)". Interact Media Defined. Archived from the original on 22 March 2018. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  13. ^ "World record: Heerema's crane vessel Sleipnir lifts 15,300 tonnes" (Press release). Heerema Marine Contractors. 8 September 2019. Archived from the original on 19 September 2020. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
  14. ^ a b Greenberg, Jerry (November 2010). "2010 Worldwide Survey of Heavy Lift Vessels" (PDF). Offshore Magazine. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 August 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  15. ^ a b Moon, Ted (November 2014). "2014 Worldwide Survey of Heavy Lift Vessels" (PDF). Offshore Magazine. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 July 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  16. ^ "Sleipnir". Heerema Marine Contractors. Archived from the original on 26 June 2018. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
  17. ^ "New crane orders with a combined lifting capacity of 20,000mt for Huisman" (Press release). Huisman Equipment B.V. August 24, 2016. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
  18. ^ "Pioneering Spirit Gets 20,000-Tonne Floating Sheerlegs System". The Maritime Executive. Retrieved 2022-02-20.
  19. ^ "Pioneering Spirit proves strength, stability with record topsides lift". Offshore Magazine. Retrieved 2024-03-30.
  20. ^ "Thialf Datasheet". Heerema Marine Contractors. Archived from the original on 22 October 2020. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  21. ^ "Saipem 7000 Datasheet". Saipem S.p.A. - A subsidiary of Eni S.p.A. Archived from the original on 9 March 2016. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  22. ^ "Zhen Hua 30 Heavy Lift Vessel" (PDF). ZPMC-OTL Marine Contractor. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  23. ^ "World's Biggest Shear-Leg Floating Crane in Operation" (Press release). Marine Executive. 10 June 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  24. ^ "Heavy Lift Installation Vessel Svanen" (PDF). Van Oord. October 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 September 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  25. ^ "Hermod Datasheet". Heerema Marine Contractors. Archived from the original on 6 December 2016. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  26. ^ Sustainability Report (PDF) (Report). Heerema Marine Contractors. September 2018. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  27. ^ "Lan Jing Vessel Information". cnoocengineering. Archived from the original on 18 August 2016. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  28. ^ "VB-10,000 Datasheet".
  29. ^ "Balder Datasheet". Heerema Marine Contractors. Archived from the original on 6 March 2021. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  30. ^ "Les Alizés" (PDF). Jan De Nul Group. Retrieved 11 March 2024.
  31. ^ "HMC's New Vessel named "Aegir" after Norse God of the Sea". Heerema Marine Contractors. 20 December 2010. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
  32. ^ "Huisman to deliver heavylifting and pipelay equipment onboard Heerema's new Deep Water Construction Vessel". huismanequipment.com. Huisman Equipment B.V. July 26, 2010. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
  33. ^ "Aegir". Heerema Marine Contractors. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
  34. ^ "DP3 Orion | DEME Group". www.deme-group.com. Retrieved 2019-11-18.
  35. ^ "Asian Hercules III" (PDF). Asian Lift. April 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 August 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  36. ^ "Seven Borealis Datasheet" (PDF). Subsea 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 October 2011. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  37. ^ "Oleg Strashnov". Seaway Heavy Lifting. Archived from the original on 22 December 2016. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  38. ^ "HL 5000". Deep Offshore Technology. 2008. Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  39. ^ "Oceanic 5000 – Build To Operations | Offshore Construction Specialists (OCS)". www.offshore-ocs.com. Retrieved 2017-12-24.
  40. ^ "海翔 Kaisho". Yorigami Maritime Construction Co., Ltd. Retrieved 3 August 2016.
  41. ^ "Gulliver" (PDF). Scaldis Salvage & Marine Contractors NV. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
  42. ^ "洋翔 Yosho". Yorigami Maritime Construction Co., Ltd. Retrieved 3 August 2016.
  43. ^ "Derrick Barge 50" (PDF). McDermott International, Inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 August 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  44. ^ "Lan Jiang Vessel Information". cnoocengineering. Archived from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  45. ^ a b "Offshore Construction Vessels: Derrick Crane / Accommodation Work Barge". Swiber Holdings Ltd. 2016. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
  46. ^ a b c d "Register of Ships: Crane Vessels". Fukada Salvage & Marine Works Co., Ltd. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  47. ^ "YOSHIDA-GUMI HomePage" 第50吉田号 [50th Yoshida-Go]. Yoshida Gumi, Ltd. 28 September 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2016.
  48. ^ "Annual Report" (PDF). Sembcorp Marine. 2012. p. 89. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  49. ^ "OOS Gretha - OOS International". OOS International. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  50. ^ a b c "::: Welcome! Thank you for visiting SAMHO IND website truly". www.samhoind.co.kr. Retrieved 2017-12-24.
  51. ^ "Rambiz" (PDF). Scaldis Salvage & Marine Contractors NV. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
  52. ^ "Asian Hercules II" (PDF). Asian Lift. February 2002. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 February 2006. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  53. ^ "Offshore, Specials & Workboats | Reference Brochure" (PDF). RH Marine. p. 12. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 August 2022. Retrieved 18 August 2022.
  54. ^ Yaojun Ge; Yong Yuan (2019). "State-of-the-Art Technology in the Construction of Sea-Crossing Fixed Links with a Bridge, Island, and Tunnel Combination[J]". Engineering. 5: 15–21. doi:10.1016/j.eng.2019.01.003. S2CID 116003173.
  55. ^ Unb, Shariatpur (2019-03-23). "Padma Bridge: 9th span installed". The Daily Star. Archived from the original on 11 June 2020. Retrieved 2022-08-18.
  56. ^ "Lewek Constellation" (PDF). EMAS Chiyoda Subsea. 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 August 2016. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
  57. ^ "YOSHIDA-GUMI HomePage" 第28吉田号 [28th Yoshida-Go]. Yoshida Gumi, Ltd. Retrieved 3 August 2016.
  58. ^ "Wei Li". China Rescue and Salvage. Archived from the original on 17 October 2016. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
  59. ^ "SADAF 3000". Darya Fan Qeshm Industries Company. 2009. Retrieved 1 August 2016.[permanent dead link]
  60. ^ "Heavy lift vessels | Boskalis". Royal Boskalis Westminster N.V. Retrieved 2018-02-26.
  61. ^ "Derrick Barge 30" (PDF). McDermott International, Inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 August 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  62. ^ "香港开奖现场直播结果+开奖记录2021|2021香港 开奖结果查询". www.lntsapuracrest.com. Archived from the original on 27 February 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2022.
  63. ^ "Ulstein Sea of Solutions BV" (PDF). seaofsolutions.nl. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-24. Retrieved 2009-10-19.
  64. ^ "Our Innovative Breakthrough Vessel: Sapura 3000" (PDF). sapuraacergy.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 March 2011. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  65. ^ "Seaway Yudin". www.seawayheavylifting.com.cy. Archived from the original on 2019-05-06. Retrieved 2019-05-06.
  66. ^ "The HLV Stanislav Yudin". Seaway Heavy Lifting. Archived from the original on 22 December 2016. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  67. ^ "Lewek Champion" (PDF). EMAS Chiyoda Subsea. 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 August 2016. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
  68. ^ "Saipem 3000". Saipem. Archived from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  69. ^ "Derrick Barge 27" (PDF). McDermott International, Inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 August 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  70. ^ "2000T Full Revolving Crane Barge" (PDF). ZPMC-OTL Marine Contractor. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  71. ^ 文字 (June 11, 2018). "【海工】2000吨起重船顺利交付 ZPMC自主研发推进器初露峥嵘" [[Offshore Engineering]: 2000-ton crane vessel successfully delivered, uses ZPMC's first self-developed azimuthal thruster]. Sohu. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  72. ^ "Derrick lay barge Quippo Prakash delivered to Indian JV". Offshore Shipping Online. 13 May 2010. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  73. ^ a b "Drydocks World South East Asia to build giant construction vessel". marinelog.com. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2010-02-10.
  74. ^ "Kum Yong Development Co., Ltd". en.kumyongdev.com (in Korean). Retrieved 2017-12-24.
  75. ^ "Activos Protexa Construcciones". protexa.com.mx. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2010-07-04.
  76. ^ "Crane Ship Tolteca" (PDF). GRUPO R. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
  77. ^ "Matador 3" (PDF). Bonn&Mees. 2002. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 October 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  78. ^ "Bay Bridge Construction Enters Momentous Stage As Giant Crane Barge Makes Historic Entry" (PDF) (Press release). San Francisco. 12 March 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
  79. ^ "Asian Hercules" (PDF). Asian Lift. February 2002. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 October 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  80. ^ "Specification of Derrick Lay Barge DLB 1600" (PDF). Valentine Maritime (Gulf) LLC. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
  81. ^ "神翔-1600 Shinsho-1600". Yorigami Maritime Construction Co., Ltd. Retrieved 3 August 2016.
  82. ^ "Press release: OOS International signs MOU with CMIH for the largest Crane Vessel (SSCV) in the world: the OOS Zeelandia - OOS International". OOS International. 2017-12-11. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  83. ^ "SSCV OOS Zeelandia". OOS International. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
  84. ^ "OOS Serooskerke - OOS International". OOS International. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  85. ^ "OOS Walcheren - OOS International". OOS International. Retrieved 2017-12-12.