Frank Miller
FrankMiller JimLee DC
Miller at SXSW 2018
Born (1957-01-27) January 27, 1957 (age 65)
Olney, Maryland, U.S.
NationalityAmerican
Area(s)Writer, penciller, inker, film director
Notable works
The Dark Knight Returns
Batman: Year One
Daredevil
Elektra
Wolverine
Ronin
300
Sin City
Cursed
AwardsAwards
frankmillerink.com

Frank Miller (born January 27, 1957)[1][2] is an American comic book writer, penciller and inker, novelist, screenwriter, film director, and producer known for his comic book stories and graphic novels such as his run on Daredevil and subsequent Daredevil: Born Again, The Dark Knight Returns, Batman: Year One, Sin City, and 300.

He also directed the film version of The Spirit, shared directing duties with Robert Rodriguez on Sin City and Sin City: A Dame to Kill For, and produced the film 300. His film Sin City earned a Palme d'Or nomination, and he has received every major comic book industry award. In 2015, Miller was inducted into the Will Eisner Award Hall of Fame.

He created the comic book character Elektra for Marvel Comics' Daredevil series.

Miller is noted for combining film noir and manga influences in his comic art creations. "I realized when I started Sin City that I found American and English comics be too wordy, too constipated, and Japanese comics to be too empty. So I was attempting to do a hybrid".[3]

Early life

Miller was born in Olney, Maryland, on January 27, 1957,[4] and raised in Montpelier, Vermont,[4] the fifth of seven children of a nurse mother and a carpenter/electrician father.[5] His family was Irish Catholic.[6]

Career

Miller grew up a comics fan; a letter he wrote to Marvel Comics was published in The Cat #3 (April 1973).[7] His first published work was at Western Publishing's Gold Key Comics imprint, received at the recommendation of comics artist Neal Adams, to whom a fledgling Miller, after moving to New York City, had shown samples and received much critique and occasional informal lessons.[8] Though no published credits appear, he is tentatively credited with the three-page story "Royal Feast" in the licensed TV series comic book The Twilight Zone #84 (June 1978), by an unknown writer,[9] and is credited with the five-page "Endless Cloud", also by an unknown writer, in the following issue (July 1978).[10] By the time of the latter, Miller had his first confirmed credit in writer Wyatt Gwyon's six-page "Deliver Me From D-Day", inked by Danny Bulanadi, in Weird War Tales #64 (June 1978).[11]

Former Marvel editor-in-chief Jim Shooter recalled Miller going to DC Comics after having broken in with "...a small job from Western Publishing, I think. Thus emboldened, he went to DC, and after getting savaged by Joe Orlando, got in to see art director Vinnie Colletta, who recognized talent and arranged for him to get a one-page war-comic job".[12] The Grand Comics Database does not list this job; there may have been a one-page DC story, or Shooter may have misremembered the page count or have been referring to the two-page story, by writer Roger McKenzie, "Slowly, painfully, you dig your way from the cold, choking debris..." in Weird War Tales #68 (Oct. 1978).[13] Other fledgling work at DC included the six-page "The Greatest Story Never Told", by writer Paul Kupperberg, in that same issue, and the five-page "The Edge of History", written by Elliot S. Maggin, in Unknown Soldier #219 (Sept. 1978). His first work for Marvel Comics was penciling the 17-page story "The Master Assassin of Mars, Part 3" in John Carter, Warlord of Mars #18 (Nov. 1978).[14]

At Marvel, Miller settled in as a regular fill-in and cover artist, working on a variety of titles. One of these jobs was drawing Peter Parker, The Spectacular Spider-Man #27–28 (Feb.–March 1979), which guest-starred Daredevil.[15] At the time, sales of the Daredevil title were poor but Miller saw potential in "a blind protagonist in a purely visual medium," he recalled in 2000.[16] Miller went to writer and staffer Jo Duffy (a mentor-figure whom he called his "guardian angel" at Marvel)[16] and she passed on his interest to editor-in-chief Jim Shooter to get Miller work on Daredevil's regular title. Shooter agreed and made Miller the new penciller on the title. As Miller recalled in 2008:

When I first showed up in New York, I showed up with a bunch of comics, a bunch of samples, of guys in trench coats and old cars and such. And [comics editors] said, 'Where are the guys in tights?' And I had to learn how to do it. But as soon as a title came along, when [Daredevil signature artist] Gene Colan left Daredevil, I realized it was my secret in to do crime comics with a superhero in them. And so I lobbied for the title and got it.[5]

Daredevil and the early 1980s

Miller at the 1982 Comic-Con
Miller at the 1982 Comic-Con

Daredevil #158 (May 1979), Miller's debut on that title, was the finale of an ongoing story written by Roger McKenzie and inked by Klaus Janson. After this issue, Miller became one of Marvel's rising stars.[17]

However, sales on Daredevil did not improve, Marvel's management continued to discuss cancellation, and Miller himself almost quit the series, as he disliked McKenzie's scripts.[12] Miller's fortunes changed with the arrival of Denny O'Neil as editor. Realizing Miller's unhappiness with the series, and impressed by a backup story Miller had written, O'Neil moved McKenzie to another project so that Miller could try writing the series himself.[12][18] Miller and O'Neil maintained a friendly working relationship throughout his run on the series.[19] With issue #168 (Jan. 1981), Miller took over full duties as writer and penciller. Sales rose so swiftly that Marvel once again began publishing Daredevil monthly rather than bimonthly just three issues after Miller became its writer.[20]

Issue #168 saw the first full appearance of the ninja mercenary Elektra—who became a popular character and star in a 2005 motion picture—although her first cover appearance was four months earlier on Miller's cover of The Comics Journal #58.[21] Miller later wrote and drew a solo Elektra story in Bizarre Adventures #28 (Oct. 1981). He added a martial arts aspect to Daredevil's fighting skills,[19] and introduced previously unseen characters who had played a major part in the character's youth: Stick, leader of the ninja clan the Chaste, who had been Murdock's sensei after he was blinded[22] and a rival clan called the Hand.[23]

Daredevil #168 (Jan. 1981), Elektra's debut. Cover art by Miller and Klaus Janson
Daredevil #168 (Jan. 1981), Elektra's debut. Cover art by Miller and Klaus Janson

Unable to handle both writing and penciling Daredevil on the new monthly schedule, Miller began increasingly relying on Janson for the artwork, sending him looser and looser pencils beginning with #173.[24] By issue #185, Miller had virtually relinquished his role as Daredevil's artist, and he was providing only rough layouts for Janson to both pencil and ink, allowing Miller to focus on the writing.[24]

Miller's work on Daredevil was characterized by darker themes and stories. This peaked when in #181 (April 1982) he had the assassin Bullseye kill Elektra,[25] and Daredevil subsequently attempt to kill him. Miller finished his Daredevil run with issue #191 (Feb. 1983), which he cited in a winter 1983 interview as the issue he is most proud of;[19] by this time he had transformed a second-tier character into one of Marvel's most popular.

Additionally, Miller drew a short Batman Christmas story, "Wanted: Santa Claus – Dead or Alive", written by Dennis O'Neil for DC Special Series #21 (Spring 1980).[26] This was his first professional experience with a character with which, like Daredevil, he became closely associated. At Marvel, O'Neil and Miller collaborated on two issues of The Amazing Spider-Man Annual. The 1980 Annual featured a team-up with Doctor Strange[27] while the 1981 Annual showcased a meeting with the Punisher.[28]

As penciler and co-plotter, Miller, together with writer Chris Claremont, produced the miniseries Wolverine #1–4 (Sept.-Dec. 1982),[29] inked by Josef Rubinstein and spinning off from the popular X-Men title. Miller used this miniseries to expand on Wolverine's character.[30] The series was a critical success and further cemented Miller's place as an industry star.

His first creator-owned title was DC Comics' six-issue miniseries Ronin (1983–1984).[31] In 1985, DC Comics named Miller as one of the honorees in the company's 50th-anniversary publication Fifty Who Made DC Great.[32]

Miller was involved in a few unpublished projects in the early 1980s. A house advertisement for Doctor Strange appeared in Marvel Comics cover-dated February 1981. It stated "Watch for the new adventures of Earth's Sorcerer Supreme – - as mystically conjured by Roger Stern and Frank Miller!". Miller's only contribution to the series was the cover for Doctor Strange #46 (April 1981). Other commitments prevented him from working on the series.[33] Miller and Steve Gerber made a proposal to revamp DC's three biggest characters: Superman, Batman, and Wonder Woman, under a line called "Metropolis" and comics titled "Man of Steel" or "The Man of Steel", "Dark Knight" and "Amazon".[34] However, this proposal was not accepted.

Batman: The Dark Knight Returns and the late 1980s

In 1986, DC Comics released the writer–penciler Miller's Batman: The Dark Knight Returns, a four-issue miniseries printed in what the publisher called "prestige format"—squarebound, rather than stapled; on heavy-stock paper rather than newsprint, and with cardstock rather than glossy-paper covers. It was inked by Klaus Janson and colored by Lynn Varley.[35]

The story tells how Batman retired after the death of the second Robin (Jason Todd) and, at age 55, returns to fight crime in a dark and violent future. Miller created a tough, gritty Batman, referring to him as "The Dark Knight" based upon his being called the "Darknight Detective" in some 1970s portrayals,[36] although the nickname "Dark Knight" for Batman dates back to 1940.[37][38] Released the same year as Alan Moore's and Dave Gibbons' DC miniseries Watchmen, it showcased a new form of more adult-oriented storytelling to both comics fans and a crossover mainstream audience. The Dark Knight Returns influenced the comic-book industry by heralding a new wave of darker characters.[39] The trade paperback collection proved to be a big seller for DC and remains in print.[40]

By this time, Miller had returned as the writer of Daredevil. Following his self-contained story "Badlands", penciled by John Buscema, in #219 (June 1985), he co-wrote #226 (Jan. 1986) with departing writer Dennis O'Neil. Then, with artist David Mazzucchelli, he crafted a seven-issue story arc that, like The Dark Knight Returns, similarly redefined and reinvigorated its main character. The storyline, "Daredevil: Born Again", in #227–233 (Feb.-Aug. 1986)[41] chronicled the hero's Catholic background and the destruction and rebirth of his real-life identity, Manhattan attorney Matt Murdock, at the hands of Daredevil's nemesis, the crime lord Wilson Fisk, also known as the Kingpin. After completing the "Born Again" arc, Frank Miller intended to produce a two-part story with artist Walt Simonson but it was never completed and remains unpublished.[42]

Miller and artist Bill Sienkiewicz produced the graphic novel Daredevil: Love and War in 1986. Featuring the character of the Kingpin, it indirectly bridges Miller's first run on Daredevil and Born Again by explaining the change in the Kingpin's attitude toward Daredevil. Miller and Sienkiewicz also produced the eight-issue miniseries Elektra: Assassin for Epic Comics.[43] Set outside regular Marvel continuity, it featured a wild tale of cyborgs and ninjas, while expanding further on Elektra's background. Both of these projects were critically well received. Elektra: Assassin was praised for its bold storytelling, but neither it nor Daredevil: Love and War had the influence or reached as many readers as Dark Knight Returns or Born Again.[citation needed]

Miller's final major story in this period was in Batman issues 404–407 in 1987, another collaboration with Mazzucchelli. Titled Batman: Year One, this was Miller's version of the origin of Batman in which he retconned many details and adapted the story to fit his Dark Knight continuity. Proving to be hugely popular,[44] this was as influential as Miller's previous work.[45] A trade paperback released in 1988 remains in print, and is one of DC's best selling books. The story was adapted as an original animated film video in 2011.[46]

Miller also illustrated the covers for the first twelve issues of First Comics' English-language reprints of Kazuo Koike and Goseki Kojima's Lone Wolf and Cub. This helped bring Japanese manga to a wider Western audience.[citation needed]

During this time, Miller (along with Marv Wolfman, Alan Moore, and Howard Chaykin) had been in dispute with DC Comics over a proposed ratings system for comics. Disagreeing with what he saw as censorship, Miller refused to do any further work for DC,[47] and he took his future projects to the independent publisher Dark Horse Comics. From then on Miller was a major supporter of creator rights and became a major voice against censorship in comics.[48]

The 1990s: Sin City and 300

After announcing he intended to release his work only via the independent publisher Dark Horse Comics, Miller completed one final project for Epic Comics, the mature-audience imprint of Marvel Comics. Elektra Lives Again was a fully painted graphic novel written and drawn by Miller and colored by longtime partner Lynn Varley.[49] Telling the story of the resurrection of Elektra from the dead and Daredevil's quest to find her, as well as showing Miller's will to experiment with new story-telling techniques.[50]

1990 saw Miller and artist Geof Darrow start work on Hard Boiled, a three-issue miniseries. The title, a mix of violence and satire, was praised[51] for Darrow's highly detailed art and Miller's writing.

At the same time Miller and artist Dave Gibbons produced Give Me Liberty, a four-issue miniseries for Dark Horse. Give Me Liberty was followed by sequel miniseries and specials expanding on the story of protagonist Martha Washington, an African-American woman in modern and near-future North America, all of which were written by Miller and drawn by Gibbons.[52]

Miller also wrote the scripts for the science fiction films RoboCop 2 and RoboCop 3, about a police cyborg. Neither was critically well received.[53][54] In 2007, Miller stated that "There was a lot of interference in the writing process. It wasn't ideal. After working on the two Robocop movies, I really thought that was it for me in the business of film."[55] Miller came into contact with the fictional cyborg once more, writing the comic-book miniseries RoboCop Versus The Terminator, with art by Walter Simonson. In 2003, Miller's screenplay for RoboCop 2 was adapted by Steven Grant for Avatar Press's Pulsaar imprint. Illustrated by Juan Jose Ryp, the series is called Frank Miller's RoboCop and contains plot elements that were divided between RoboCop 2 and RoboCop 3.[56]

In 1991, Miller started work on his first Sin City story. Serialized in Dark Horse Presents #51–62, it proved to be another success, and the story was released in a trade paperback. This first Sin City "yarn" was rereleased in 1995 under the name The Hard Goodbye. Sin City proved to be Miller's main project for much of the remainder of the decade, as Miller told more Sin City stories within this noir world of his creation, in the process helping to revitalize the crime comics genre.[57] Sin City proved artistically auspicious for Miller and again brought his work to a wider audience without comics. Miller lived in Los Angeles, California in the 1990s, which influenced Sin City. He later lived in the Hell's Kitchen neighborhood of New York City, which was also an influence.[58]

Daredevil: The Man Without Fear was a five issue miniseries published by Marvel Comics in 1993. In this story, Miller and artist John Romita Jr. told Daredevil's origins differently from in the previous comics, and they provided additional detail to his beginnings.[59] Miller also returned to superheroes by writing issue #11 of Todd McFarlane's Spawn, as well as the Spawn/Batman crossover for Image Comics.[60]

In 1994, Miller became one of the founding members of the comic imprint Legend, under which many of his Sin City works were released via Dark Horse Comics.[61] In 1995, Miller and Darrow collaborated again on Big Guy and Rusty the Boy Robot, published as a two-part miniseries by Dark Horse.[62] In 1999 it became an animated series on Fox Kids.[63]

Written and illustrated by Frank Miller with painted colors by Varley, 300 was a 1998 comic-book miniseries, released as a hardcover collection in 1999, retelling the Battle of Thermopylae and the events leading up to it from the perspective of Leonidas of Sparta. 300 was particularly inspired by the 1962 film The 300 Spartans, a movie that Miller watched as a young boy.[64]

Miller during a The Dark Knight III: The Master Race panel held at Fan Expo 2016 in Toronto, Canada
Miller during a The Dark Knight III: The Master Race panel held at Fan Expo 2016 in Toronto, Canada

Batman: The Dark Knight Strikes Again and 2000–2019

He was one of the artists on the Superman and Batman: World's Funnest one-shot written by Evan Dorkin published in 2000.[65] Miller moved back to Hell's Kitchen by 2001 and was creating Batman: The Dark Knight Strikes Again as the 9/11 terrorist attacks occurred about four miles from that neighborhood.[66] His differences with DC Comics put aside, he saw the sequel initially released as a three-issue miniseries,[67] and though it sold well,[68] it received a mixed to negative reception.[69][70] Miller also returned to writing Batman in 2005, taking on the writing duties of All Star Batman & Robin, the Boy Wonder, a series set inside of what Miller describes as the "Dark Knight Universe,"[71] and drawn by Jim Lee.[72] All Star Batman & Robin, the Boy Wonder also received largely negative reviews.[73]

Miller's previous attitude towards movie adaptations was to change after Robert Rodriguez made a short film based on a story from Miller's Sin City entitled "The Customer is Always Right". Miller was pleased with the result, leading to him and Rodriguez directing a full-length film, Sin City using Miller's original comics panels as storyboards. The film was released in the U.S. on April 1, 2005.[74] The film's success brought renewed attention to Miller's Sin City projects. Similarly, a 2006 film adaptation of 300, directed by Zack Snyder, brought new attention to Miller's original comic book work.[75] A sequel to the film, Sin City: A Dame to Kill For, based on Miller's second Sin City series and co-directed by Miller and Robert Rodriguez, was released in theaters on August 22, 2014.[76]

On July 10, 2015, at the San Diego Comic-Con, Miller was inducted into the Eisner Awards Hall of Fame.[77]

From 2015 to 2017, DC released a nine-issue, bimonthly sequel to The Dark Knight Returns and The Dark Knight Strikes Again, titled The Dark Knight III: The Master Race. Miller co-wrote it with Brian Azzarello,[78] and Andy Kubert and Klaus Janson were the artists.[79] Issue one was the top-selling comic of November 2015, moving an estimated 440,234 copies.[80] In 2016, Miller and Azzarello also co-wrote the graphic novel, The Dark Knight Returns: The Last Crusade with art by John Romita Jr. and Peter Steigerwald.[81]

From April to August 2018, Dark Horse Comics published monthly Miller's five-issue miniseries sequel to 300, Xerxes: The Fall of the House of Darius and the Rise of Alexander,[82] which marked his first work as both writer and artist comics creation since Holy Terror.[83]

In 2017 Miller announced he was writing a Superman: Year One project with artwork by John Romita Jr.[84][85] The three-issue series was released by DC Black Label from June to October 2019 and received mixed reviews.[86][87]

Simon & Schuster Children's Publishing published his and author Tom Wheeler's young-adult novel Cursed, about the King Arthur legend from the point of view of the Lady of the Lake in October 2019.[88]

In December 2019, DC released Dark Knight Returns: The Golden Child, the fifth series in The Dark Knight Returns universe to mixed reviews.[89] It is written by Miller with artwork by Rafael Grampa.[90]

The 2020s

In July 2020, Netflix released a 10-episode series based on Cursed with Miller and Wheeler serving as both creators and executive producers.[91]

On April 28, 2022, it was reported that Miller was launching an American comic book publishing company titled Frank Miller Presents, or FMP.[92] Miller will act as the company's president and editor-in-chief, working alongside Dan DiDio as publisher and chief operating officer Silenn Thomas.[92] FMP expects to produce between two and four titles per year, with Miller's initial contributions to include Sin City 1858 and Ronin Book Two.[92]

Legal issues

In October 2012, Joanna Gallardo-Mills, who began working for Miller as an executive coordinator in November 2008, filed suit against Miller in Manhattan for discrimination and "mental anguish", stating that Miller's former girlfriend, Kimberly Cox, created a hostile work environment for Gallardo-Mills in Miller and Cox's Hell's Kitchen living and work space.[93]

In July 2020, producer Stephen L'Heureux, who worked on Sin City: A Dame to Kill For, filed a $25 million defamation and economic interference lawsuit against Miller and fellow producer Silenn Thomas. L'Heureux alleged the pair had repeatedly made, "false, misleading and defamatory statements" about L'Heureux's ownership of the developmental rights of Sin City and Hard Boiled to Skydance Media CEO David Ellison and other Skydance executives and prevented the creation of a film adaptation of Hard Boiled and a TV series based on Sin City. Miller's attorney Allen Grodsky denied the allegation stating, "The claims asserted in Mr. L'Heureux's lawsuit are baseless, and we will be aggressively defending this lawsuit."[94]

Public image

Miller signing a copy of The Dark Knight III: The Master Race at Midtown Comics

In July 2011 at the San Diego Comic-Con International while promoting his upcoming graphic novel Holy Terror in which the protagonist hero fights Al-Qaeda terrorists, Miller made a remark about Islamic terrorism and Islam saying, "I was raised Catholic and I could tell you a lot about the Spanish Inquisition but the mysteries of the Catholic Church elude me. And I could tell you a lot about Al-Qaeda, but the mysteries of Islam elude me too."[95]

In November 2011, Miller posted remarks pertaining to the Occupy Wall Street movement on his blog, calling it "nothing but a pack of louts, thieves, and rapists, fed by Woodstock-era nostalgia and putrid false righteousness." He said of the movement, "Wake up, pond scum. America is at war against a ruthless enemy. Maybe, between bouts of self-pity and all the other tasty tidbits of narcissism you've been served up in your sheltered, comfy little worlds, you've heard terms like al-Qaeda and Islamicism."[96][97][98] Miller's statement generated controversy.[99] In a 2018 interview, Miller backed away from his comments saying that he "wasn't thinking clearly" when he made them and alluded to a very dark time in his life during which they were made.[100]

Personal life

Miller was married to colorist Lynn Varley from 1986 to 2005.[101][102] She colored many of his most acclaimed works (from Ronin in 1984 through 300 in 1998) and the backgrounds to the 2006 movie 300.

Miller has been romantically linked to New York-based Shakespearean scholar Kimberly Halliburton Cox,[103] who had a cameo in The Spirit (2008).[104]

In response to claims that his comics are conservative, Miller said, "I'm not a conservative. I'm a libertarian."[105]

Style and influence

Marv walking through the rain in The Hard Goodbye cover by Frank Miller, illustrating Miller's film noir-influenced visual style.
Marv walking through the rain in The Hard Goodbye cover by Frank Miller, illustrating Miller's film noir-influenced visual style.

Although still conforming to traditional comic book styles, Miller infused his first issue of Daredevil with his own film noir style.[47] Miller sketched the roofs of New York in an attempt to give his Daredevil art an authentic feel not commonly seen in superhero comics at the time. One journalist noted,

Daredevil's New York, under Frank's run, became darker and more dangerous than the Spider-Man New York he'd seemingly lived in before. New York City itself, particularly Daredevil's Hell's Kitchen neighborhood, became as much a character as the shadowy crimefighter; the stories often took place on the rooftop level, with water towers, pipes and chimneys jutting out to create a skyline reminiscent of German Expressionism's dramatic edges and shadows.[106]

Ronin shows some of the strongest influences of manga and bande dessinée on Miller's style, both in the artwork and narrative style.[107] Sin City was drawn in black and white to emphasize its film noir origins. Miller has said he opposes naturalism in comic art: "People are attempting to bring a superficial reality to superheroes which is rather stupid. They work best as the flamboyant fantasies they are. I mean, these are characters that are broad and big. I don't need to see sweat patches under Superman's arms. I want to see him fly."[108]

Miller considers the renowned Argentinian comic book artist Alberto Breccia as one of his personal mentors,[109] even declaring that (regarding modernity in comics), "It all started with Breccia".[110] In that same regard, Miller's work in Sin City has been analyzed by South American writers and artists –as well as European critics like Yexus[111]– as being based or inspired in Breccia's groundbreaking style,[112][113] especially regarding the latter's chiaroscuros and strong use of stark black-and-white technique.[114]

Praise and criticism

Daredevil: Born Again and The Dark Knight Returns were both critical successes and influential on subsequent generations of creators to the point of being considered classics of the medium. Batman: Year One was also met with praise for its gritty style, while comics including Ronin, 300 and Sin City were also successful, cementing Miller's place as a legend of comic books. However, later material such as Batman: The Dark Knight Strikes Again received mixed reviews. In particular, All Star Batman and Robin the Boy Wonder was widely considered a sign of Miller's creative decline.[115][116][117]

Fellow comic book writer Alan Moore has described Miller's work from Sin City-onward as homophobic and misogynistic, despite praising his early Batman and Daredevil material. Moore previously penned a flattering introduction to an early collected edition of The Dark Knight Returns,[118] and the two have remained friends.[119] Moore has praised Miller's realistic use of minimal dialogue in fight scenes, which "move very fast, flowing from image to image with the speed of a real-life conflict, unimpeded by the reader having to stop to read a lot of accompanying text".[120]

Miller's graphic novel Holy Terror was accused of being anti-Islamic.[121] Miller later said that he regretted Holy Terror, saying, "I don't want to wipe out chapters of my own biography. But I'm not capable of that book again."[100]

In terms of Miller's film career, his 2008 adaptation of The Spirit received negative reviews, earning a Rotten Tomatoes approval rating of 14% based on 111 reviews, with an average rating of 3.58/10,[122] Metacritic gave it an aggregate score of 30 out of 100, based on 24 critics, indicating "generally negative reviews".[123] and a metascore of 30/100 at Metacritic.com.[124] Meanwhile, his film adaptation of Sin City was well received by audiences and critics.[125]

Awards and nominations

Inkpot Awards

Kirby Awards

Eisner Awards

Harvey Awards

Eagle Awards

UK Comic Art Award

Cannes Film Festival

Scream Awards

Bibliography

DC Comics

Marvel Comics

Dark Horse Comics

Other publishers

Cover work

Filmography

Films

Year Title Director Screenwriter Executive Producer Actor Role Notes
1990 RoboCop 2 No Yes No Uncredited Frank, the Chemist
1993 RoboCop 3 No Yes No No
1994 Jugular Wine: A Vampire Odyssey No No No Yes Frank Miller
2003 Daredevil No No No Yes Man with Pen in Head Also inspired by his graphic novels
2005 Sin City Yes Uncredited No Yes The Priest Also based on his graphic novel
Co-directed with Robert Rodriguez
2006 300 No No Yes No Also based on his graphic novels
2008 The Spirit Yes Yes No Yes Liebowitz
2014 300: Rise of an Empire No No Yes No Also based on his graphic novels
Sin City: A Dame to Kill For Yes Yes Yes Uncredited Sam Also based on his graphic novels
Co-directed with Robert Rodriguez

Television

Year Title Creator Executive Producer Actor Role Notes
2020 Cursed Yes Yes Yes Brother Horde Based on his graphic novels
2022 Sin City Yes Yes Based on his graphic novels
Also producer and in production

References

  1. ^ "Comics Industry Birthdays". Comics Buyer's Guide. Iola, Wisconsin (1650): 107. February 2009.
  2. ^ Miller, John Jackson (June 10, 2005). "Comics Industry Birthdays". Comics Buyer's Guide. Iola, Wisconsin. Archived from the original on February 18, 2011.
  3. ^ Dunning, John (n.d.). "Frank Miller: Comic Yo Kill For". Dazed. Archived from the original on May 10, 2016. Retrieved January 24, 2016.
  4. ^ a b Webster, Andy (July 20, 2008). "Artist-Director Seeks the Spirit of The Spirit". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 11, 2008.
  5. ^ a b Lovece, Frank (December 22, 2008). "Spirit guide: Frank Miller adapts Will Eisner's cult comic". Film Journal International. Archived from the original on April 5, 2013. Retrieved December 25, 2008.
  6. ^ Applebaum, Stephen (December 22, 2008). "Frank Miller interview: It's no sin". The Scotsman. Edinburgh, Scotland. Archived from the original on October 15, 2012. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
  7. ^ The Cat #3 at the Grand Comics Database.
  8. ^ Miller, Frank (July 21, 2010). "Neal Adams". FrankMillerInk.com (official site). Archived from the original on August 3, 2010. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
  9. ^ "Royal Feast", The Twilight Zone #84 (June 1978) at the Grand Comics Database.
  10. ^ "Endless Cloud", The Twilight Zone #85 (July 1978) at the Grand Comics Database.
  11. ^ "Deliver Me From D-Day", Weird War Tales #64 (June 1978) at the Grand Comics Database
  12. ^ a b c Mithra, Kuljit (July 1998). "Interview with Jim Shooter". ManWithoutFear.com. Archived from the original on November 18, 2010. Retrieved October 3, 2010.
  13. ^ Weird War Tales #68 (Oct. 1978) at the Grand Comics Database
  14. ^ Frank Miller at the Grand Comics Database. NOTE: A different artist named Frank Miller was active in the 1940s. He died December 3, 1949.
  15. ^ Saffel, Steve (2007). "A Not-So-Spectacular Experiment". Spider-Man the Icon: The Life and Times of a Pop Culture Phenomenon. London, United Kingdom: Titan Books. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-84576-324-4. Frank Miller was the guest penciler for The Spectacular Spider-Man #27, February 1979, written by Bill Mantlo. [The issue's] splash page was the first time Miller's [rendition of] Daredevil appeared in a Marvel story.
  16. ^ a b "Daredevil by Frank Miller & Klaus Janson, Vol. 1". Goodreads. n.d. Archived from the original on April 12, 2016.
  17. ^ Sanderson, Peter (2008). "1970s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Marvel Chronicle A Year by Year History. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 189. ISBN 978-0-7566-4123-8. In this issue the great longtime Daredevil artist Gene Colan was succeeded by a new penciller who became a star himself: Frank Miller.
  18. ^ Mithra, Kuljit (February 1998). "Interview with Dennis O'Neil". ManWithoutFear.com. Archived from the original on March 21, 2013. Retrieved May 10, 2013.
  19. ^ a b c Kraft, David Anthony; Salicup, Jim (April 1983). "Frank Miller's Ronin". Comics Interview. No. 2. Fictioneer Books. pp. 7–21.
  20. ^ Khoury, George (2016). Comic Book Fever: A Celebration of Comics: 1976-1986. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing. p. 182. ISBN 978-1-60549-063-2.
  21. ^ DeFalco, Tom "1980s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 201: "Matt Murdock's college sweetheart first appeared in this issue [#168] by writer/artist Frank Miller."
  22. ^ DeFalco "1980s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 202: "Possibly modeled after Nantembo, a Zen master who reputedly disciplined his students by striking them with his nantin staff, Stick first appeared in this issue [#176] by Frank Miller."
  23. ^ DeFalco "1980s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 202: The Hand was a league of ninja assassins who employed dark magic...Introduced in Daredevil #174 by writer/artist Frank Miller, this group of deadly warriors had been hired by the Kingpin of Crime to exterminate Matt Murdock."
  24. ^ a b Cordier, Philippe (April 2007). "Seeing Red: Dissecting Daredevil's Defining Years". Back Issue!. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing (21): 33–60.
  25. ^ DeFalco "1980s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 207: "Frank Miller did the unthinkable when he killed off the popular Elektra in Daredevil #181."
  26. ^ Manning, Matthew K. (2014). "1980s". In Dougall, Alastair (ed.). Batman: A Visual History. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 136. ISBN 978-1-4654-2456-3. One of the most important creators ever to work on Batman, writer/artist Frank Miller drew his first Batman story in this issue. While it featured five self-contained tales, the story 'Wanted: Santa Claus – Dead or Alive', written by Denny O'Neil and penciled by Miller was the standout.
  27. ^ Manning, Matthew K. (2012). "1980s". In Gilbert, Laura (ed.). Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-7566-9236-0. Writer Denny O'Neil and artist Frank Miller...used their considerable talents in this rare collaboration that teamed two other legends – Dr. Strange and Spider-Man.
  28. ^ Manning "1980s" in Gilbert (2012), p. 120: "Writer Denny O'Neil teamed with artist Frank Miller to concoct a Spider-Man annual that played to both their strengths. Miller and O'Neil seemed to flourish in the gritty world of street crime so tackling a Spider/Punisher fight was a natural choice."
  29. ^ DeFalco "1980s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 208: "The most popular member of the X-Men was finally featured in his first solo title, a four-issue limited series by writer Chris Claremont and writer/artist Frank Miller."
  30. ^ Goldstein, Hilary (May 19, 2006). "Wolverine TPB Review He's the best at what he does and so is Frank Miller". IGN. Archived from the original on April 11, 2013. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
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  38. ^ The term appears on page seven of the story "The Joker" from Batman No. 1 (1940), which is reprinted in the book Batman Chronicles, Volume One (2005). In the lower right panel, Batman is shown swimming in the water after having been knocked off a bridge by the Joker, and the caption reads "THE SHOCK OF COLD WATER QUICKLY REVIVES THE DARK KNIGHT!"
  39. ^ Manning, Matthew K. (2010). "1980s". In Dolan, Hannah (ed.). DC Comics Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. London, UK: Dorling Kindersley. p. 219. ISBN 978-0-7566-6742-9. It is arguably the best Batman story of all time. Written and drawn by Frank Miller by Frank Miller (with inspired inking by Klaus Janson and beautiful watercolors by Lynn Varley), Batman: The Dark Knight revolutionized the entire [archetype] of the super hero.
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  41. ^ DeFalco "1980s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 226: "'Born Again' was a seven-issue story arc that appeared in Daredevil from issue #227 to #233 (Feb.–Aug. 1986) by writer Frank Miller and artist David Mazzucchelli."
  42. ^ Mithra, Kuljit (1997). "Interview With Walt Simonson". ManWithoutFear.com. Archived from the original on March 21, 2013. Retrieved March 17, 2013. The gist of it is that by the time Marvel was interested in having us work on the story, Frank was off doing Dark Knight and I was off doing X-Factor. So it never happened. Too bad—it was a cool story too.
  43. ^ DeFalco "1980s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 228: "Produced by Frank Miller and illustrated by Bill Sienkiewicz, Elektra: Assassin was an eight-issue limited series. Because its mature content was inappropriate for children, it was published by Marvel's Epic Comics imprint."
  44. ^ Manning "1980s" in Dolan, p. 227 "Melding Miller's noir sensibilities, realistic characterization, and gritty action with Mazzucchelli's brilliant iconic imagery, "Year One" thrilled readers and critics alike...as well as being one of the influences for the 2005 film Batman Begins.
  45. ^ Gavaler, Chris (2017). Superhero Comics. London and New York: Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 279–280. ISBN 978-1-4742-2635-6.
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  51. ^ Burgas, Greg (September 17, 2008). "Comics You Should Own – Hard Boiled". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on October 18, 2012. Retrieved November 25, 2011. [W]e can see that Miller and Darrow were creating a marvelous satire, one that pulls no punches and lets none of us off the hook, which is what the best satire does. Hard Boiled is a wild and extremely fun ride, but it's also an insightful examination of a sickness in our society that we don't like to confront.
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Preceded byGene Colan Daredevil artist 1979–1983 Succeeded byKlaus Janson Preceded byRoger McKenzie Daredevil writer 1981–1983 Succeeded byDennis O'Neil Preceded byDennis O'Neil Daredevil writer 1986 Succeeded byAnn Nocenti Preceded byMax Allan Collins Batman writer 1987 Succeeded byMax Allan Collins