USS Evarts
USS Evarts

Destroyer escort (DE) was the United States Navy mid-20th-century classification for a 20-knot (37 km/h; 23 mph) warship designed with the endurance necessary to escort mid-ocean convoys of merchant marine ships.[1]

Development of the destroyer escort was promoted by the British need in World War II for anti-submarine ships that could operate in open oceans at speeds of up to 20 knots. These "British Destroyer Escort"s were designed by the US for mass-production under Lend Lease as a less expensive alternative to fleet destroyers.[2]

The Royal Navy and Commonwealth forces identified such warships as frigates, and that classification was widely accepted when the United States redesignated destroyer escorts as frigates (FF) in 1975. From circa 1954 until 1975 new-build US Navy ships designated as destroyer escorts (DE) were called ocean escorts. Similar types of warships in other navies of the time included the 46 diesel-engined Kaibōkan of the Imperial Japanese Navy,[3] 10 Kriegsmarine F-class escort ships, and the two Amiral Murgescu-class vessels of the Romanian Navy.

Postwar destroyer escorts and frigates were larger than those produced during wartime, with increased anti-aircraft capability, but remained smaller and slower than postwar destroyers.[4] As Cold War destroyer escorts became as large as wartime destroyers, the United States Navy converted some of their World War II destroyers to escort destroyers (DDE).[5]

General description

USS Dealey

Full-sized destroyers must be able to steam as fast or faster than fast capital ships such as fleet carriers and cruisers. This typically requires a speed of 25–35 knots (46–65 km/h) (dependent upon the era and navy). They must carry torpedoes and a smaller caliber of cannon to use against enemy ships, as well as antisubmarine detection equipment and weapons.

A destroyer escort needed only to be able to maneuver relative to a slow convoy (which in World War II would travel at 10 to 12 knots (19 to 22 km/h)), be able to defend against aircraft, and detect, pursue, and attack submarines. These lower requirements greatly reduce the size, cost, and crew required for the destroyer escort. Destroyer escorts were optimized for antisubmarine warfare, having a tighter turning radius and more specialized armament (such as the forward-firing Hedgehog mortar) than fleet destroyers. Their much slower speed was not a liability in this context, since sonar was useless at speeds over 20 knots (37 km/h).

As an alternative to geared steam-turbine propulsion found in full-sized destroyers and larger warships, many US destroyer escorts of the World War II period had diesel-electric or turboelectric drive, in which the engine rooms functioned as power stations supplying current to electric motors sited close to the propellers. Electric drive was selected because it does not need gearboxes (which were heavily in demand for the fast fleet destroyers) to adjust engine speed to the much lower optimal speed for the propellers. The current from the engine room can be used equally well for other purposes, and after the war, many destroyer escorts were re-used as floating power stations for coastal cities in Latin America under programs funded by the World Bank.[citation needed]. Edsall-class ships were the exception to this and they used a geared diesel engine to drive the propellers directly. John C. Butlers used the typical boiler and geared turbine propulsion system.

The Tacoma-class patrol frigates (PF) had a greater range than the superficially similar destroyer escorts, but the US Navy viewed them as decidedly inferior in all other respects. The Tacoma class had a much larger turning circle than a destroyer escort, lacked sufficient ventilation for warm-weather operations – a reflection of their original British design and its emphasis on operations in the North Atlantic Ocean – and were criticized as far too hot below decks, and, because of the mercantile style of their hulls, had far less resistance to underwater explosions than ships built to naval standards like the destroyer escorts.[6]

Destroyer escorts were also useful for coastal antisubmarine and radar picket ship duty. During World War II, seven destroyer escorts (DEs) were converted to radar picket destroyer escorts (DERs), supplementing radar picket destroyers. Although these were relegated to secondary roles after the war, in the mid-1950s, 12 more DEs were converted to DERs, serving as such until 1960–1965. Their mission was to extend the Distant Early Warning Line on both coasts, in conjunction with 16 Guardian-class radar picket ships, which were converted Liberty ships.

During World War II, some 95 destroyer escorts were converted by the US to high-speed transports (APDs). This involved adding an extra deck which allowed space for about 10 officers and 150 men. Two large davits were also installed, one on either side of the ship, from which landing craft (LCVPs) could be launched.[citation needed]

Origins

The Lend-Lease Act was passed into law in the United States in March 1941, enabling the United Kingdom to procure merchant ships, warships, munitions, and other materiel from the US, to help with the war effort. This enabled the UK to commission the US to design, build, and supply an escort vessel that was suitable for antisubmarine warfare in deep open-ocean situations, which they did in June 1941. Captain E.L. Cochrane of the American Bureau of Shipping came up with a design which was known as the British destroyer escort (BDE). The BDE designation was retained by the first six destroyer escorts transferred to the United Kingdom (BDE 1, 2, 3, 4, 12, and 46); of the initial order of 50, these were the only ones the Royal Navy received, the rest being reclassified as destroyer escorts on 25 January 1943 and taken over by the United States Navy.[7]

When the United States entered the war, and found they also required an antisubmarine warfare ship and that the destroyer escort fitted their needs perfectly, a system of rationing was put in place whereby out of every five destroyer escorts completed, four would be allocated to the U.S. Navy and one to the Royal Navy.

Post–World War II U.S. ship reclassification

After World War II, new-build United States Navy destroyer escorts were referred to as ocean escorts, but retained the hull classification symbol DE. However, other navies, most notably those of NATO countries and the USSR, followed different naming conventions for this type of ship, which resulted in some confusion. To remedy this problem, the 1975 ship reclassification declared ocean escorts (and by extension, destroyer escorts) as frigates (FF). This brought the USN's nomenclature more in line with NATO, and made comparing ship types with the Soviet Union easier. As of 2006, no plans existed for future frigates for the US Navy. USS Zumwalt and the littoral combat ship (LCS) were the main ship types planned in this area. However, by 2017 the Navy had reversed course, and put out a Request For Proposals (RFP) for a new frigate class, temporarily designated FFG(X). One major problem with ship classification is whether to base it on a ship's role (such as escort or air defense), or on its size (such as displacement). One example of this ambiguity is the Ticonderoga-class air-defense ship class, which is classified as cruiser, though it uses the same hull as the Spruance-class destroyers.

Vietnam War

During the Vietnam War, the Republic of Vietnam Navy received two Edsall-class destroyer escorts from the United States.

US Navy destroyer escort classes

Class name Propulsion Guns Torpedoes Lead ship Commissioned Ships built
Evarts (GMT)[8] diesel - electric 3 × 3in/50 0 USS Evarts (DE-5) 15 April 1943[a] 97
Buckley (TE)[9] turbo - electric 3 × 3in/50 3 × 21in USS Buckley (DE-51) 30 April 1943 148
Cannon (DET)[10] diesel - electric 3 × 3in/50 3 × 21in USS Cannon (DE-99) 26 September 1943 72
Edsall (FMR)[11] geared diesel 3 × 3in/50 3 × 21in USS Edsall (DE-129) 10 April 1943   85
Rudderow (TEV)[12] turbo - electric 2 × 5in/38 3 × 21in USS Rudderow (DE-224) 15 May 1944 22
John C. Butler (WGT)[13] geared turbine 2 × 5in/38 3 × 21in USS John C. Butler (DE-339)   31 March 1944 83
Dealey[14] geared turbine 4 × 3in/50 4 × 21in USS Dealey (DE-1006) 3 June 1954 13
Claud Jones[15] diesel 2 × 3in/50 6 × 13in USS Claud Jones (DE-1033) 10 February 1959 4
Bronstein[16] geared turbine 2 × 3in/50 Mk33,[17] ASROC 6 × 13in USS Bronstein (DE-1037) 15 June 1963 2
Garcia[18] geared turbine 2 × 5in/38 USS Garcia (DE-1040) 21 December 1964 10
Brooke[19] geared turbine 1 × 5in/38 USS Brooke (DEG-1) 12 March 1966 6
Knox[20] geared turbine 1 x 5in/54 USS Knox (DE-1052) 12 April 1969 46
  1. ^ the first ship commissioned of the class was HMS Bayntun on 20 January 1943

World War II shipbuilding programs

total ships in the table: 507DEs + 56APDs

37 Buckleys listed here as Buckleys were converted to APDs after having been commissioned as destroyer escorts. All APDs listed in the table were completed as conversions. Captains were converted before commissioning as DEs.

Builder State Evarts + Captain Buckley + Captain
(+Charles Lawrence APDs)
Cannon Edsall Rudderow
(+Crosley APDs)
Butler total
(laid down from) Feb 1942 Jul 1942 Oct 1942 Jun 1942 Jul 1943 Aug 1943
(launched until) Feb 1944 May 1944 Aug 1944 Dec 1943 Apr 1944 Aug 1944
(commissioned from) Apr 1943 Apr 1943 May 1943 Apr 1943 Dec 1943 Dec 1943
(commissioned until) Aug 1944 Jul 1944 Dec 1944 Feb 1944 Sep 1944 Dec 1945
Consolidated Steel TX 12 (+6) 47 (+3) 34 93
Bethlehem
( Fore River and
Hingham)
MA 27 + 46 14 (+23) 87
Bethlehem, San Francisco CA 12 12
Boston Navy Yard MA 21 + 31 10 62
Brown Shipbuilding TX 38 23 61
Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company NJ 36 16 52
Mare Island Navy Yard CA 31 31
Philadelphia Navy Yard PA 5 + 1 10 2 (+4) 18
Dravo Corporation DE, PA 3 (PA) 15 (DE) 18
Charleston Navy Yard SC 15 2 (+9) 17
Defoe Shipbuilding Company MI 13 4 (+11) 17
Western Pipe and Steel Company CA 12 12
Norfolk Navy Yard VA 10 10
Tampa Shipbuilding Company FL 9 9
Puget Sound Navy Yard WA 8 8
company contract[21] issued amount delivery description[22]
various navy yards 11/41[23] DE-1 ... DE-50
Consolidated Steel OBS378 1/42 $110,426,000 9/43 destroyer escorts DE 129-152
Brown Shipbuilding OBS403 1/42 $63,558,000 10/43 destroyer escorts DE 238-255
Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company OBS401 1/42 $85,440,000 2/44 destroyer escorts DE 162-197
Dravo Corporation, Wilmington OBS377 1/42 $52,903,000 4/44 destroyer escorts DE 99-128
Bethlehem, Hingham OBS376 2/42 $118,800,000 12/43 destroyer escorts DE 51-98[24]
Brown Shipbuilding OBS335 8/42 $151,833,000 7/44 destroyer escorts DE 382-437[25]
Consolidated Steel OBS334 8/42 $197,505,000 11/44 destroyer escorts DE 316-381[25]
Bethlehem, San Francisco OBS331 8/42 $28,427,000 7/44 destroyer vessels DE 633-664
Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company OBS333 8/42 $44,560,000 3/45 destroyer escorts DE 438-515
Bethlehem, Hingham OBS332 8/42 $155,364,000 8/45 destroyer escorts DE 563-632[24]
Defoe Shipbuilding Company OBS795 10/42 $54,366,000 9/44 destroyer escorts DE 693-738
Bethlehem, Fore River OBS840 10/42 $35,365,000 11/44 destroyer escorts DE 675-692
Consolidated Steel OBS844 11/42 $42,372,000 3/44 destroyer escorts DE 789-904
Dravo Corporation, Pittsburgh OBS841 11/42 $11,845,000 4/44 destroyer escorts DE 665-674
Western Pipe and Steel Company OBS842 11/42 $44,132,000 9/44 destroyer escorts DE 739-762
Tampa Shipbuilding Company OBS843 11/42 $31,779,000 12/44 destroyer escorts DE 763-788

Data from "Ship's Data U.S. Naval Vessels"[26]

Class Company Contract Value Hulls
WGT C.Steel 8/42 $2,043,000 339-368
WGT federal 8/42 $2,785,000 438-450, 508-510
WGT Brown 8/42 $2,517,000 402-424
FMR C.Steel 1/42 $1,988,000 129-149
FMR C.Steel 8/42 $1,539,000 316-336
FMR Brown 1/42 $2,921,000 250-252
FMR Brown 8/42 $2,183,000 389-400

hull numbers for WGT and FMR are still incomplete, price of $2,157 for Brown/WGT DE-423 is assumed to be a typo

other classes missing (work in progress)

From the same document, List of Naval Vessels, pp. 11:

Type Hulls Cancelled Hulls
GMT 5-50
TE 51-98
DET 99-113 114-128
FMR 129-152
TE 153-161
DET 162-197
TE 198-223
TEV 224-237
FMR 238-255
GMT 256-283 284-300
GMT 301-307 308-315
FMR 316-338
WGT 339-372 373-381
FMR 382-401
WGT 402-424 425-437
WGT 438-450 451-507
WGT 508-510 511-515
GMT 516-530
WGT 531-542 543-562
TE 563-578
TEV 579-606 607-632
TE 633-636
GMT 637-644
TEV 645-664
TE 665-673
TEV 674
TE 675-683
TEV 684-692
TE 693-705
TEV 706-722 723-738
DET 739-750 751-762
DET 763-771 772-788
TE 789-800 801-1005

Captain-class frigates of the Royal Navy

HMS Dacres, converted to act as a headquarters ship during Operation Neptune
HMS Dacres, converted to act as a headquarters ship during Operation Neptune

Main article: Captain-class frigate

The Captain class was a designation given to 78 frigates of the Royal Navy, constructed in the United States, launched in 1942–1943 and delivered to the United Kingdom under the provisions of the Lend-Lease agreement (under which the United States supplied the United Kingdom and other Allied nations with materiel between 1941 and 1945),[27][28] they were drawn from two subclasses of the destroyer escort (originally British destroyer escort) classification: 32 from the Evarts subclass and 46 from the Buckley subclass.[7][27] Upon reaching the UK, the ships were substantially modified by the Royal Navy, including removal of torpedo tubes, making them distinct from the US Navy destroyer escort ships.[29]

Captain-class frigates acted in the roles of convoy escorts, antisubmarine warfare vessels,[30] coastal forces control frigates and headquarters ships for the Normandy landings. During the course of World War II, this class participated in the sinking of at least 34 German submarines and a number of other hostile craft with 15 of the 78 Captain-class frigates being either sunk or written off as a constructive total loss.

In the postwar period, all of the surviving Captain-class frigates except one (HMS Hotham) were returned to the US Navy before the end of 1947 to reduce the amount payable under the provisions of the Lend-Lease agreement; the last such frigate was returned to United States custody in March 1956.[31][32]

Free French

Six Cannon-class destroyer escorts were built for the Free French Navy. Although initially transferred under the Lend-Lease Act, these ships were permanently transferred under the Mutual Defense Assistance Program (MDAP).

Mutual Defense Assistance Program – Post WWII

Under the MDAP the destroyer escorts leased to the Free French were permanently transferred to the French Navy. In addition, the following navies also acquired DEs:

Republic of China Navy (Taiwan)

DE-47, DE-6

French Navy

DE-1007, DE-1008, DE-1009, DE-1010, DE-1011, DE-1012, DE-1013, DE-1016, DE-1017, DE-1018, DE1019

Hellenic Navy

DE-173, DE-766, DE-768, DE-193

Italian Navy

DE-1020, DE-1031

Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force

DE-168, DE-169

Philippine Navy

DE-168, DE-169, DE-170, DE-770, DE-771, DE-251, DE-637

Portuguese Navy

DE-509, DE-1032, DE-1039, DE-1042, DE-1046

Republic of Korea Navy

DE-770, DE-771

Royal Navy

DE-574[note 1][31]

Royal Netherlands Navy

USS Burrows (DE-105), USS Rinehart (DE-196), USS Gustafson (DE-182), USS O'Neill (DE-188), USS Eisner (DE-192), USS Stern (DE-187)

Royal Thai Navy

DE-746

National Navy of Uruguay

DE-166, DE-189,

Comparison with contemporary frigates

The table below compares destroyer escorts and frigates designed for similar missions.

Name Date Nation Displacement Speed Number built Notes
River-class frigate 1942 UK 1,370 tons 20 knots 151 [33]
Type A kaibōkan 1943 Japan 870 tons 19 knots 18 [3]
FMR class 1943 US 1,200 tons 21 knots 85 [11]
Evarts-class 1943 US 1,140 tons 21 knots 72 [8]
Buckley-class 1943 US 1,400 tons 23 knots 102 [9]
Cannon-class 1943 US 1,240 tons 21 knots 72 [10]
Tacoma-class frigate 1943 US 1,430 tons 20 knots 96 [34]
Type B kaibōkan 1943 Japan 940 tons 19 knots 37 [3]
Loch-class frigate 1944 UK 1,435 tons 20 knots 30 anti-submarine[35]
WGT class 1944 US 1,350 tons 24 knots 87 [13]
TEV class 1944 US 1,450 tons 24 knots 22 [12]
Bay-class frigate 1945 UK 1,580 tons 20 knots 26 anti-aircraft, built on Loch class hulls[35]
Type 15 frigate 1952 UK 2,300 tons 31 knots 23 Rebuilds of War Emergency Programme destroyers into anti-submarine frigates
Dealey class 1954 US 1,450 tons 25 knots 13 [14]
Type E50 frigate 1955 France 1,290 tons 28 knots 4 fast[36]
Type 14 frigate 1955 UK 1,180 tons 24 knots 15 Also known as Blackwood-class. "second-rate" anti-submarine warfare frigates. Cheaper to produce than Type 12.[37]
St. Laurent class 1955 Canada 2,263 tons 28 knots 7 anti-submarine[38]
Type B 1956 Japan 1,070 tons 25 knots 2 diesel[39]
Type 12 frigate 1956 UK 2,150 tons 31 knots 8[note 2] Also known as Whitby class. Anti-submarine frigates for combating fast submarines[40]
Type E52 frigate 1956 France 1,295 tons 28 knots 14 fast[41]
Almirante Clemente-class light destroyer 1956 Venezuela 1,300 tons 32 knots 6 fast[42]
Type 61 frigate 1957 UK 2,170 tons 24 knots 4 Salisbury class. aircraft direction[43]
Canopo-class frigate 1957 Italy 1,807 tons 26 knots 4 [44]
Type 41 frigate 1957 UK 2,300 tons 24 knots 7 Leopard class. anti-aircraft escort for convoys[45]
Azopardo-class frigate 1957 Argentina 1,160 tons 20 knots 2 [46]
Restigouche class 1958 Canada 2,366 tons 28 knots 7 anti-submarine[47]
Claud Jones class 1959 US 1,450 tons 22 knots 4 [15]
Type 12M frigate 1960 UK 2,380 tons 30 knots 14[note 3] Rothesay class. ."Modified" Type 12. Anti-submarine[48]
Köln-class frigate 1961 Germany 2,100 tons 30 knots 6 fast[49]
River-class destroyer escort 1961 Australia 2,100 tons 30 knots 6 Originally designated as anti-submarine frigates, later re-designated as destroyer escorts.[50] Four built to British Type 12M design, two built to Type 12I design
Isuzu-class destroyer escort 1961 Japan 1,490 tons 25 knots 4 [51]
Type 81 frigate 1961 UK 2,300 tons 28 knots 7 Tribal-class. Originally multi-role ("general purpose") sloops for Middle East. Reclassified as "second class" frigates.[52]
Bergamini-class frigate 1961 Italy 1,410 tons 26 knots 4 [53]
Commandant Rivière-class frigate 1962 France 1,750 tons 25 knots 13 dual purpose[41]
Mackenzie class 1962 Canada 2,366 tons 28 knots 4 anti-submarine[47]
Hvidbjørnen-class frigate 1962 Denmark 1,345 tons 18 knots 4 fishery protection[54]
Type 12I frigate 1963 UK 2,450 tons 30 knots 28[note 4] Leander class. "Improved" Type 12. General purpose.[55] Also built as Nilgiri-class frigate (India, 6), Condell-class (Chile, 2), River-class (Australia,2)
Bronstein class 1963 US 2,360 tons 26 knots 2 [16]
Garcia class 1964 US 2,620 tons 27 knots 10 [18]
Oslo-class frigate 1966 Norway 1,450 tons 25 knots 5 [56]
Brooke class 1966 US 2,640 tons 27 knots 6 guided missile[19]
Peder Skram-class frigate 1966 Denmark 2,030 tons 28 knots 2 fast[57]
Van Speijk-class frigate 1967 Netherlands 2,200 tons 28 knots 6 Dutch version of the British Leander[58]
Alpino-class frigate 1968 Italy 2,000 tons 28 knots 2 [53]
Alvand-class frigate 1968 Iran 1,110 tons 40 knots 4 [59]
Knox class 1969 US 3,011 tons 27 knots 46 [20]
Chikugo-class destroyer escort 1971 Japan 1,470 tons 25 knots 11 [51]

Surviving destroyer escorts

Five destroyer escorts are preserved as museum ships, while others remain in active service.

See also

Notes and references

This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships.

Footnotes

  1. ^ DE-574 was originally provided to the United Kingdom under the Lend-Lease (Public Law 77-11) scheme, DE-574 was returned to the US custody under the provisions of the Lend-Lease scheme on the 25 April 1952 and simultaneously transferred back to the United Kingdom under the Mutual Defence Assistance Program.
  2. ^ Includes 2 built for India
  3. ^ Includes 2 built for New Zealand and 3 built for South Africa
  4. ^ Includes 2 built for New Zealand

Source notes

  1. ^ Blackman, pp. 393 & 394
  2. ^ Potter & Nimitz, p. 550
  3. ^ a b c Watts, pp. 225–239
  4. ^ Cooney, pp. 6 & 7
  5. ^ NAVPERS, pp. 32 & 35
  6. ^ Gardiner, Robert, ed., Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships, 1922–1946, New York: Mayflower Books, 1980, ISBN 0-8317-0303-2, pp. 148–149.
  7. ^ a b Franklin 1999, p. 7.
  8. ^ a b Silverstone, pp. 153–157
  9. ^ a b Silverstone, pp. 157–163
  10. ^ a b Silverstone, pp. 164–167
  11. ^ a b Silverstone, pp. 167–170
  12. ^ a b Silverstone, pp. 163 & 164
  13. ^ a b Silverstone, pp. 170–175
  14. ^ a b Blackman, p. 458
  15. ^ a b Blackman, p. 457
  16. ^ a b Blackman, p. 456
  17. ^ rapid-fire version using an auto-loading mechanism to insert the shell into the breech
  18. ^ a b Blackman, p. 455
  19. ^ a b Blackman, p. 452
  20. ^ a b Blackman, p. 453
  21. ^ Alphabetic Listing of Major War Supply Contracts: Cumulative June 1940 Through September 1945. Civilian production administration, Industrial statistics division. 1946.
  22. ^ Silverstone, pp. 153–175 & 276–280
  23. ^ Ship's Data, U.S. Naval Vessels, DE data tables
  24. ^ a b Lenton & Colledge, pp. 245–247
  25. ^ a b Morison, Samuel Eliot (1962). History of United States Naval Operations in World War II. Vol. XV. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. pp. 50–52.
  26. ^ "Ships' Data -- U.S. Naval Vessels - BuShips".
  27. ^ a b Lenton 1998, pp. 198–199.
  28. ^ Morison 1956, p. 34.
  29. ^ Collingwood 1998, pp. 30–31.
  30. ^ Franklin 1999, p. x.
  31. ^ a b DANFS: Hotham.
  32. ^ Lenton 1974, p. 16.
  33. ^ Lenton & Colledge, p. 225
  34. ^ Silverstone, p. 246
  35. ^ a b Lenton & Colledge, p. 232
  36. ^ Blackman, p. 114
  37. ^ Blackman, p. 354
  38. ^ Blackman, p. 44
  39. ^ Blackman, p. 199
  40. ^ Blackman, p. 353
  41. ^ a b Blackman, p. 113
  42. ^ Blackman, p. 624
  43. ^ Blackman, p. 356
  44. ^ Blackman, p. 183
  45. ^ Blackman, p. 355
  46. ^ Blackman, p. 8
  47. ^ a b Blackman, p. 43
  48. ^ Blackman, p. 351
  49. ^ Blackman, p. 127
  50. ^ Blackman, p. 21
  51. ^ a b Blackman, p. 198
  52. ^ Blackman, p. 350
  53. ^ a b Blackman, p. 182
  54. ^ Blackman, p. 79
  55. ^ Blackman, p. 348
  56. ^ Blackman, p. 240
  57. ^ Blackman, p. 78
  58. ^ Blackman, p. 229
  59. ^ Blackman, p. 167

Bibliography

Online sources

Further reading