Economy of Wales
Golygfa gyffredinol Bae Caerdydd.jpg
Cardiff: Wales's capital city
CurrencyPound sterling (GBP)
Statistics
GDPIncrease£77.5billion (2019) [1]
GDP growth
Increase2.7% (2019)[1]
GDP per capita
Increase£24,586 (2019)[1]
Population below poverty line
Steady23% (2020)[2]
Labour force
Increase1.428 million (September 2015)[3]
UnemploymentPositive decrease3.9% (July 2021)[4]
Main industries
Agriculture, aerospace, construction, electronics, emergency services, food, forestry, manufacturing, oil and gas, renewable energy, services, textiles, tourism, transport
External
ExportsDecrease £13.4 billion (2020)
(2019: £17.7 billion)[5]
Export goods
Aerospace systems, business and financial services, cereals, chemical products, dairy products, electricity, electronics, iron and steel, machinery, oil and gas, pharmaceuticals, plastics, renewable energy, road vehicles, textiles, timber, water
Main export partners
Excluding the rest of the  UK

All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars.

The economy of Wales refers to the production and consumption of goods and services and the supply of money in Wales.

The percentage of all individuals, living in relative income poverty in Wales in 2016–17 was 23%, compared to 22% in England, and only 19% in Scotland and Northern Ireland. More than one in five people in Wales were living in poverty between 2001 and 2016.[6][7]

However, in 2018, according to OECD and Eurostat data, gross domestic product (GDP) in Wales was £75 billion, an increase of 3.3% from 2017. GDP per head in Wales in 2018 was £23,866, an increase of 2.9% on 2017. In 2019 Wales generated tax revenue of £27bn, which is around 36% of GDP, and has expenditure of £40.1bn, leaving an deficit of £13.1bn.

Video of Welsh Government COVID-19 press conference in which the Economy Minister Ken Skates, announces that HMRC refused to share their data with the Welsh Government.[8]

Indicators of economic growth

This table shows the economic growth indicators over the last 30 years in Wales.

Gross Value Added (GVA)[9]
Year £ million £ per head Index of £ per head (UK=100)
1992 22,659 7,874 83
1993 23,697 8,218 83
1994 25,049 8,675 83
1995 26,388 9,135 84
1996 27,518 9,517 82
1997 28,672 9,904 80
1998 29,787 10,273 79
1999 30,736 10,596 77
2000 31,898 10,973 77
2001 33,525 11,520 77
2002 35,252 12,074 77
2003 37,262 12,712 76
2004 39,340 13,352 76
2005 40,711 13,784 76
2006 42,697 14,396 75
2007 44,263 14,853 74
2008 45,610 15,237 74
2018 65,089 20,815 70

Currency and monetary policy

The currency used in Wales is the Pound, represented by the symbol £. The Bank of England is the central bank, responsible for issuing currency, and retains responsibility for monetary policy and is the central bank of the UK. The Royal Mint, which issues the coinage circulated over the whole of the UK, has been based at a single site in Llantrisant, Rhondda Cynon Taf since 1980, having progressively transferred operations from their Tower Hill, London site from 1968.[10]

Economic sectors (A-Z)

Agriculture

See also: Agriculture in Wales and Sheep farming in Wales

Sheep at Ty'n-y-Cornel farm, near Tregaron in West Wales
Sheep at Ty'n-y-Cornel farm, near Tregaron in West Wales

In 2003, agriculture contributed £418 million to Welsh GVA, or 1.1% (including subsidies).[11] 1.6m hectares (around 77% of Wales' total land area) is used for agricultural production and an estimated 57,500 people are directly employed in the sector.[11] Farming is dominated by beef, sheep and the dairy sector, with the arable sector accounting for 10% of agricultural output.[11] Average farm size is 30–40 hectares, small by UK standards, and dominated by family-run enterprises.[11]

Education

Main article: Education in Wales

Education in Wales differs in certain respects from education elsewhere in the United Kingdom. For example, a significant minority of students all over Wales are educated either wholly or largely through the medium of Welsh: in 2014/15, 15.7% of children and young people received Welsh-medium education – a drop from the 15.9% in 2010/11.[12]

Energy

See also: Energy in Wales

The Dinorwig Power Station largest pumped storage power station in Europe[13]
The Dinorwig Power Station largest pumped storage power station in Europe[13]

In 2018, the annual production of electricity in Wales was 30.2 TWh and consumed 14.9 TWh, which means that Wales generates twice as much electricity as it consumes and is a net exporter of electricity to England, Ireland and Europe.[14][15] In the same year, 25% was from renewable sources, up from 22% in 2017. Electricity generation encompasses a broad mix of technologies including Coal (e.g. Aberthaw), Gas (e.g. Baglan Bay), Wind (Cefn Croes), hydro-electricity (Dinorwig), solar thermal/PV and biomass electricity.

In 2017, the Welsh Government announced a target of meeting 70% of Wales’ electricity demand from Welsh renewable electricity sources by 2030. By 2018, Wales generated over 3,864 MW renewable energy from 68,728 projects.[14]

In June 2018 the Welsh Government backed the Tidal Lagoon Swansea Bay project with an offer to invest £200 million; the project would see the world's largest tidal hydro-electricity plant. However, in June 2018, the UK Government refused to back the plan.[16][17][18]

In 2021, the Welsh government said that more than half the country's energy needs were being met by renewable sources, 2 percent of which was from 363 hydropower projects.[19]

Food and drink

Main article: Food and drink industry of Wales

The food and drink sector is classed as a priority economic sector in Wales. It involves 170,000 people that contribute to gross sales of £17.3 billion.[20]

Forestry

Main article: Forestry in Wales

Forest and woodland makes up 14% of the land area of Wales and there are 4,000 jobs and in forest-based industries.[11]

Healthcare

Main article: Healthcare in Wales

Healthcare in Wales is mainly provided by the Welsh public health service, NHS Wales. NHS Wales provides healthcare to all permanent residents that is free at the point of need and paid for from general taxation. Health is a matter that is devolved, and considerable differences are now developing between the public healthcare systems in the different countries of the United Kingdom, collectively the National Health Service (NHS).[21] Though the public system dominates healthcare provision, private health care and a wide variety of alternative and complementary treatments are available for those willing to pay.[22][23]

Housing and construction

See also: Housing and construction in Wales

In November 2008, the average price of a house in Wales was £126,181, a fall of 11.7% since the previous year. As of 2022 the average house price in Wales is around £251,000. The average house price in England and Wales as a whole was £161,883.[24] In August 2008, average house prices in Wales ranged from £109,000 in Blaenau Gwent to £238,000 in Monmouthshire.[25] Euroclad, a company based in St Mellons, Cardiff, specialises as an international supplier of architectural metal building solutions to the construction industry.[26] JCB has a factory and shop in Wrexham which recently recruited 20 new workers.[27]

Manufacturing

See also: Manufacturing in Wales

Other manufacturing industries not listed here include oil refining and tool making.

Aerospace

Today Airbus Broughton employs over 6,500 people, mostly in manufacturing roles. The site is responsible for the wing assembly for all Airbus aircraft, with the exception of the Chinese A320s (these wings are assembled in China) and the A400M (assembled in Filton). [28] General Electric (GE) on Caerphilly Road, Nantgarw in Wales handles the world’s largest and most fuel efficient aviation engine, GE9X.[29]

Aston Martin Lagonda Production & Technology Centre St Athan, Wales
A short video by the Welsh Government on some of the technology companies in Wales

Automotive

The St Athans Aston Martin plant in South Wales has recently created 750 new jobs. It had a series of recruitment events in South Wales that gained over 3,000 applications. The first technicians have been recruited to working on the new DB11 at Aston Martin's Gaydon Headquarters, training for the highly-skilled jobs to work in St Athan.[30]

Electronics

During the 1980s and 1990s, a major growth sector in manufacturing was the electronics industry with over 130 North American and 35 Japanese companies establishing operations in Wales.[31]

Medical

Creo Medical, based in Chepstow, is an emerging Medical Technology company is developing medical technologies with the aim of substantially benefiting the medical community and vastly improving the outcomes of a range of medical procedures.[32] RotoMedical has emerged as a leading Welsh manufacturer of PPE and medical equipment. The company produces specifically industrial gauges, ultrasonic level transmitters, temperature probes and pressure measurement equipment.[33]

Metals

Metal ore refining is a long established industry in Wales. As of 2007, Corus had manufacturing facilities at Port Talbot, Llanwern, Newport, Trostre, Shotton, Ammanford, Pontardulais, Tafarnaubach and Caerphilly, although only the Port Talbot Steelworks remains as a major integrated steelmaking plant.[34] Pro Steel Engineering is a steel specialist company based in Wales operting internationally. The company has delivered high-profile work, including collaborative projects such as the London Olympic Stadium Transformation and ICC Wales’ 22 tonne steel Welsh dragon.[35] Nearly all the tinplate and much of the aluminium produced in the UK are made in Welsh plants.[36] TIMET has a plant in Waunarlwydd, Swansea, which is one of the world's major suppliers of titanium for jet engine blades and medical applications.[37]

Marine and Fisheries

Main article: Fishing industry in Wales

See also: Marine and Fisheries Division (Wales)

The Welsh fishing industry is the smallest in the UK, with about 1,000 full-time and 400 part-time fishermen.[11] Commercial fishing in Wales employs approximately 600 people full-time and is valued at 39,000,000 pounds sterling.[38] 92% of Welsh fishing vessels are designated small-scale.[α][39] The minor role that the Welsh industry holds is largely due to its geographical isolation, weak distribution networks and the demise of the Wales distant-water fleet from the 1960s onwards.[11]

Retail

The retail sector is the largest private sector employer in Wales. The sector has 114,000 employees which accounts for 6.0% of Welsh GVA (gross value added). The retail sector in Wales is considered highly valuable by the Welsh government.[40]

Science and technology

See also: Science and technology in Wales

Services

In recent years, the service sector in Wales has seen above average growth; however in 2005 its share of GVA was small compared with most other regions of the UK.[42] Wales does not have a favourable occupational structure, and a relatively high proportion of jobs are in public administration, health and education.[43] Compared to more prosperous parts of the UK, Wales lacks high value added service sector employment in sectors such as finance, business services and research and development.[44] This is partly due to a weaker agglomeration effect, due to the small size of towns and cities in Wales compared to regions within the UK and small countries.[45][46]

Telecommunications

On 28 November 2006, a trial of a new telecommunications network technology was rolled out in the village of Wick in the Vale of Glamorgan. The new network BT 21CN, offers broadband data transfer speeds of up to 24Mbit/s.

Trading

Excluding intra UK trade, the European Union and the United States constitute the largest markets for Wales's exports. Recently, with the high rates of growth in many emerging economies of southeast Asia and the Middle East such as China, UAE and Singapore, there has been a drive towards marketing Welsh products and manufactured goods in these countries, with China and Qatar entering the top ten destinations for Welsh exports in 2013.[47]

Top 10 Welsh export destinations, 2017
Destination Value
 Germany Increase£3.21 billion
 France Increase£2.73 billion
 United States Increase£2.29 billion
 Ireland Increase£1.04 billion
 Netherlands Increase£0.69 billion
 UAE Increase£0.56 billion
 Spain Increase£0.47 billion
 Belgium Decrease£0.46 billion
 Canada Increase£0.36 billion
 Turkey Increase£0.35 billion
Source: Welsh exports: Fourth quarter 2015[48]

The total value of international exports from Wales in 2015 was estimated at £12.2 billion (2014: £13.4 billion). The top five exporting industries in 2013 were power generating machinery £4.0 billion (2013: £4.2 billion), petroleum, petroleum products & related materials £2.6 billion (2013: £3.8 billion), Iron & Steel £1.288 billion (2013: £1.3 billion), electric machinery £0.69 billion (2013: £0.7 billion), and professional and scientific services £0.346 billion (2013: £0.353 billion).[49]

Tourism

See also: Tourism in Wales

With its mountainous landscape and numerous sandy beaches, Wales attracts significant tourism. In 2002, nearly 13 million trips of one night or more were made in Wales, generating expenditure of £1.8 billion. Of these trips, 11.9 million were made by UK residents and 0.9 million by overseas visitors.[42] Cardiff is the most popular destination for visitors to Wales, with 11.7 million visitors in 2006.[50]

In 2014, over 10 million domestic trips of one night or more were made in Wales, generating expenditure of £1.7 billion.[51]

Wales Millennium Centre
Wales' top 10 tourist attractions (2017)[52]
Attraction No of Visitors
Wales Millennium Centre Decrease1,082,494
The LC Increase796,149
Snowdon Summit Visitor Centre Increase654,077
St Fagans National History Museum Increase553,090
National Museum Cardiff Increase539,550
Folly Farm Adventure Park and Zoo Decrease480,000
Pembrey Country Park Decrease470,000
Newborough National Nature Reserve Decrease449,771
Pontcysyllte Aqueduct 333,363
Cardiff Visitor Centre 322,671
Cardiff Castle Increase319,131
Source: Visits to Tourist Attractions in Wales 2017)[52]

During 2020, and well into 2021, the restrictions and lockdowns necessitated by the COVID-19 pandemic affected all sectors of the economy and "tourism and hospitality suffered notable losses from the pandemic" across the UK.[53] As of 6 April 2021, visitors from "red list" countries were still not allowed to enter unless they were UK residents. Restrictions will "likely be in place until the summer", one report predicted, with June being the most likely time for tourism from other countries to begin a rebound.[54] On 12 April 2021, many tourist facilities were still closed in Wales but non-essential travel between Wales and England was finally permitted. Wales also allowed non-essential retail stores to open.[55] 

The outdoor areas of restaurants and pubs would reopen on 26 April 2021. Gyms, leisure centres and fitness facilities were to stay closed until 4 May.[56]

Transport

Railway lines in Wales
Railway lines in Wales
Cardiff Airport in 2018.
Cardiff Airport in 2018.

See also: Transport in Wales

Rail

Wales is one of the few countries in the world where you must travel through another country when traveling from the capital to the furtherst point of that country, with nearly all line going East to West, rather than north–south. Rail infrastructure is not devolved to Wales; Wales has 11% of the rail network of Wales and England and 5.3% of the population, however the income received from Westminster in 2019-20 was 1.6%.[57] In 2021 there were no electrified lines in Wales.

Many major English cities, however, have direct rail connections to Wales. The South Wales coast as far as Swansea is served by the South Wales Main Line which passes under the Severn Estuary through the Severn Tunnel; the West Wales Line connects it to the Pembrokeshire ferry ports. The main north–south railway line is the Welsh Marches Line between Newport and Shrewsbury enabling direct services between Holyhead and Cardiff. An urban rail network, serving 81 stations, is focused on the capital, Cardiff. Mid and North Wales (away from the coast) are served by a limited number of branch lines, some of which connect with revived narrow gauge railways.

Roads

The M4 motorway, A449, A465, A48, A40, and A477 in the south, the A55 and A483 plus border links in the north, form part of the Trans-European Road Network.[58]

Ports

Wales has ten main commercial ports.[59] Milford Haven is the UK's largest energy port and is capable of delivering 30% of the UK gas demand.[60] Newport is the busiest UK port for iron and steel and Port Talbot is the third busiest for ores.[59]

Airports

Cardiff Airport is the only Welsh airport offering international scheduled flights. In 2007, Anglesey Airport became a public airport. The UK Government's Treasury has repeatedly refused Welsh Government calls to devolve Air Passenger Duty, as doing so would give Cardiff Airport an advantage over Bristol Airport.[61]

Water

See also: Welsh Water and Hafren Dyfrdwy

Dŵr Cymru Welsh Water is a not-for-profit company which supplies drinking water and wastewater services to most of Wales and parts of western England that border Wales. In total, it serves around 1.4 million households and businesses and around three million people - and supplies nearly 830 million litres of drinking water per day.[62] Hafren Dyfrdwy is a water company providing water and wastewater treatment services, operating in north east and mid Wales. It provides water only in Wrexham and parts of Denbighshire and Flintshire and both water and wastewater in northern Powys.[63]

Government spending and economic management

Taxation and public spending

See also: Taxation in Wales

The Welsh Government established Independent Commission on Funding and Finance for Wales (the Holtham Commission) which looked at funding devolved public services in Wales, and possible alternative mechanisms. In 2011, the Commission on Devolution in Wales (the Silk Commission) was set up to review the case for the devolution of fiscal powers.[64] This led to the Wales Act 2014, which devolved a range of provisions to the National Assembly, including powers over taxation. Fiscal and economic policy are currently reserved matters determined at Westminster, however from 2018 increased tax and borrowing powers devolved. In April 2018 the Welsh Government became responsible for three taxes: stamp duty land tax (SDLT), landfill tax and income tax.[65][66] This was the first time for Wales to raise its own taxes since 1283.[67]

Economic development

According to the Welsh Government's economic development strategy, the role of the public sector in the economy is to help create a stable and favourable business environment, promote skills and innovation (through for example apprenticeships and Design Wales), address market failures and invest in economic infrastructure including transport and information technology.[45] Aside from fiscal policy, energy policy, employment law, social security and various other aspects of market regulation are reserved to the UK Government.

Public sector employment

The public sector is also an important employer in Wales. In the year ending 30 June 2008, 386,000 people (28.8% of the Welsh workforce) were employed in the public sector, with the highest number (49,000) in Cardiff and the highest percentage of the local workforce (35.4%) in Swansea.[68]

Controversies in economic policy

The decline in Welsh GDP per person (relative to the UK average) over recent years has prompted policy debate. There have been suggestions – for example, by Plaid Cymru[69] – that Wales should attempt to emulate the Irish 'Celtic Tiger' model, particularly its low corporation tax rates, to stimulate investment and growth. However, economists such as Nicholas Crafts[44] and John Bradley[70] have argued that the low Irish corporation tax rate was only effective in the very specific demographic and historical circumstances of Ireland in the late 1980s and 1990s, and that such a policy in Wales' very different economic context would not only require political independence, but could be relatively ineffective and/or require difficult policy choices between higher personal taxes and lower public spending.

In a report for the Institute of Welsh Affairs in 2003, Phil Cooke of Cardiff University argued that the Welsh Government had responded to the loss of productivity in manufacturing by substituting new jobs in the public sector, making Wales increasingly dependent on fiscal transfers from Whitehall. Cooke suggested that a relatively weak devolution settlement had prevented the Welsh Government from developing innovative economic policies, especially when compared to Scotland.[71] However, critics including former Welsh Secretary Ron Davies[72] and John Lovering, another Cardiff academic, claimed that Cooke's argument that a more powerful Assembly was a necessary precondition to more effective economic policies was a non-sequitur.

Cardiff: the main engine of growth

See also: Economy of Cardiff

As the capital city of Wales, Cardiff is a large engine of growth in the Welsh economy and the significant service centre and economic driver for the wider south Wales economy.[45] The city and the adjoining Vale of Glamorgan contribute a high share of economic output in Wales.[78] Cardiff is a centre for white-collar professions.[79] The city relies principally on the retail, finance, media and tourism sectors and has been undergoing major regeneration since the late 20th century, particularly in Cardiff city centre and Cardiff Bay.

In recent years, Cardiff, the northern and southern coastal belts and some rural parts of Wales have experienced the biggest increase in employment, while the South Wales Valleys and other industrial towns have suffered a decline. This pattern probably reflects a combination of

Earnings

Average earnings and employment vary considerably across Wales. They are both generally higher in east Wales, especially in urban areas, but lower in south west Wales and the Valleys, although earnings in Bridgend and Neath Port Talbot, which are still centres of skilled manufacturing employment, are relatively high. In north and north west Wales, earnings are low but the employment rates are above the Welsh average.[45]

A significant part of the earnings (and value added per job) variations within Wales are due to structural factors such as economic mass and occupational mix rather than like-for-like lower pay or productivity.[45] Cardiff, with over 400,000 people, benefits from its size, capital status, a hinterland in south east Wales and good connections to London and the M4 corridor.[45] Cardiff is the primary location for service sector activities in Wales, with 26% of Welsh service sector output and 22% of Welsh service sector employment, compared to 19% of all employment in Wales.[81] North east Wales benefits from proximity to Cheshire, Greater Manchester and Merseyside and there is significant cross-border commuting. The Valleys and the western areas of Wales have less economic mass and are more distant from major economic centres. These are some of the poorest regions in Europe and qualify for Objective One funding.

Employment

Many parts of Wales suffered from a continuous decline in heavy industry over the 20th century, culminating in the virtual disappearance of coal-mining in the 1980s.[82] The demise of 'smokestack' industries left a legacy of high unemployment, and although unemployment has declined in recent years, unemployment in West Wales and the Valleys still tends to be higher than the Welsh average and economic inactivity (a form of hidden unemployment) continues to be a major problem in these areas. Merthyr Tydfil and Neath Port Talbot have some of the largest proportions of people in the UK not working due to long-term illness or disability, though some believe that in reality many people classified as "unable to work" through sickness are low-skilled workers encouraged to exit the labour market by the benefits system as well as declining demand for their skills.[45][83]

GDP in Welsh regions

The figures below for 2013 come from Eurostat[84] and are denoted in Euros.

Regions (NUTS3) GDP € (2013) GDP per capita € (2013) GDP € (2016) GDP per capita € (2016)
Isle of Anglesey €1.167 bn €16,700 Increase €1.305 bn Increase €18,600
Gwynedd €2.956 bn €24,200 Increase €3.224 bn Increase €26,000
Conwy & Denbighshire €4.246 bn €20,200 Increase €4.767 bn Increase €22,600
South West Wales €7.678 bn €20,000 Increase €8.723 bn Increase €22,700
Central Valleys €5.939 bn €20,100 Increase€6.812 bn Increase €22,900
Gwent Valleys €5.962 bn €17,500 Increase €6.923 bn Increase €20,200
Bridgend & Neath Port Talbot €6.016 bn €21,500 Increase €7.240 bn Increase €25,400
Swansea €5.532 bn €23,100 Increase €6.332 bn Increase €25,800
Monmouthshire & Newport €6.322 bn €26,500 Increase €7.260 bn Increase €30,000
Cardiff & Vale of Glamorgan €14.361 bn €30,000 Increase €16.590 bn Increase €33,900
Flintshire & Wrexham €8.346 bn €28,800 Increase €9.374 bn Increase €32,200
Powys €2.869 bn €21,600 Increase €3.134 bn Increase €23,700
TOTAL 71.396 bn 23,200 81.683 bn 26,200

The GDP per head for Wales was €23,200, which was 84% of the EU average of €26,600, whereas for the UK as a whole this figure was 118%. The region of Wales with the highest GDP per head was Cardiff & Vale of Glamorgan with 114% of the EU average, and the region with the lowest GDP per head was Isle of Anglesey with 57% of the EU average.

Labour force

According to the Welsh Government bulletin of economic statistics for November 2010,[73] the Labour Force Survey estimates for the 3 months to September 2010 show that:

For statistical purposes, the Office for National Statistics divides Wales into 26 travel to work areas, collections of wards for which "of the resident economically active population, at least 75% actually work in the area, and also, that of everyone working in the area, at least 75% actually live in the area". Some of these areas span the border with England.[74]

Small and medium-sized enterprises made up over 99% of the 190,000 businesses in Wales in 2006,[75] but accounted for less than 60% of employment.[76]

Alongside official national statistics a number of respected private sector surveys are used to understand how the economy is performing. These include the British Chambers of Commerce Quarterly Economic Survey[77] This survey has information on the performance of Welsh businesses since 1989.

Regional economy in Wales

See also: Regional economy in Wales

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Small-scale vessels are ships with a length under 10 metres.

References

  1. ^ a b c "Regional gross domestic product and gross value added: 1998 to 2019". GOV.WALES.
  2. ^ "Relative income poverty: April 2019 to March 2020". GOV.WALES.
  3. ^ GDP
  4. ^ Welsh Government. "Labour market overview: July 2021". Retrieved 24 July 2021.
  5. ^ "Welsh goods exports, 2020" (PDF). GOV.WALES.
  6. ^ "Percentage of all individuals, children, working-age adults and pensioners living in relative income poverty for the UK, UK countries and regions of England between 1994–95 to 1996–97 and 2016–17 to 2018–19 (3 year averages of financial years)". Welsh Government Stats. Welsh Government. Archived from the original on 24 January 2021. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
  7. ^ "PPIW Focus on Poverty" (PDF). Public Policy Institute of Wales. Cardiff University / Public Policy Institute of Wales. Retrieved 18 January 2021.
  8. ^ Nuttall, Andrew (20 October 2020). "UK Government repeatedly "turning down" First Minister's solutions for job support". Gannett Company. Newsquest Media Group Ltd. The Leader. Retrieved 13 January 2021.
  9. ^ "Beyond 20/20 WDS - Table view". Archived from the original on 18 July 2011.
  10. ^ "Llantrisant". Royal Mint website. Royal Mint. 24 September 2008. Archived from the original on 14 October 2007. Retrieved 4 October 2008.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Welsh Assembly Government (2007) Rural Development Plan for Wales, 2007 – 2013: The Strategic Approach
  12. ^ "Comisiynydd: Nifer y plant mewn addysg Gymraeg yn 'sioc'". BBC Cymru Fyw (in Welsh). BBC. 4 August 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
  13. ^ "Dinorwig Hydroelectric Plant, Wales". The Green age. Retrieved 5 February 2021.
  14. ^ a b "Energy Generation in Wales 2018" (PDF). Welsh Government. Welsh Government. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
  15. ^ "The Battle for Cefn Croes". Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 15 July 2007.
  16. ^ "The real questions about the UK government's decision to cancel the Swansea Bay Tidal Lagoon". 6 July 2018.
  17. ^ "Tidal power to the people | Letters". 5 July 2018 – via www.theguardian.com.
  18. ^ McIntyre, Fiona (3 July 2018). "UK water industry 'could fund' £1.3bn Swansea Bay scheme". New Civil Engineer. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
  19. ^ Duggan, Craig (2 March 2021). "Climate change: Private hydropower schemes 'on cliff edge'". BBC News. Retrieved 2 March 2021.
  20. ^ "Food and Drink Wales - Growing together". Business Wales - Food and drink. Retrieved 7 May 2022.
  21. ^ NHS now four different systems BBC 2 January 2008
  22. ^ Peregrine, Chris (29 January 2019). "Here is why people choose private health care for life-changing operations". walesonline. Retrieved 31 October 2019.
  23. ^ "Health centres in Wales | Find a health centre | Bupa UK". www.bupa.co.uk. Retrieved 31 October 2019.
  24. ^ "Land Registry House Price Index November 2008" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2009. Retrieved 30 December 2008.
  25. ^ Welsh Assembly Government: Review of Evidence to Inform the Development of the National Housing Strategy Final Report. Tribal Group, August 2008[permanent dead link]
  26. ^ "About Us". Euroclad. Retrieved 3 May 2022.
  27. ^ Hughes, Owen (27 January 2021). "JCB creating Wrexham factory jobs as demand bounces back". North Wales Live. Retrieved 3 May 2022.
  28. ^ "Airbus in the UK". airbus.com. Archived from the original on 4 July 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
  29. ^ "UK". www.ge.com. 6 May 2020. Retrieved 3 May 2022.
  30. ^ "st-athan". www.astonmartinlagonda.com. Retrieved 3 May 2022.
  31. ^ "Eurostat: Wales – Economy". Archived from the original on 13 February 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2008.
  32. ^ "Creo Medical | Development Bank of Wales". developmentbank.wales. Retrieved 3 May 2022.
  33. ^ "Global vision see Port Talbot manufacturer set sights on life science market | Life Sciences". lshubwales.com. Retrieved 3 May 2022.
  34. ^ "Main manufacturing locations of Corus" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 17 February 2007.
  35. ^ "About us". Pro Steel Engineering. Retrieved 3 May 2022.
  36. ^ "Eurostat: Wales – Economy". Archived from the original on 13 February 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2008.
  37. ^ "TIMET Corporate Structure". Archived from the original on 19 March 2006. Retrieved 11 May 2008.
  38. ^ Pigott, Paul (12 February 2021). "Brexit trade deal leaves Welsh fishermen 'devastated'". BBC News. Archived from the original on 4 June 2021. Retrieved 4 June 2021.
  39. ^ Messenger, Stephan (13 February 2018). "Shell fishing fleet in Wales wants help with Brexit". BBC News. Archived from the original on 4 June 2021. Retrieved 4 June 2021.
  40. ^ "Retail sector: position statement [HTML]". GOV.WALES. Retrieved 7 May 2022.
  41. ^ "A performance based assessment of the Welsh research base". GOV.WALES. Retrieved 2 May 2022.
  42. ^ a b "Eurostat: Wales – Economy". Archived from the original on 13 February 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2008.
  43. ^ Beyond 20/20 WDS – Table View
  44. ^ a b "Julian Hodge Institute of Applied Macroeconomics Annual Lecture 2005" (PDF).
  45. ^ a b c d e f g "Wales: A Vibrant Economy". Welsh Assembly Government. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 June 2009. Retrieved 18 November 2008.
  46. ^ Economic Futures for Wales
  47. ^ Scottish Council for Development and Industry. "Survey of Scottish Manufactured Exports 2004/05" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 October 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
  48. ^ Welsh Government. "Welsh Exports: Fourth Quarter 2017" (PDF). Retrieved 11 February 2017.
  49. ^ Welsh Government. "Welsh exports: Fourth quarter 2014" (PDF). Retrieved 10 January 2016.
  50. ^ "Steam report". Archived from the original on 9 June 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2008.
  51. ^ "The GB Tourist" (PDF). Retrieved 10 January 2016.
  52. ^ a b "Visits to tourist attractions in Wales 2017" (PDF). Visit Wales. Retrieved 7 September 2018.
  53. ^ "Covid-19 impact on the Tourism and Hospitality Sector, an insight from the latest Economic Commentary". 18 March 2021. Retrieved 8 April 2021. ... health and economic crisis ... In particular, tourism and hospitality suffered notable losses from the pandemic.
  54. ^ "Travel to the UK during Covid-19: What you need to know before you go". CNN. Retrieved 8 April 2021. It is too early to say which countries will be on the green list when non-essential international travel resumes
  55. ^ "Covid lockdown eases: Celebrations as pub gardens and shops reopen". BBC News. 12 April 2021. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  56. ^ "The things you can do in England on Monday which you can't in Wales as the borders open between both countries". Wales Online. 13 April 2021.
  57. ^ "Rail Industry Finance (UK) 2019-20" (PDF). Office of Rail and Road. Office of Rail and Road. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
  58. ^ National Assembly for Wales 2001, The Transport Framework for Wales
  59. ^ a b "One Wales: Connecting the Nation, The Wales Transport Strategy, Welsh Assembly Government, April 2008" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 March 2009.
  60. ^ "The Port of Milford Haven". Port of Milford Haven. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
  61. ^ BBC News (7 March 2019). "Scrapped flight tax could divert 'million passengers' from Bristol to Cardiff". BBC News. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
  62. ^ "About us". corporate.dwrcymru.com. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  63. ^ "Severn Trent and Dee Valley come together to build on strong customer legacy" (PDF). deevalleywater.co.uk. Severn Trent Water. 15 February 2017. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  64. ^ "Welsh Government". Tax policy framework. Welsh Government. Retrieved 5 February 2021.
  65. ^ "Tax is changing in Wales". Welsh Government. Welsh Government. Retrieved 5 February 2021.
  66. ^ O'Toole, Gavin. "Welsh income tax takes effect". Public Finance. CIPFA, the Chartered Institute of Public Finance & Accountancy. Retrieved 5 February 2021.
  67. ^ Shipton, Martin (23 September 2014). "After 800 years, the Welsh Government reveals its plans for Wales' first taxes since 1283". Reach plc. Wales Online. Retrieved 5 February 2021.
  68. ^ Employment in public and private sectors (sector, gender, local authority) NS
  69. ^ "Plaid to take tax fight to Treasury 24 January 2007".
  70. ^ "Committing to Growth, Allander Series" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 August 2007. Retrieved 21 February 2007.
  71. ^ "Weak Devolution Settlement Hinders Economic Development".
  72. ^ "'Weak' assembly harming Wales". 24 November 2003 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
  73. ^ Welsh Assembly Government | Key Economic Statistics – November 2010
  74. ^ "United Kingdom: Travel to Work Areas, 2001" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2009.
  75. ^ Business numbers by size band and local authority, 2006. Downloaded from Stats Wales August 2009.
  76. ^ Business employment aggregates by size band and local authority, 2006. Downloaded from Stats Wales August 2009.
  77. ^ British Chambers of Commerce Quarterly Economic Survey Archived 7 June 2014 at the Wayback Machine. BCC. 2014. Retrieved on 16 June 2014.
  78. ^ "Cardiff Futures Forum". Retrieved 18 November 2008.
  79. ^ Williamson, David (29 July 2010). "Fears over decline of manufacturing". WalesOnline.
  80. ^ Welsh Assembly Government | Completed Research
  81. ^ "DTZ Pieda Consulting, Factors Influencing the Location of Mobile Service Activities" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 August 2011. Retrieved 22 December 2008.
  82. ^ "Miners Strike 1972, 1974 and 1984". National Library of Wales. Archived from the original on 17 October 2008. Retrieved 29 October 2008.
  83. ^ "Incapacity Benefit Reform:Tackling the Rise in Labour Market Inactivity" (PDF).
  84. ^ Gross domestic product (GDP) at current market prices by NUTS 3 regions (nama_10r_3gdp), Eurostat, 21 May 2015. Navigation: Database by themes|Economy & finance|National accounts (ESA 2010)|Annual national accounts|Regional economic accounts|GDP indicators|GDP at current market prices by NUTS 3 regions. Codes for Welsh regions begin UKL.