Fernando Henrique Cardoso
Official portrait, 1999
President of Brazil
In office
1 January 1995 – 1 January 2003
Vice PresidentMarco Maciel
Preceded byItamar Franco
Succeeded byLuiz Inácio Lula da Silva
Further offices held
Minister of Finance
In office
19 May 1993 – 30 March 1994
PresidentItamar Franco
Preceded byEliseu Resende
Succeeded byRubens Ricupero
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
2 October 1992 – 20 May 1993
PresidentItamar Franco
Preceded byCelso Lafer
Succeeded byCelso Amorim
Senator for São Paulo
In office
15 March 1983 – 5 October 1992
Preceded byFranco Montoro
Succeeded byEva Alterman Blay
Chair of the Brazilian Centre of Analysis and Planning
In office
Preceded byCândido Procópio Ferreira
Succeeded byJosé Arthur Giannotti
Personal details
Born (1931-06-18) 18 June 1931 (age 93)
Rio de Janeiro, Federal District, Brazil
Political partyPSDB (1988–present)
Other political
PMDB (1980–1988)
MDB (1974–1980)
(m. 1953; died 2008)
Patrícia Kundrát
(m. 2014)
RelativesPedro Cardoso (cousin)
Residence(s)São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
Alma materUniversity of São Paulo (PhD)

Fernando Henrique Cardoso GCB GCTE GCoIISE GColIH GColL GCM RE DMN CYC OMRI (Portuguese: [feʁˈnɐ̃du ẽˈʁiki kaʁˈdozu] ; born 18 June 1931), also known by his initials FHC (Portuguese: [ɛfjaɡaˈse] ), is a Brazilian sociologist, professor, and politician[1] who served as the 34th president of Brazil from 1 January 1995 to 1 January 2003.[2] He was the first Brazilian president to be reelected for a subsequent term. An accomplished scholar of dependency theory noted for his research on slavery and political theory, Cardoso has earned many honors including the Prince of Asturias Award for International Cooperation (2000)[3] and the Kluge Prize from the US Library of Congress (2012).[4]

Cardoso was the 10th president of the International Sociological Association (1982–1986).[5]

Personal and professional life

Cardoso walking hand-in-hand with his father in the 1930s

Cardoso descends from wealthy Portuguese immigrants. Some were politicians during the Empire of Brazil.[6] He also has African ancestry, through a black great-great-grandmother and a mulatto great-grandmother.[7] Cardoso described himself as "slightly mulatto" and allegedly said he has "a foot in the kitchen" (a nod to historical Brazilian domestic slavery).[8][9]

Born in Rio de Janeiro, he lived in São Paulo for most of his life. Cardoso is a widower who was married to Ruth Vilaça Correia Leite Cardoso, an anthropologist, from 1953 until her death on 24 June 2008; they had three children.[10] Educated as a sociologist, he was a professor of political science and sociology at the Universidade de São Paulo.[11] and president of the International Sociological Association (ISA), from 1982 to 1986.[5] He is a member of the Institute for Advanced Study (Princeton),[12] an honorary foreign member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and has written several books.

Cardoso was also associate director of Studies in the École des hautes études en sciences sociales in Paris, then visiting professor at the Collège de France and later Paris Nanterre University.[13] He later gave lectures at British and US universities including Cambridge University, Stanford University, Brown University and the University of California, Berkeley.[13] He is fluent in Portuguese, English, French, and Spanish, and can express himself in Italian and German.[13]

After his presidency, he was appointed to a five-year term (2003–2008) as professor-at-large at Brown University's Watson Institute for International Studies, where he is now on the board of overseers. Cardoso is a founding member of the University of Southern California Center on Public Diplomacy's advisory board.[14] In February 2005, he gave the fourth annual Kissinger Lecture on Foreign Policy and International Relations at the Library of Congress, Washington DC on "Dependency and Development in Latin America.[15]

In 2005, Cardoso was selected by the British magazine Prospect as being one of the world's top one hundred living public intellectuals.[16][17][18]

Academic career

Cardoso earned a bachelor's degree in Social Sciences from Universidade de São Paulo in 1952, from where he also earned a Master's and a Doctorate in Sociology. His doctoral thesis, under the supervision of Florestan Fernandes, examined the institution of slavery in Southern Brazil, critiquing, from a Marxist perspective, the dominant approach of Gilberto Freyre to the topic. It has since become a classic on the subject. Cardoso also received the Livre-Docência degree in 1963, the most senior level of academic recognition in Brazil, also from Universidade de São Paulo. In 1968, he received the title of Cathedratic Professor, holding the chair of Political Science at Universidade de São Paulo.[11]

As he continued his academic career abroad in Chile and France after the tightening of the Brazilian military dictatorship, Cardoso published several books and papers on state bureaucracy, industrial elites and, particularly, dependency theory. His work on dependency would be his most acclaimed contribution to sociology and development studies, especially in the United States.[19] After presiding the International Sociological Association from 1982 to 1986 Cardoso was selected as a Fulbright Program 40th anniversary distinguished fellow and in that capacity was a visiting scholar and lectured at Columbia University on democracy in Brazil.[20] Cardoso currently gives speeches and classes abroad.[21] In June 2013 he was elected as a member of Academia Brasileira de Letras. He said his election was due to recognition for his academic achievements, rather than his political career.[22][23]


After his return to Brazil, Fernando Henrique engaged with the burgeoning democratic opposition to the military-dominated regime both as an intellectual and as a political activist. He became Senator from São Paulo for the former Brazilian Democratic Movement (MDB) in 1982, replacing Franco Montoro, the newly elected governor of São Paulo. In 1985, he ran unsuccessfully for mayor of São Paulo against former President Jânio Quadros. Ahead in the polls, he let himself be photographed in the mayor's chair before the elections. Some attribute his loss to this episode.[24]

Elected to the Senate in 1986 for the Party of the Brazilian Democratic Movement (PMDB), which MDB became after re-democratization, he joined a group of PMDB parliamentarians who left that party to found the Brazilian Social Democratic Party (PSDB) after previously held PMDB positions shifted to the right when the party filled with politicians who had collaborated with the dictatorship. As a senator, Cardoso took part in the 1987–1988 National Constituent Assembly that drafted and approved Brazil's current Constitution in the wake of the country's re-democratization. In the early stages of the Constituent Assembly's work (from February to March 1987), Cardoso led the committee that drafted the internal rules of procedure, including the procedural rules governing the drafting of the Constitution itself. These rules of procedure were adopted by the Assembly and published on 25 March 1987. Until 1992, Cardoso served as Leader of the PSDB in the Senate. From October 1992 to May 1993, he served as Minister of Foreign Affairs under President Itamar Franco (PMDB).[25]

From May 1993 to April 1994, he was Minister of Finance and resigned in April 1994 to launch a presidential campaign. In the 3 October election, he won the presidency in the first round of voting with 54% of the vote, more than twice that of his nearest opponent, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. This is still the largest margin of victory ever recorded in a free election in Brazilian history. After the constitution was amended to allow a president to succeed himself, he won a second term almost as easily in 1998, taking 53% to Lula's 31.7% to win in a single round. To date, he is the only president to win an outright majority of the popular vote, and the only one to win the presidency in a single round since the institution of the two-round system in 1989.

Cardoso was succeeded in 2003 by Lula da Silva, who ran for the fourth time and had come in second on prior attempts. Lula won in the runoff election against the Cardoso-supported candidate, José Serra. Lula's election has been interpreted as resulting from Cardoso's low approval ratings in his second term.[26]

Presidency (1995–2003)

Main article: Presidency of Fernando Henrique Cardoso

Cardoso with Nelson Mandela at the 2nd World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference in Geneva, Switzerland, 18 May 1998
Cardoso meets with George W. Bush in the Oval Office in 2001
Cardoso with Russian President Vladimir Putin in Moscow in January 2002

Cardoso, often nicknamed "FHC", was elected with the support of a heterodox alliance of his own Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB) and two right-wing parties, the Liberal Front Party (PFL) and the Brazilian Labour Party (PTB). Brazil's largest party, the centrist Party of the Brazilian Democratic Movement (PMDB), joined Cardoso's governing coalition after the election, as did the right-wing Brazilian Progressive Party (PPB) in 1996.

Party loyalty was not always strong, and coalition members did not always vote with the government. Cardoso had difficulty at times gaining support for some of his legislative priorities, even though his coalition held an overwhelming majority of the congressional seats. Nevertheless, many constitutional amendments were passed during his presidency.[clarification needed]

Cardoso's presidency saw institutional advancements in human rights, beginning with a national secretariat and a new government program, discussed with civil society, to address the issue. On 8 January 1996, he issued the controversial Decree 1775, which created a framework for the clear demarcation of indigenous territories, but which, as part of the process, opened indigenous territories to counterclaims by adjacent landowners. In 2000, Cardoso demanded the disclosure of some classified military files concerning Operation Condor, a network of South American military dictatorships that kidnapped and assassinated political opponents.[27]

FHC was the first Brazilian President to address the inequality and the enormous gap between rich and poor. He started the following programs: Bolsa Escola, the Auxílio Gás, the Bolsa Alimentação, and the Cartão Alimentação.[28]

His wife, Ruth Cardoso, focused on unifying transfer programs aimed at helping people suffering from poverty and hunger.,[29][30][31] by means of a program based on the idea that educating the poor could help raise them out of poverty.[32]

Cardoso's administration deepened the privatization program launched by president Fernando Collor de Mello. During his first term, several government-owned enterprises in areas such as steel milling, telecommunications and mining, such as Telebras and Companhia Vale do Rio Doce were sold to the private sector, the deepest denationalisation in Brazilian history, amidst a polarized political debate between "neoliberals" and "developmentalists". Ironically, this time Cardoso was against the latter group, generating uproar among former academic colleagues and political allies who accused him of reneging on his previous intellectual work. Economists still contend over its long-term effects; some research suggests that companies sold by the government achieved better profitability as a result of their disengagement from the state.[33]

Outgoing president Cardoso, with his wife Ruth (right), at the inauguration of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva on 1 January 2003

Despite the sale of public assets, the years 1995 to 2002 saw a rise of the total public debt from 30% to 55.5% of GDP. Economists aligned with his government argued that this was due to external factors outside the control of the administration at the time, such as the devaluation of the Brazilian real and the growth of the share of the debt denominated in US dollars.[34] Nevertheless, devaluation of the currency was an instrument of monetary policy used right after his reelection, when the real pegged to the dollar led to a financial crisis that saw the country lose much of its foreign reserve fund and raise its interest rates on government bonds to very high levels as he tried to stabilize the currency under a new free-floating regime. With this economic shift, the greatest achievement of Cardoso – his landmark lowering of inflation – was maintained, but his popularity plummeted.

Given his previous experience as Minister of Foreign Affairs and his prestige as an internationally famous sociologist, he was respected on the world scene, building friendships with such leaders as Bill Clinton and Ernesto Zedillo. Although he was respected abroad, in Brazil he had problems gaining support in Congress for government priorities and among people in general. As a result, major reforms planned by the executive branch, such as changes in the tax system and to social security, were only partially approved and only after long discussion. Although claiming to still support social democracy, his economic policies led people on the left to identify him with neoliberalism and right-wing politics, terms that often carry a very negative connotation in Latin American political debate and academic circles.

Foreign trips of Cardoso during his presidency

He also experienced personal problems with former ally Itamar Franco, his predecessor and later became Governor of Minas Gerais, a fierce opponent of his administrative reforms that saw the state lose its capacity to contract debt and forced a reduction of local government spending. Cardoso was also criticized for amending the constitution to his own benefit, allowing him to stay eight years in office. His popularity in his first four years, gained with the success of Plano Real, decreased during his last four years as the currency crisis was followed by lower economic growth and employment rates, greater public debt, growing political dissent, low levels of investment in appropriate infrastructure, and, finally, an energy crisis caused by an unexpected drought, as over 80% of Brazil's electricity is hydroelectric. He publicly admitted that he could have done more for public security and for the creation of new jobs, but defended his policies in areas such as health and education.

Cardoso's administration was accused of bribing congressmen to pass a constitutional amendment that secured FHC the right to seek reelection, which he eventually won.[35]


Former presidents (from right), Sarney, Collor and Cardoso, April 2008

After stepping down from office, he assumed a position as a senior leader of his party and leading public voice in the opposition to the incumbent Workers' Party, writing extensively on Brazilian politics for newspapers and giving lectures and interviews. Nevertheless, his relatively low popularity rates among the general population have made his legacy a mixed blessing to his political allies, who are somewhat reluctant to embrace it wholeheartedly during elections, especially on topics regarding privatization and social policy. In 2006, he helped the campaign of the PSDB candidate for the Presidency, Geraldo Alckmin, and has reiterated that he does not wish to run for office again. In the 2022 presidential election, Cardoso endorsed his former Workers' Party rival Lula over then-incumbent Jair Bolsonaro.[36]

Cardoso speaks at the National Congress during a ceremony to mark the 15th anniversary of the Real Plan in July 2009
Former President Cardoso and then-President of Argentina Cristina Kirchner in the Casa Rosada, Buenos Aires, 3 December 2009
Cardoso during his induction ceremony at the Brazilian Academy of Letters, 10 September 2013

He dedicates his time to a personal institute which he founded in São Paulo, based on the model of bodies created by former presidents of the United States, has written two books about his experience as president of Brazil and advocates for relaxation of criminal laws relating to drugs, generating both criticism and praise. He lectures at Brown University about Brazilian economic policy, urban development, and deforestation and has taught as a guest lecturer at Sciences Po in Paris.[37] Also, in 2007 he became a member of the editorial board of the Latin American policy publication Americas Quarterly, for which he is an occasional contributor.[38][39]

Since leaving the Brazilian presidency, Cardoso has been involved in a number of international organisations and initiatives. He is a member of the Club of Madrid and was its president from 2003 to 2006.[40] He has been a member of the Fondation Chirac's honour committee,[41] ever since the Foundation was launched in 2008 by former French president Jacques Chirac to promote world peace. Cardoso is a founding member of Washington D.C.-based think tank The Inter-American Dialogue as well as former chair of the organization's board. He is also a former director of World Resources Institute.[42][43]

Cardoso has a particular interest in drug policy. He served on the Latin American Commission on Drugs and Democracy and later chaired the Global Commission on Drug Policy.[44] He appeared as an interviewee in 2011 documentary Breaking the Taboo, which explores the conclusion reached by the Global Commission on Drug Policy in 2011 that drug liberalization is the best approach in dealing with drug policy.

Cardoso is also a member of The Elders, a group of independent global leaders who work together on peace and human rights issues.[45] In August 2009, he travelled to Israel and the West Bank as the head of an Elders delegation that also included Ela Bhatt, Gro Harlem Brundtland, Jimmy Carter, Mary Robinson and Desmond Tutu.[46]

In 2013 he became a member of the Brazilian Academy of Letters.

In 2017, Cardoso received the Distinguished Lifetime Achievement Award from the Inter-American Dialogue.

Electoral history

Election Political result Candidate Party Votes %
1998 Brazilian general election
Electorate: 106,101,067
Turnout: 83,297,863 (78.51%)
Majority: 14,461,322
Fernando Henrique CardosoPSDB35,936,54053.06
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva PT21,475,21831.71
Ciro Gomes PPS7,426,19010.97
Enéas Carneiro PRONA1,447,0902.14
Ivan Frota PMN251,3370.37
Alfredo Sirkis PV212,9840.31
José Maria de Almeida PSTU202,6590.30
João de Deus PTdoB198,9160.29
José Maria Eymael PSDC171,8310.25
Thereza Ruiz PTN166,1380.25
Sérgio Bueno PSC124,6590.18
Vasco Azevedo Neto PHS109,0030.16
1994 Brazilian general election
Electorate: 94,782,803
Turnout: 77,948,464 (82.24%)
Majority: 17,242,834
Fernando Henrique CardosoPSDB34,364,96154.28
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva PT17,122,12727.04
Enéas Carneiro PRONA4,671,4577.38
Orestes Quércia MDB2,772,1214.38
Leonel Brizola PDT2,015,8363.18
Esperidião Amin PPR1,739,8942.75
Carlos Antônio Gomes PRN387,7380.61
Hernani Fortuna PSC238,1970.38
1986 Brazilian Senate election in São Paulo
Two candidates elected
Electorate: 16,010,572
Turnout: 15,452,508 (96.51%)
Majority: 1,561,672
Mário CovasMDB7,785,66732.78
Fernando Henrique Cardoso MDB6,223,99526.20
Hélio Bicudo PT2,456,83710.34
José Maria Marin PFL2,256,1429.50
Jacó Bittar PT1,747,4237.36
Fábio Meireles PDS1,285,8855.41
Antônio Duarte Nogueira PTB784,8853.30
Fernando Vergueiro PL379,2851.60
Sílvia Luiza Borini PH230,1680.97
Adalberto Camargo PPB181,9890.77
Luiz Jaime Faria PH159,8780.67
Eusébio Rocha PDT144,0420.61
Egisto Domenicali PMC115,4820.49
1985 São Paulo mayoral election
Electorate: 4,843,368
Turnout: 4,190,041 (86.51%)
Majority: 141,085
Jânio QuadrosPTB1,572,26039.33
Fernando Henrique Cardoso MDB1,431,17535.80
Eduado Suplicy PT827,45220.70
Francisco Rossi PCN68,3051.71
Ana Rosa Tenente PH45,0681.13
Pedro Geraldo Costa PPB27,8870.70
Antônio Carlos Fernandes PMC8,1070.20
Ruy Côdo PL4,6120.12
José Maria Eymael PDC4,5780.11
Armando Corrêa PMB4,1870.10
Rivailde Ovídio PSC4,0660.10
1978 Brazilian Senate election in São Paulo
Electorate: 10,241,247
Turnout: 9,095,452 (88.81%)
Majority: 3,245,040
Franco MontoroMDB4,517,45664.39
Fernando Henrique Cardoso MDB1,272,41618.14
Cláudio Lembo ARENA1,225,73017.47


Foreign honours

Honorary doctorate

Selected works


  1. ^ Margolis, Mac (13 March 2006). "Che Guevara in Tweed". Newsweek.
  2. ^ "Galery of presidents" (in Portuguese). Palácio do Planalto. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
  3. ^ "Fernando Henrique Cardoso". Prince of Asturias Foundation. Archived from the original on 29 August 2008. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  4. ^ Rohter, Larry (13 May 2012). "Fernando Henrique Cardoso of Brazil to Receive Kluge Prize". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  5. ^ a b "ISA Presidents". International Sociological Association. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
  6. ^ Koifman, Fábio (2002). Presidentes do Brasil: de Deodoro a FHC (in Portuguese). Cultura Editores. ISBN 978-8529300801.
  7. ^ "Afinal, o Brasil é racista ou não?". Jornal da Unicamp (in Portuguese). Universidade Estadual de Campinas. January 2001. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  8. ^ "Chronology for Afro-Brazilians in Brazil". United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. 2004. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  9. ^ "FHC nega ter dito que tem um "pé na cozinha"". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  10. ^ Bergamo, Mônica (15 November 2009). "FHC decide reconhecer oficialmente filho que teve há 18 anos com jornalista". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  11. ^ a b "Biography – Fernando Henrique Cardoso" (PDF). Brown University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2009. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  12. ^ "His Excellency Fernando Henrique Cardoso". Clinton Global Initiative. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  13. ^ a b c "Fernando Henrique Cardoso's biography on the Harry Walker Agency Speakers' Bureau website". Archived from the original on 10 June 2007. Retrieved 28 April 2007.
  14. ^ "USC Launches First Degree Program in Public Diplomacy". USC PressRoom. USC. 15 June 2005. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  15. ^ "Fernando Henrique Cardoso Gives Fourth Annual Kissinger Lecture on Feb. 22". News from the Library of Congress. Library of Congress. 31 January 2005. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  16. ^ Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: Cardoso, Fernando Henrique (7 May 2007). "Brazil's Henrique Cardoso" (Interview). Interviewed by Riz Khan. Al Jazeera. Retrieved 14 November 2014 – via YouTube.
  17. ^ "Biografia" (in Portuguese). Instituto Fernando Henrique Cardoso. Archived from the original on 2 April 2009. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  18. ^ President Cardoso's lecture at the Clinton School of Public Service: Democracy Today: The Experience of Latin America (Podcast) Archived 20 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ Packenham, Robert A. (1982). "Plus ca Change...: The English Edition of Cardoso and Faletto's Dependencia y Desarrollo en America Latina". Latin American Research Review. 17 (1): 131–151. doi:10.1017/S0023879100028557. ISSN 0023-8791. JSTOR 2502945. S2CID 253146459.(subscription required)
  20. ^ "Fernando Henrique Cardoso". Fulbright Association. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  21. ^ Cardoso, Fernando Henrique. "Programa do Jô com Fernando Henrique Cardoso (FHC)" (Interview) (in Portuguese). Interviewed by Jô Soares. Archived from the original on 22 January 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  22. ^ Silvestre, Edney (28 June 2013). "Fernando Henrique Cardoso é eleito para Academia Brasileira de Letras". Jornal da Globo (in Portuguese). Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  23. ^ "ABL elege Fernando Henrique Cardoso para a sucessão do jornalista João de Scantimburgo" (in Portuguese). Academia Brasileira de Letras. 28 June 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  24. ^ Riding, Alan (14 March 1988). "Brasilia Journal; Brazil's Professor-Politician: He Stoops to Kisses". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  25. ^ "Fernando Henrique Cardoso Oral History". Presidential Oral Histories. Miller Center, University of Virginia. 27 October 2016. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
  26. ^ Ferreira, Alex Luiz; Sakurai, Sérgio Naruhiko (1 September 2013). "Personal charisma or the economy?: Macroeconomic indicators of presidential approval ratings in Brazil". EconomiA. 14 (3–4): 214–232. doi:10.1016/j.econ.2013.10.006. hdl:10419/179557. ISSN 1517-7580.
  27. ^ Devienne, Gérard (1 January 2007). "Latin America in the 1970s: "Operation Condor", an International Organization for Kidnapping Opponents". l’Humanité in English. Archived from the original on 7 July 2020. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  28. ^ "Fernando Henrique anuncia cadastro único e auxílio-gás". Agência Brasil (in Portuguese). 5 March 2002. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  29. ^ "Ruth Cardoso lançou sementes do Bolsa Família, diz acadêmico". BBCBrasil.com (in Portuguese). BBC. 25 June 2008. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  30. ^ "Gilberto Dimenstein: Ruth Cardoso é personagem por trás do Bolsa Família". Folha de S.Paulo (in Portuguese). 25 June 2008. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  31. ^ Lamounier, Bolívar (9 August 2008). "Bolsa-isto, bolsa-aquilo…; alguém aí se lembra de Ruth Cardoso ?". Exame.com (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 7 October 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  32. ^ de Janvry, Alain; Finan, Frederico; Sadoulet, Elisabeth; Nelson, Donald; Lindert, Kathy; de la Brière, Bénédicte; Lanjouw, Peter (December 2005). "Brazil's Bolsa Escola Program: The Role of Local Governance in Decentralized Implementation" (PDF). The World Bank. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
  33. ^ Anuatti-Neto, Francisco; Barossi-Filho, Milton; Carvalho, Antonio Gledson de; Macedo, Roberto (April–June 2005). "Os efeitos da privatização sobre o desempenho econômico e financeiro das empresas privatizadas". Revista Brasileira de Economia (in Portuguese). 59 (2): 151–175. doi:10.1590/s0034-71402005000200001. ISSN 0034-7140.
  34. ^ Giambiagi, Fabio; Ronci, Marcio (August 2004). "Fiscal Policy and Debt Sustainability: Cardoso's Brazil, 1995–2002" (PDF). International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  35. ^ Muello, Peter (22 May 1997). "2 BRAZILIANS QUIT CONGRESS IN BRIBE PROBE". The Washington Post.
  36. ^ "Brazil: Third-place candidate endorses Lula". Deutsche Welle. 6 October 2022. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  37. ^ "Environment, Development and Democracy: the Brazilian Experience" (PDF). The Watson Institute for International Studies. 5 March 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  38. ^ "Editorial Board". Americas Quarterly. Americas Society and Council of the Americas. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  39. ^ "Fernando Henrique Cardoso". Americas Quarterly. Americas Society and Council of the Americas. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  40. ^ "Cardoso, Fernando Henrique". Club de Madrid. Archived from the original on 12 November 2014. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  41. ^ "Honor Committee". Fondation Chirac. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  42. ^ "Fernando Henrique Cardoso". World Resources Institute. Archived from the original on 12 November 2014. Retrieved 12 November 2014. Fernando Henrique Cardoso is no longer on staff at the World Resources Institute.
  43. ^ "Fernando Henrique Cardoso". World Resources Institute. Archived from the original on 1 March 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
  44. ^ "Fernando Henrique Cardoso". The Global Commission on Drug Policy. 20 March 2012. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
  45. ^ "Fernando H. Cardoso". The Elders. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
  46. ^ "The Elders visit to the Middle East – 25–28 August". The Elders. 21 August 2009. Archived from the original on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
  47. ^ "Modtagere af danske dekorationer". Kongehuset (in Danish). 12 December 2017. Archived from the original on 12 May 2019. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  48. ^ "Le onorificenze della Repubblica Italiana". quirinale.it. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  49. ^ "Bahagian Istiadat dan Urusetia Persidangan Antarabangsa". istiadat.gov.my. Archived from the original on 19 July 2019. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
  50. ^ "ENTIDADES ESTRANGEIRAS AGRACIADAS COM ORDENS PORTUGUESAS – Página Oficial das Ordens Honoríficas Portuguesas". ordens.presidencia.pt. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  51. ^ "Postanowienie Prezydenta Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej z dnia 21 lutego 2002 r. o nadaniu orderu". prawo.sejm.gov.pl. Archived from the original on 26 July 2020. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  52. ^ "Postanowienie Prezydenta Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej z dnia 16 lutego 1995 r. o nadaniu orderu". prawo.sejm.gov.pl. Archived from the original on 26 July 2020. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  53. ^ "Listing" (PDF). boe.es. 18 April 1998. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  54. ^ Slovak republic website, State honours Archived 13 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine: 1st Class in 2001 (click on "Holders of the Order of the 1st Class White Double Cross" to see the holders' table)
  55. ^ "Resolución N° 758/995". www.impo.com.uy. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
  56. ^ "British Honours". leighrayment.com. Archived from the original on 7 April 2017. Retrieved 6 September 2019.((cite web)): CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  57. ^ Rohter, Larry (13 May 2012). "Brazil's Ex-Leader Honored as Scholar". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  58. ^ "Library of Congress to Award President Fernando Henrique Cardoso Kluge Prize for Study of Humanity". The Library of Congress. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
Professional and academic associations Preceded byUlf Himmelstrand Vice President of theInternational Sociological Association 1978–1982 Succeeded byMargaret Archer President of theInternational Sociological Association 1982–1986 Government offices Preceded byCândido Procópio Ferreira Chair of the Brazilian Centre of Analysis and Planning 1980–1983 Succeeded byJosé Arthur Giannotti Party political offices New political party Joint President of PSDB 1988–1989 Served alongside: Mário Covas, Franco Montoro and José Richa Succeeded byFranco Montoro Preceded byMário Covas PSDB nominee for President of Brazil 1994, 1998 Succeeded byJosé Serra Political offices Preceded byCelso Lafer Minister of Foreign Affairs 1992–1993 Succeeded byCelso Amorim Preceded byEliseu Resende Minister of Finance 1993–1994 Succeeded byRubens Ricupero Preceded byItamar Franco President of Brazil 1995–2002 Succeeded byLuiz Inácio Lula da Silva Honorary titles Title created Honorary President of PSDB 2001–present Incumbent Academic offices Preceded byJoão de Scantimburgo Sixth academic of the Thirty-sixth chair of theBrazilian Academy of Letters 2013–present Incumbent