In the history of video games, the first generation era refers to the video games, video game consoles, and handheld video game consoles available from 1972 to 1983. Notable consoles of the first generation include the Odyssey series (excluding the Magnavox Odyssey 2), the Atari Home Pong,[1] the Coleco Telstar series and the Color TV-Game series. The generation ended with the Computer TV-Game in 1980 and its following discontinuation in 1983, but many manufacturers had left the market prior due to the market decline in the year of 1978 and the start of the second generation of video game consoles.

Most of the games developed during this generation were hard-wired into the consoles and unlike later generations, most were not contained on removable media that the user could switch between.[2] Consoles often came with accessories and cartridges that could alter the way the game played to enhance the gameplay experience[3] as graphical capabilities consisted of simple geometry such as dots, lines or blocks that would occupy only a single screen.[4] First generation consoles were not capable of displaying more than two colours until later in the generation, and audio capabilities were limited with some consoles having no sound at all.

In 1972, two major developments influenced the future of the home video game market. In June, Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney founded Atari, which would go on to be one of the most well-known video game companies and play a vital role in the early generations of consoles. In September, Magnavox, an established electronics company, released the Odyssey. Inspired by the Odyssey's ping-pong game, Atari would soon go on to market the game Pong in both arcade and home versions; Nintendo, a well-established Japanese company that made a number of different products, entered the video game console market for the first time in 1977 with its Color TV-Game series.[5]



In 1951, Ralph Baer conceived the idea of an interactive television while designing a television set for Loral in the Bronx, New York.[6] Baer did not pursue the idea, but it returned to him in August 1966 when he was the Chief Engineer and manager of the Equipment Design Division at Sanders Associates. By December 1966, he and a technician created a prototype that allowed a player to move a line across the screen. After a demonstration to the company's director of research and development, some funding was allotted and the project was made official. Baer spent the next few months designing further prototypes, and in February 1967 assigned technician Bill Harrison to begin building the project.[7] Harrison spent the next few months in between other projects building out successive modifications to the prototype. Baer, meanwhile, collaborated with engineer Bill Rusch on the design of the console, including developing the basis of many games for the system. By May, the first game was developed and by June, multiple games were completed for what was then a second prototype box. This included a game where players controlled dots chasing each other and a light gun shooter game with a plastic rifle. By August 1967, Baer and Harrison had completed a third prototype machine, but Baer felt that he was not proving successful at designing fun games for the system; to make up for this he added Bill Rusch, who had helped him come up with the initial games for the console, to the project.[7] He soon proved his value to the team by coming up with a way to display three dots on the screen at once rather than the previous two, and proposing the development of a ping pong game.[8]

The "Brown Box" prototype is the forerunner of the Magnavox Odyssey, the first commercial home video game console.
First cartridge of Magnavox Odyssey

As Sanders was a military contractor and not in the business of making and selling commercial electronics, the team approached several cable television industry companies to produce the console, but were unable to find a buyer. By January 1969 the team had produced the seventh prototype, nicknamed the "Brown Box".[9]: 12  After a Sanders patent attorney recommended approaching television manufacturers, they found interest first at RCA and finally at Magnavox, who entered negotiations in July 1969 and signed an agreement in January 1971.[8][10] Magnavox designed the exterior of the machine, and re-engineered some of the internals with consultation from Baer and Harrison; they removed the ability to display color, reduced the number of controller types, and changed the system of selecting games from a dial to separate game cards that modified the console's circuitry when plugged into the console. Magnavox named the console the Magnavox Odyssey and announced the system's launch date for September 1972.[8][11]

In the late 1960s, Nolan Bushnell saw Spacewar! at Stanford University. Spacewar! is a 1962 mainframe game developed by a group of students and employees at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Bushnell had worked at an amusement park, and felt that an arcade game version of the game would be very popular.[12] The high price of computers capable of running the game, however, meant that any such arcade game would not be economically feasible. By 1970, however, minicomputers were beginning to come down in price.[8][13] He and his office mate, Ted Dabney, agreed to work together to try and design a prototype of the game.[14] By the end of November 1970, the pair had abandoned the project as untenable, as economically feasible computers were not powerful enough. Dabney soon thought of a way to manipulate the video signal on the screen without a computer controlling it, and from there Syzygy Engineering came up with the idea of removing the computer altogether and building specialized hardware to handle everything for the game instead.[8][13] Computer Space, the first commercial arcade video game, was released by the pair as Syzygy Engineering through Nutting Associates at the end of 1971 and after its release they incorporated as Atari in the following year and began designing more games. Bushnell saw a demonstration of the Odyssey console playing its Table Tennis game in early 1972 and assigned their first employee, Allan Alcorn, to produce an arcade table tennis game. The result, Pong, was the first major arcade video game success, and inspired a large number of arcade and dedicated console versions and clones, including Atari's Home Pong in 1975.[8]


The first generation of consoles did not contain a microprocessor and were based on custom codeless state machine computers consisting of discrete logic (TTL) circuits comprising each element of the game itself. Over the generation, technology steadily improved and later consoles of the generation moved the bulk of the circuitry to custom integrated circuits such as Atari's custom Pong chips and General Instruments' AY-3-8500 series.[15]: 119 

Graphical capabilities were limited throughout the generation, often supported with physical accessories and screen overlays, but saw some improvement towards the end of the generation. While the Odyssey could only display 3 square dots in black and white, as the generation progressed, consoles started being able to display color as well as more complex shapes and text.[16] Early consoles such as the Odyssey and TV Tennis Electrotennis required players to keep track of scores manually but later, many introduced score counters on the display to assist players in score tracking.[17][18]: 252  Audio capabilities were slow to improve over the generation, starting with the Odyssey, which had no audio, and later moving on to consoles which had buzzers that could produce a small range of beeps and buzzes.[19][20][21]

Market saturation and the end of the generation

In 1976, General Instruments produced a series of affordable integrated chips that allowed companies to simplify console production and lower costs.[22] Due to this, many companies had entered the home console market by the late 1970s.[23]: 147  A significant number released consoles that were essentially clones of Atari's Home Pong and many were poorly made and rushed to market, causing the home console market to saturate.[24] The demand for the chip was so high that General Instruments could not supply enough to satisfy all the orders it was receiving causing problems for some smaller companies.[22] Coleco received their order early on, allowing them to build up strong production capabilities and have success with their Telstar range.[25]

The start of the second generation and the next major advancement in home console technology began in 1976 with the release of the Fairchild Channel F.[26][27]: 116  The technology behind the first generation quickly became obsolete as consumers had the ability to purchase new games for second generation consoles instead of having to purchase new systems when they wanted new content as with the dedicated consoles of the first generation.[28] In comparison to the limited game library for each dedicated console, the Atari VCS launched with Combat, a cartridge containing 27 games.[29] As people transitioned to the newer systems, some companies were left with surplus stock and were selling at a loss. The combination of market saturation and the start of the second generation caused many companies to leave the market completely.[9]: 22 [22] These events became known as the video game crash of 1977, as sales of second generation consoles were only modest for the next few years until the arrival of the killer app, the home port of Space Invaders for the Atari VCS in 1980.[30][31]

Home systems

Main article: List of first generation home video game consoles

Many consoles in the first generation were clones of or styled similarly to the arcade version of Pong (above).[32]

There were hundreds of home video game consoles known to have existed in the first generation of video games.[32] This section lists the most notable.

Odyssey series

Main article: Odyssey series

In 1972 Magnavox released the world's first home video game console, the Magnavox Odyssey.[33] It came packaged with board game paraphernalia such as cards, paper money and dice to enhance the games.[33] It had features that became industry standard in subsequent generations such as detachable controllers, light gun accessories and interchangeable game media.[15]: xvii  While no game data was stored on the circuit cards as they would be in future consoles, they could be used to select one of the twelve games built onto the hardware. Magnavox licensed its video game patents to other companies for a fee and prosecuted companies who released consoles without a licensing agreement.[34][35]

It was with the Odyssey that Nintendo first became involved in the home video game market. According to Martin Picard in the International Journal of Computer Game Research: "in 1971, Nintendo had – even before the marketing of the first home console in the United States – an alliance with the American pioneer Magnavox to develop and produce optoelectronic guns for the Odyssey, since it was similar to what Nintendo was able to offer in the Japanese toy market in [the] 1970s."[36]

In 1974 North American Philips purchased Magnavox and released a series of eight Odyssey consoles in North America from 1975 to 1977. All of them were dedicated consoles, and each subsequent release was an improvement over the previous, adding features such as additional game variations, on-screen displays, and player-controlled handicaps such as smaller paddle sizes and variable ball speed.[33][37] Three Odyssey series consoles were also released in Europe with similar features from 1976 to 1978.[38][39]

TV Tennis Electrotennis

Main article: TV Tennis Electrotennis

On September 12, 1975, several months before the release of Home Pong in North America, Epoch released Japan's first home console, the TV Tennis Electrotennis. The technology was licensed from Magnavox and it contained a single ball and paddle style game that resembled Pong but without an onscreen score display.[40] The game controls were contained within the base unit and it connected to a television set through an ultra high frequency (UHF) antenna, as opposed to being directly connected, which was unique to the console at the time.[36] Compared to popular consoles of the generation, it performed poorly with an approximate 20,000 units sold.[40]

Atari Home Pong

Main article: Pong § Home version

In late 1975 Atari released a home version of their popular arcade game Pong.[41] It had been in development since 1974 under the lead of Allan Alcorn and Harold Lee.[9] By the end of 1975, Atari had become a major company in the home console market due to Home Pong.[42] Following Pong's success, Magnavox filed suit against Atari for infringement on its technology patents and ended up settling out of court with Atari becoming a licensee of Magnavox.[35]

Home video games achieved widespread popularity with the release of a home version of Pong and its success sparked hundreds of clones, including the Coleco Telstar, which went on to be a success in its own right with over a dozen models.

Coleco Telstar series

Main article: Coleco Telstar series

Starting in 1976, Coleco released a series of fourteen dedicated consoles up until 1978,[43] when they suffered a significant loss due to the combination of dock workers' strike, preventing it from shipping the final product in time for the holidays, and the start of the second generation.[15]: 121 [44][45] The series featured a number of different styles of ball games and external accessories to enhance gameplay such as the Telstar Arcade, which had a unique triangular design that came with a light gun and steering wheel attached to the casing.[18]: 272  The series was marketed at a lower price than its competitors and sold well with over a million sales.[46]

Color TV-Game series

Main article: Color TV-Game series

In the late 1970s, Nintendo released a series of five consoles for the Japanese market. The first of the series and the first console created by Nintendo,[47] the Color TV-Game 6, was released in 1977[36] and contained six ball-and-paddle games. The last, the Computer TV-Game, was a 1980[48] port of Nintendo's first arcade game, Computer Othello.[49] The third console in the series, the Color TV-Game Racing 112, was the first project of Shigeru Miyamoto, who would go on to become the creator of some of the most well-known video game franchises.[50][51]


Comparison of first-generation video game home consoles
Name Magnavox Odyssey Odyssey series
(11 consoles)[a]
TV Tennis Electrotennis
Manufacturer Magnavox Magnavox, Philips Epoch Co.
Release date
  • NA: 1975–1977
Launch price US$ US$99[63][61] (equivalent to $720 in 2023) US$100–230 (equivalent to $570–1300 in 2023) US$66 (equivalent to $370 in 2023)
GBP £79[64] (equivalent to £1,210 in 2023)
JP¥ JP¥19,500[65] (equivalent to ¥36,600 in 2019)
Media Printed circuit board Inbuilt chip Inbuilt chip
Light gun (sold separately)[66] None None
Sales 350,000[3] Unknown 20,000[40]
Name Home Pong series
(9 models)
Coleco Telstar series
(14 models)[b]
Color TV-Game series
(5 consoles)[c]
Manufacturer Atari, Sears Tele-Games Coleco Nintendo
Release date
  • NA: 1976–1978
Launch price US$ US$98.95 (equivalent to $560 in 2023)[70] US$50 (equivalent to $270 in 2023) US$36–179 (equivalent to $200–670 in 2023)
JP¥ JP¥24,800 (equivalent to ¥46,500 in 2019)[65] JP¥9800–48,000 (equivalent to ¥15,560–65,350 in 2019)[49]
Media Inbuilt chip Inbuilt chip (most models)
Cartridge (Telstar Arcade, 1977)[18]: 15 
Inbuilt chip
Accessories (retail) None Controller styles None
Sales 150,000[71]: 33–36 [72] 1 million[46] 3 million[73]


  1. ^ Includes the Odyssey 100/200/300/400/500/2000/3000/4000 and Philips Odyssey 200/2001/2100[52][53][54][55]: 309–310 [56]
  2. ^ Includes the Coleco Telstar, Classic, Deluxe, Ranger, Alpha, Colormatic, Regent, Sportsman, Combat!, Colortron, Marksman, Galaxy, Gemini and Arcade[18]: 272 [27]: 15–16 [53][54]
  3. ^ Includes the Color TV-Game 6, 15, Racing 112, Blockbreaker and Computer TV-Game[67]

Handheld systems

See also: List of handheld game consoles, Comparison of handheld game consoles, and Handheld electronic game § History

All of the handheld systems from the first generation are dedicated consoles and started late into the first generation. It was not until the second generation and the release of the Microvision that players could purchase games separately for the systems.[74]: 46  The early dedicated handheld consoles were eventually eclipsed in popularity by programmable video games, which became popular in the fourth generation with the introduction of the Game Gear.[23]: 316 

Ralph Baer and Howard Morrison invented and patented an electronic toy that was later licensed to Milton Bradley and sold as Simon in 1978.[75][76]

One notable example is the Mattel handheld game series, which were released from 1976 to 1982. The first to be released were Mattel Auto Race and Mattel Football, while some of the latter models like the Mattel Speed Freak and the Mattel Competition Football handhelds are closer to the end of the first generation (1982)[77]. They were followed by other titles based on sports and some licensed properties such as Battlestar Galactica. Each game had basic controls, a simple LED interface and a buzzer for sound.[15]: 70  The series was popular, sold well and, at times, was difficult to find due to high demand.[78]

In the same year, Coleco began to release handheld consoles after the end of the Telstar home console series.[15]: 121  They released Electronic Quarterback, which expanded on the popular American football style games by adding new features.[79] Alongside Mattel Football, it became the other popular sports game of the period.[80]

See also


  1. ^ Fulton, Steve (November 6, 2007). "The History of Atari: 1971–1977". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on September 12, 2018. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
  2. ^ Hile, Kevin (October 26, 2009). Video Games. Greenhaven Publishing LLC. ISBN 9781420503067. Archived from the original on February 27, 2019. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
  3. ^ a b Wolf, Mark J. P. (June 15, 2012). Before the Crash: Early Video Game History. Wayne State University Press. pp. 56, 58. ISBN 9780814337226. Archived from the original on February 27, 2019. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
  4. ^ Wall, David; Griffith, Arthur (1999). Graphics Programming with JFC. Wiley. ISBN 9780471283072. Archived from the original on February 27, 2019. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
  5. ^ Fleming, Dan (1996). Powerplay. Manchester University Press ND. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-7190-4717-6. Archived from the original on May 11, 2019. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
  6. ^ Griffiths, Devin C. (2013). Virtual Ascendance: Video Games and the Remaking of Reality. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers. pp. 14–15. ISBN 9781442216952.
  7. ^ a b Baer, Ralph H. (April 26, 2005). Videogames: in the beginning. Rolenta Press. pp. 30, 45. ISBN 9780964384811. Archived from the original on February 9, 2023. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Donovan, Tristan (April 20, 2010). Replay: The History of Video Games. Yellow Ant. pp. 10–26. ISBN 978-0-9565072-0-4.
  9. ^ a b c Dillon, Roberto (April 19, 2016). The Golden Age of Video Games: The Birth of a Multibillion Dollar Industry. CRC Press. ISBN 9781439873243. Archived from the original on March 2, 2019. Retrieved March 1, 2019.
  10. ^ DeMaria, Rusel; Wilson, Johnny L. (December 2003). High Score! The Illustrated History of Electronic Games (2nd ed.). McGraw Hill/Osborne. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-07-223172-4.
  11. ^ "The Great Videogame Swindle?". Next Generation. No. 23. Imagine Media. November 1996. pp. 67–68. ISSN 1078-9693.
  12. ^ Moschovitis, Christos J. P.; Poole (Christos), Hilary and Moshovitis (2005). The Internet: A Historical Encyclopedia. Chronology. Volume 3. ABC-CLIO. p. 27. ISBN 9781851096596. Archived from the original on March 6, 2019. Retrieved March 3, 2019.
  13. ^ a b Edwards, Benj (December 11, 2011). "Computer Space and the Dawn of the Arcade Video Game". Technologizer. Archived from the original on March 22, 2016. Retrieved April 13, 2016.
  14. ^ Goldberg, Marty; Vendel, Curt (November 25, 2012). Atari Inc.: Business Is Fun. Syzygy Press. pp. 20–31. ISBN 978-0-9855974-0-5.
  15. ^ a b c d e Loguidice, Bill; Barton, Matt (February 24, 2014). Vintage Game Consoles: An Inside Look at Apple, Atari, Commodore, Nintendo, and the Greatest Gaming Platforms of All Time. CRC Press. ISBN 9781135006501. Archived from the original on February 9, 2023. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
  16. ^ Docter, Quentin (August 17, 2018). CompTIA IT Fundamentals (ITF+) Study Guide: Exam FC0-U61. John Wiley & Sons. p. 155. ISBN 9781119513056. Archived from the original on February 9, 2023. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
  17. ^ Kohler, Chris (October 21, 2016). Power-Up: How Japanese Video Games Gave the World an Extra Life. Courier Dover Publications. p. 28. ISBN 9780486801490. Archived from the original on February 9, 2023. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
  18. ^ a b c d Weiss, Brett (December 20, 2011). Classic Home Video Games, 1972–1984: A Complete Reference Guide. McFarland. ISBN 9780786487554. Archived from the original on January 22, 2019. Retrieved September 1, 2019.
  19. ^ Williams, Duncan; Lee, Newton (February 9, 2018). Emotion in Video Game Soundtracking. Springer. p. 144. ISBN 9783319722726. Archived from the original on February 9, 2023. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
  20. ^ Moormann, Peter (August 11, 2012). Music and Game: Perspectives on a Popular Alliance. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 12. ISBN 9783531189130.
  21. ^ Marks, Aaron (October 12, 2012). The Complete Guide to Game Audio: For Composers, Musicians, Sound Designers, Game Developers. Taylor & Francis. p. 3. ISBN 9781136059254. Archived from the original on February 9, 2023. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
  22. ^ a b c Eimbinder, Jerry; Eimbinder, Eric (October 1980). "Electronic Games: Space-age Leisure Activity" (PDF). Popular Electronics. Vol. 18, no. 4. p. 55. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 9, 2023. Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  23. ^ a b Wolf, Mark J. P. (2012). Encyclopedia of Video Games: A-L. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9780313379369. Archived from the original on February 9, 2023. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
  24. ^ Pitre, Boisy G.; Loguidice, Bill (December 10, 2013). CoCo: The Colorful History of Tandy's Underdog Computer. CRC Press. p. 11. ISBN 9781466592483. Archived from the original on February 9, 2023. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
  25. ^ The Blue Book of Canadian Business 1980. Canadian Newspaper Services International. 1980. pp. 182. ISBN 0-9690116-7-9.
  26. ^ McAlpine, Kenneth B. (November 15, 2018). Bits and Pieces: A History of Chiptunes. Oxford University Press. p. 14. ISBN 9780190496098. Archived from the original on February 9, 2023. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
  27. ^ a b Wardyga, Brian J. (August 3, 2018). The Video Games Textbook: History • Business • Technology. CRC Press. ISBN 9780815390916. Archived from the original on February 9, 2023. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
  28. ^ Salsberg, Arthur (September 1977). "TV Electronic Games Grow Up" (PDF). Popular Electronics. Vol. 12, no. 3. p. 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 9, 2023. Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  29. ^ Kowert, Rachel; Quandt, Thorsten (August 27, 2015). The Video Game Debate: Unravelling the Physical, Social, and Psychological Effects of Video Games. Routledge. p. 5. ISBN 9781317567172. Archived from the original on February 9, 2023. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
  30. ^ Kent, Steven (2001). Ultimate History of Video Games. Three Rivers Press. p. 190. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
  31. ^ Weiss, Brett (2007). Classic home video games, 1972–1984: a complete reference guide. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-7864-3226-4.
  32. ^ a b c Barton, Matt (May 8, 2019). Vintage Games 2.0: An Insider Look at the Most Influential Games of All Time. CRC Press. p. 18. ISBN 9781000000924. Archived from the original on February 9, 2023. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
  33. ^ a b c Wolf, Mark J. P. (2008). The Video Game Explosion: A History from PONG to Playstation and Beyond. ABC-CLIO. pp. 50, 55. ISBN 9780313338687. Archived from the original on March 2, 2019. Retrieved March 1, 2019.
  34. ^ Evans, David S.; Hagiu, Andrei; Schmalensee, Richard (February 15, 2008). Invisible Engines: How Software Platforms Drive Innovation and Transform Industries. MIT Press. p. 119. ISBN 9780262262644. Archived from the original on February 9, 2023. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
  35. ^ a b "Magnavox Sues Firms Making Video Games, Charges Infringement". The Wall Street Journal. April 17, 1974. p. 15.
  36. ^ a b c d Picard, Martin (June 24, 2015). "The Foundation of Geemu: A Brief History of Early Japanese video games". International Journal of Computer Game Research. Archived from the original on June 24, 2015. Retrieved September 16, 2019.
  37. ^ Morgan, Cindy (October 1976). "Popular Mechanics". Popular Mechanics. Vol. 146, no. 4. Hearst Magazines. p. 80. ISSN 0032-4558.
  38. ^ "Philips Odyssey 2100". Vox Odyssey. Archived from the original on December 13, 2019. Retrieved November 26, 2019.
  39. ^ "Philips Odyssey 2001". Vox Odyssey. Archived from the original on December 11, 2019. Retrieved November 26, 2019.
  40. ^ a b c Fujita, Naoki (March 1999). 「ファミコン」登場前の日本ビデオ・ゲーム産業 ―現代ビデオ・ゲーム産業の形成過程(2)― [Japanese Video Game Industry Before the "Famicom": The Rise of the Modern Video Game Industry (2)]. 經濟論叢 (in Japanese). 163 (3): 69. doi:10.14989/45271. ISSN 0013-0273. Archived from the original on September 22, 2019. Retrieved September 22, 2019 – via Kurenai.
  41. ^ Kent, Steven (2001). "Could You Repeat That Two More Times?". Ultimate History of Video Games. Three Rivers Press. pp. 80–83. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
  42. ^ Barton, Matt; Loguidice, Bill (January 9, 2009). "The History Of Pong: Avoid Missing Game to Start Industry". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on January 19, 2019. Retrieved February 26, 2019.
  43. ^ McNeil, Steve (April 18, 2019). Hey! Listen!: A journey through the golden era of video games. Headline. p. 45. ISBN 9781472261342. Archived from the original on February 9, 2023. Retrieved October 25, 2020.
  44. ^ Wardyga, Brian J. (August 6, 2018). The Video Games Textbook: History • Business • Technology. CRC Press. pp. 60–61. ISBN 9781351172349. Archived from the original on February 9, 2023. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
  45. ^ "Coleco's New Video Challenge". The New York Times. November 11, 1982. p. 1, sec. D. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on February 3, 2017. Retrieved September 18, 2019.
  46. ^ a b Herman, Leonard (1997). Phoenix: the fall & rise of videogames (2nd ed.). Union, NJ: Rolenta Press. p. 20. ISBN 0-9643848-2-5. Archived from the original on December 31, 2013. Retrieved February 16, 2012. Like Pong, Telstar could only play video tennis but it retailed at an inexpensive $50 that made it attractive to most families that were on a budget. Coleco managed to sell over a million units that year.
  47. ^ Firestone, Mary (January 1, 2011). Nintendo: The Company and Its Founders. ABDO Publishing Company. p. 38. ISBN 9781617840951. Retrieved March 1, 2019. color tv-game.
  48. ^ Yamazaki, Isao (April 23, 2014). 家庭用ゲーム機コンプリートガイド [Complete Guide to Home Game Consoles] (in Japanese). 主婦の友社. p. 152. ISBN 9784072929711. Archived from the original on February 9, 2023. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
  49. ^ a b Yamazaki, Isao (December 5, 2014). 任天堂コンプリートガイド −玩具編− [Complete Guide to Nintendo: Toy Edition] (in Japanese). 主婦の友社. p. 93. ISBN 9784072947579. Archived from the original on February 9, 2023. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
  50. ^ "Famous Names in Gaming". CBS. Archived from the original on May 11, 2013. Retrieved June 13, 2010.
  51. ^ Fawcett, Ian; Howells, Jacqui; Hughes, Dan; Knight, Andy; Walker, Chris; Tilley, Jennifer (April 1, 2019). WJEC GCSE Design and Technology. Hodder Education. p. 79. ISBN 9781510450981. Archived from the original on February 9, 2023. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
  52. ^ Lipson, Ashley S.; Brain, Robert D. (2009). Computer and Video Game Law: Cases, Statutes, Forms, Problems & Materials. Carolina Academic Press. p. 25. ISBN 9781594604881. Archived from the original on March 16, 2012. Retrieved November 8, 2019.
  53. ^ a b Kaplan, Deeny, ed. (Winter 1978). "The Video Games". Video (Buyer's Guide). 1 (1). Reese Communications: 34. ISSN 0147-8907.
  54. ^ a b Kaplan, Deeny, ed. (Winter 1979). "Video Games". Video (Buyer's Guide). 2 (1). Reese Communications: 42. ISSN 0147-8907.
  55. ^ Wolf, Mark J. P.; Perron, Bernard (October 8, 2013). The Video Game Theory Reader. Routledge. ISBN 9781135205195. Archived from the original on February 9, 2023. Retrieved October 25, 2020.
  56. ^ Vision; the European Business Magazine. 1977. p. 65. Archived from the original on February 9, 2023. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
  57. ^ a b The Video Game Explosion: A History from PONG to PlayStation and Beyond Wolf 2007, p. 45 "the Odyssey was imported into the United Kingdom in 1973, and into 12 European countries in 1974 in very limited numbers."
  58. ^ a b Smith, Alexander (November 16, 2015). "1TL200: A Magnavox Odyssey". They Create Worlds. Archived from the original on February 2, 2016. Retrieved April 25, 2016.
  59. ^ National Videogame Museum - Magnavox Odyssey "1973, when the Magnavox Odyssey was released in the UK."
  60. ^ BBC Archive 1973: Christmas Gaming Magnavox Odyssey clip from Tomorrow's World, original broadcast 20 December 1973
  61. ^ a b Nowak, Peter (December 20, 2011). Sex, Bombs, and Burgers: How War, Pornography, and Fast Food Have Shaped Modern Technology. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 132. ISBN 9780762776108. Archived from the original on February 9, 2023. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
  62. ^ 1972 Magnavox Odyssey in-store advertisement (promotional film). Magnavox. 1972. Retrieved June 11, 2022 – via YouTube.
  63. ^ Prophets of Pong: How Newspapers Covered Video Games Between 1972 to 1976 - University of Maine page 53
  64. ^ Xbox One and PS4 Launch Price – Compared to the classics
  65. ^ a b c M.B. Mook (2016). Perfect Guide of Nostalgic Family Computer (in Japanese). Tokyo: Magazine Box. pp. 99–100. ISBN 9784906735891.
  66. ^ Voorhees, Gerald A.; Call, Joshua; Whitlock, Katie (November 2, 2012). "BattleZone and the Origins of First-Person Shooting Games". Guns, Grenades, and Grunts: First-Person Shooter Games. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. ISBN 9781441191441. Archived from the original on February 9, 2023. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
  67. ^ Wolf, Mark J. P. (May 2015). Video Games Around the World. MIT Press. p. 322. ISBN 9780262527163. Archived from the original on February 9, 2023. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
  68. ^ DeMaria, Rusel; Wilson, Johnny L. (2003). High Score! The Illustrated History of Electronic Games (2 ed.). McGraw-Hill. pp. 363, 378. ISBN 978-0-07-223172-4.
  69. ^ Edwards, Benj; 26 January 2017 (January 26, 2017). "The Lost World of Early Nintendo Consoles". PCMag UK. Archived from the original on May 3, 2019. Retrieved September 14, 2019.((cite web)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  70. ^ Wish Book for the 1975 Christmas Season. Sears. 1975. p. 412. Archived from the original on April 28, 2019. Retrieved September 16, 2019.
  71. ^ Ellis, David (2004). "Dedicated Consoles". Official Price Guide to Classic Video Games. Random House. ISBN 0-375-72038-3.
  72. ^ Kent, Steven (2001). "Strange Bedfellows". Ultimate History of Video Games. Three Rivers Press. pp. 94–95. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4.
  73. ^ Sheff, David; Eddy, Andy (1999). Game Over: How Nintendo Zapped an American Industry, Captured Your Dollars, and Enslaved Your Children. GamePress. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-9669617-0-6. Nintendo entered the home market in Japan with the dramatic unveiling of Color TV-Game 6, which played six versions of light tennis. It was followed by a more powerful sequel, Color TV-Game 15. A million units of each were sold. The engineering team also came up with systems that played a more complex game, called "Blockbuster," as well as a racing game. Half a million units of these were sold.
  74. ^ Amos, Evan (November 6, 2018). The Game Console: A Photographic History from Atari to Xbox. No Starch Press. ISBN 9781593277727. Archived from the original on February 9, 2023. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
  75. ^ US patent 4207087, Baer, Ralph H. & Morrison, Howard J., "Microcomputer controlled game", published 1980-06-10, assigned to Marvin Glass and Associates 
  76. ^ "Simon Turns 30". Archived from the original on October 4, 2012. Retrieved April 4, 2011.
  77. ^ "Mattel Handheld Games". Retrieved August 12, 2023.
  78. ^ Armstrong, Douglas D. (May 29, 1978). "Football Calculator Scoring Well". The Milwaukee Journal. p. 1. Archived from the original on May 22, 2016. Retrieved July 17, 2016.
  79. ^ Kent, Steven L. (2000). The First Quarter: A 25-Year History of Video Games. BWD Press. p. 166. ISBN 978-0-9704755-0-3. Archived from the original on January 17, 2023. Retrieved September 23, 2020.
  80. ^ Nelson, Murry R. (May 23, 2013). American Sports: A History of Icons, Idols, and Ideas [4 volumes]: A History of Icons, Idols, and Ideas. ABC-CLIO. p. 1416. ISBN 978-0-313-39753-0. Archived from the original on February 9, 2023. Retrieved September 23, 2020.

Further reading