Gregory of Narek
Grigor Narekatsi 1.jpg
A portrait of Gregory of Narek from a 1173 manuscript from Cilician Armenia.[a]
Doctor of the Church
Bornc. 945–951
ResidenceNarek Monastery, Kingdom of Vaspurakan (present-day Yemişlik, Gevaş, Van Province, Turkey)
Diedc. 1003–1011 (aged ≈60)
Venerated inArmenian Apostolic Church
Catholic Church
Armenian Catholic Church
Canonized12 April 2015, St. Peter's Basilica by Pope Francis[4]
Major shrineChapel-Mausoleum at Narek Monastery[5]
FeastOctober (Armenian Apostolic Church: Holy Translators Day, a moveable feast)[6][7]
27 February (Catholic Church)[8]
InfluencesNeoplatonism, Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite
InfluencedAll Armenian literature, especially verse: Nerses Shnorhali, Sayat-Nova, Yeghishe Charents[9]
Major worksBook of Lamentations (Narek)

Grigor Narekatsi[b] (Armenian: Գրիգոր Նարեկացի; anglicized: Gregory of Narek)[c] (c. 950 – 1003/1011) was an Armenian mystical and lyrical poet, monk, and theologian. He is venerated as a saint in the Armenian Apostolic and Catholic Churches and was declared a Doctor of the Church by Pope Francis in 2015.

The son of a bishop, Gregory was educated, ordained and later stationed at Narekavank, on the southern shores of Lake Van (modern Turkey). Gregory is considered by scholars of being the most beloved and significant theological and literary figure of the Armenian religious tradition.

He is best known for his Book of Lamentations, a major piece of mystical literature, a confessional prayer book present in every Armenian religious household. His works have inspired many Armenian literary figures and influenced the Armenian literature in general throughout the ages.

Life and background

Gregory was based throughout his life at the monastery of Narek (Narekavank), seen here circa 1900. His chapel-mausoleum was located inside the monastery walls before it was destroyed in the mid-20th century.
Gregory was based throughout his life at the monastery of Narek (Narekavank), seen here circa 1900. His chapel-mausoleum was located inside the monastery walls before it was destroyed in the mid-20th century.

Gregory's birth and death dates are placed by scholars circa 945–951 and 1003 or 1010–11, respectively.[17] He lived in the Armenian Kingdom of Vaspurakan, which is "notable for the high cultural level that it achieved."[18] Vaspurakan, centered around Lake Van, is a region described by Richard Hovannisian as "the cradle of Armenian civilization".[19]

Little is known about his life. He was born in a village on the southern shores of Lake Van, in what is now eastern Turkey, to Khosrov Andzevatsi, a relative of the Artsruni royal family.[20] Khosrov was ordained a bishop after being widowed and was appointed primate of the diocese of Andzevatsik.[21] His father was suspected of pro-Byzantine Chalcedonian beliefs, a doctrine not accepted by the Armenian Apostolic Church,[15] and was eventually excommunicated by Catholicos Anania Mokatsi for undermining the Armenian Church with his interpretation of the rank of Catholicos, the highest rank in Armenian church clergy, as being equivalent to that of a bishop, a lower rank in Christian churches, based on the works of Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, a fifth-century Greek Christian theologian and mysticist.[22] Grigor and his elder brother Hovhannes were sent to the Narekavank (lit. the monastery of Narek) where he was given religious education by Anania Narekatsi (Ananias of Narek). The latter was his maternal great-uncle, who was a celebrated scholar and the founder of the monastery. Being raised in an intellectual and religious fervor, Grigor was ordained priest in 977 and taught others theology at the monastery school until his death.[13][23]

Whether Gregory led a secluded life or not has become a matter of debate among Armenian scholars. Both literary critic Arshag Chobanian and scholar Manuk Abeghian believe he did, while literary critic Hrant Tamrazyan [hy] argued that Gregory was very well aware of the secular world and his time, had deep knowledge of both peasants and princes and the complexities of the world. Tamrazian believes he could not have lived solely on literary ecstasy.[24]

Gregory was buried inside the walls of the monastery of Narek. A rectangular-shaped chapel-mausoleum was built on his tomb,[9][5] which survived until the mid-20th century, when the monastery, abandoned in the aftermath of the Armenian genocide, was destroyed by the Turkish authorities, and later replaced with a mosque.[25][26][27]

Works

Book of Lamentations (Narek)

A 1173 manuscript of the Book of Lamentations
A 1173 manuscript of the Book of Lamentations

The Book of Lamentations (Classical Armenian: Մատեան ողբերգութեան, Matean voghbergut’ean) is widely considered Gregory's masterpiece.[28] It is often simply called Narek (Նարեկ).[29][30] Completed towards the end of his life, circa 1002–03,[23][31] the work has been described as a monologue, a personal lyric and confessional poem, mystical and meditative.[32] It is composed of 95 chapters and over 10,000 lines.[9] Almost all chapters (except two) are titled "Words unto God from the Depths of My Heart".[31] The chapters, which are prayers or elegies, vary in length, but all address God. The central theme is the metaphysical and existential conflict between Gregory's desire to be perfect, as taught by Jesus, and his own realization that it is impossible and between the divine grace and his own sense of one's own unworthiness to receive that grace. However, the love and mercy of the all-embracing, all-forgiving, and amazing grace of God compensates the unworthiness of man.[33][34]

The book is considered a masterpiece of Christian spiritual literature[14] and has been described by Agop Jack Hacikyan et al. as the "most beloved work of Armenian literature."[35] It has been historically kept in Armenian homes.[36][37] Scholars have described its popularity among Armenians as being second only to the Bible.[d] For centuries, Armenians have treasured the book as an enchanted treasure and have attributed to it miraculous powers. For instance, one passage has been read to the ill in expectation of a cure.[40][30] In the 21st century, psychiatrist Armen Nersisyan has claimed to have developed a unique type of therapy based on the book, which can cure many diseases, at least partly.[41]

The book's first complete publication was done by Voskan Yerevantsi in Marseille, France, in 1673.[42][43] While the first complete commentary was published in Constantinople in 1745.[44] The work has been translated into English, Russian, French,[45] Arabic,[46] Persian,[47] Lithuanian,[48] Latvian,[49] Estonian.[50] There are three English translations of the book, with the first one appearing in 1977.[51][52][53][54]

Commentary on the Song of Songs

Gregory's second most known extant work is a commentary on the Song of Songs (Մեկնութիւն երգոց երգոյն Սողոմոնի, Meknutiun yergots yergoyn Soghomoni), written in 977, the year he was ordained a priest.[55][32] The commentary was written at the behest of prince Gurgen-Khachik Artsruni of Vaspurakan.[56] Gregory makes frequent use of St. Gregory of Nyssa's Letters on the Song of Songs.[57] The commentary contains explicit condemnation of marriage and sexuality practises by Tondrakians, an Armenian Christian sect named as heretics by the Armenian Apostolic Church. [58] Gregory may have been commissioned to counter these heretical teachings.[58] Armenian author Ara Baliozian describes the commentary as a prose masterpiece.[30]

Other works

There is also a single extant manuscript of a commentary by Gregory on chapters 38 and 39 of the Book of Job.[59] Gregory also wrote hymns, panegyrics on various holy figures, homilies,[32][23] numerous chants and prayers that are still sung today in Armenian churches.[30] Scholars have noted that Gregory often departs from the standards of the Armenian and Greek traditions of panegyrics and encomia and innovates in interesting and distinctive ways.[60] Of particular importance are his two recensions of the encomium on the Holy Virgin.[61] In which he affirms the doctrines of Mary's bodily Assumption (Վերափոխումն), perpetual virginity, and perhaps the immaculate conception.[62]

The encomium on the Holy Virgin was written as part of a triptych requested by the bishop Step'anos of Mokk'. The other two panegyrics forming this set are the History of the Holy Cross of Aparank',[63] which commemorates the donation of a relic of the True Cross to the monastery of Aparank' by the Byzantine emperors Basil II and Constantine VIII, and the Encomium on the Holy Cross.[64] By focusing on the cross, both of these panegyrics counter Tondrakian rejection of veneration of the cross and other material objects.[65] Here again, as in the rest of Gregory's corpus, we see that the saint defends orthodoxy against the Tondrakians and other heretical movements. Gregory also wrote a panegyric on St. Jacob of Nisibis (Սուրբ Յակոբ Մծբնացի), a fourth century Syriac bishop who has been and remains today highly esteemed among Armenians.[66] Gregory also has is an encomium on the Holy Apostles.[67]

Gregory also authored around two dozen tagher (lays or odes), that are the first documented religious poems in Armenian literature, and spiritual songs called gandz, both in verse and prose.[68][69] Gregory also composed music for his odes, but they are not considered sharakans (chants).[68]

Many of the festal odes and litanies as well as the panegyrics (ներբողք) have been translated to English and annotated by Abraham Terian.[70]

Outlook and philosophy

The central idea of Gregory's philosophy is eternal salvation relying solely upon faith and divine grace, and not necessarily upon the institutional church, in which his views are similar to those of the 16th century Protestant Reformation. This interpretation of Gregory as a precursor of Protestantism has more recently been challenged.[71] Gregory may have been suspected of heresy and being sympathetic to the Paulicians and Tondrakians—two major sects in medieval Armenia.[72] He notably wrote a treatise against the Tondrakians in the 980s,[73] possibly to clear himself of accusations of being sympathetic to their movement.[68] In the treatise he states some of his theological views.[74] Although Gregory does not mention the Tondrakians in the Book of Lamentations, some scholars have interpreted certain chapters as containing anti-Tondrakian elements.[75] Other scholars have pointed out that the Book of Lamentation is dominated by the theme of the centrality of the sacraments, especially baptism, reconciliation, and the Eucharist, and thus directly opposes Tondrakian deprecation of the sacraments.[76] In his struggle against the antinomian Tondrakians, Gregory followed his predecessor at the monastery of Narek—his great-uncle Anania, who was condemned for his alleged Tondrakian beliefs.[22]

According to Ara Baliozian Gregory broke from Hellenistic thought, which was dominant among the Armenian intellectual elite since the 5th-century golden age.[30] He was instead deeply influenced by Neoplatonism.[77] In fact, the Narek school was instrumental in instilling Christian Neoplatonism in Armenian theology. Namely, Christian Neoplatonic concepts such as divinization, the attainment of the power of spiritual vision or discernment through penitential purification of the inner and outer man, and of a symbolic exegetical methodology.[78] He may have been influenced by Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, a pivotal author in Christian Neoplatonism, although this view has been criticized.[79][80] Soviet philologist Vache Nalbandian argued that Gregory's outlook is essentially anti-feudal and humanistic.[81]

The tone of the Book of Lamentations has been compared to that of Confessions by Augustine of Hippo.[82] Some scholars have compared Gregory's worldview and philosophy to those of later Sufi mystic poets Rumi and Yunus Emre,[83][84][85] and 19th century Russian writers Fyodor Dostoevsky[86] and A. K. Tolstoy.[87] Michael Papazian, a scholar of Gregory, opined that he is "what you’d get if you crossed Augustine and James Joyce. But his spirituality is also infused with the simple piety of the Desert Fathers; and, although he lived before him, there’s an element of St. Francis in him, too. He’s a synthesis of so many strands of Christian tradition."[88]

Recognition

A 2002 statue of Gregory of Narek in Yerevan's Malatia-Sebastia district.
A 2002 statue of Gregory of Narek in Yerevan's Malatia-Sebastia district.

Gregory was the first major Armenian lyrical poet[28] and is considered the most beloved person in Armenian Christianity.[23] Robert W. Thomson described him as the "most significant poet of the whole Armenian religious tradition,"[32] while Jos Weitenberg declared him the "most outstanding theological, mystical and literary figure of Armenian culture."[74] James R. Russell lists Gregory as one of the three visionaries of the Armenian tradition, along with Mesrop Mashtots and Yeghishe Charents.[89]

According to Hacikyan et al. Gregory of Narek "deserves to be known as one of the great mystical writers of medieval Christendom."[35] Vrej Nersessian considers him a "poet of world stature" in the "scope and breadth of his intellect and poetic inventiveness, and in the brooding, visionary quality of his language"—on a par with St Augustine, Dante, and Edward Taylor.[34] Levon Zekiyan shares a similar view, describing Gregory as "An unrepeatable figure not only in the Armenian culture and ecclesiastical history, but that of the entire globe."[90] Nersessian argues that Gregory of Narek ranks with St. Augustine and Thomas à Kempis as "one the three greatest mystic writers in medieval Christendom, his monumental Lamentations joins the former’s Confessions, and the latter’s Imitation of Christ to form a natural trilogy."[91] Armenian-Russian critic Karen Stepanyan [ru] writes that Gregory's genius makes him comparable with Shakespeare, Miguel de Cervantes, and Dostoevsky.[92]

Agop Jack Hacikyan et al. note that through his "lively, vibrant, and highly individual style" Gregory shaped, refined, and greatly enriched Classical Armenian through his works.[55] According to Hrachik Mirzoyan, Gregory may have created more than 2,500 new Armenian words, including, լուսանկար, lusankar, a portrait or image, and օդաչու, odachu, a person who flies, pilot. Many of the words Gregory created are not actively used or have been replaced by other words.[93]

Critique

France-based Western Armenian writer Shahan Shahnour has been Gregory's most prominent critic.[93] Shahnour targeted him in his novel Retreat Without Song (Նահանջը առանց երգի, published in 1929) through one of his characters. The latter describes the Book of Lamentations as "the most immoral, unhealthy, poisonous book, a work that had debilitated the Armenians as a nation. The Armenians remain defeated in trying to emulate Grigor's miserable, maimed soul." Criticizing the book's influence on rooting the notion of fate in Armenian popular belief and for making Armenians "conventional, patient, tolerant, suffocating the freedom-loving spirit in [them]."[94][95]

Paruyr Sevak opined that the Narek has not been read by Armenians as much as it has been kissed.[93]

Veneration

A bas-relief of Gregory of Narek on the wall of the Armenian Apostolic Cathedral in Moscow. He is depicted as holding the Book of Lamentations with "Speaking with God from the Depths of the Heart" engraved on it.
A bas-relief of Gregory of Narek on the wall of the Armenian Apostolic Cathedral in Moscow. He is depicted as holding the Book of Lamentations with "Speaking with God from the Depths of the Heart" engraved on it.

Armenian churches

Gregory of Narek is a saint of both the Armenian Apostolic and Armenian Catholic churches. The Armenian Apostolic Church celebrates his feast on the second Saturday of October, during the Feast of the Holy Translators (Սուրբ Թարգմանչաց, Surb T’argmanchats). Dedicated to him, Mesrop Mashtots, Yeghishe, Movses Khorenatsi, David the Invincible, and Nerses Shnorhali, it was declared a national holiday in Armenia in 2001.[96] The exact date of his canonization by the Armenian Church is unknown, but he was already recognized as a saint by 1173, when Nerses Lambronatsi included, in the earliest extant manuscript of the Book of Lamentations, a biographical section on him entitled "The Life of the Holy Man of God Grigor Narekatsi".[e][97] Furthermore, his contemporary historian Ukhtanes (c. 940-1000) called Gregory a "Universal vardapet" («Տիեզերական վարդապետ»), while Nerses Lambronatsi (1153-1198) called him "an angel in a human body" («հրեշտակական վարդապետ»).[97]

In the 15th century, when the Catholicosate of Aghtamar was at the center of efforts to revive Armenian statehood, monks at the Cathedral of Aghtamar sought to construct a tradition that would link the Catholicosate to Gregory of Narek. One such tradition claimed that Gregory himself had founded the Catholicosate. In ritual books commissioned by Zakaria III and Stepanos IV, Gregory is depicted more than just equal-to-the-apostles.[98]

Gregory's relic is preserved at the Treasury Museum of the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin. It was brought out to Etchmiadzin Cathedral on the feast in 2012.[99] Several churches built in Armenia in the 21st century have been named after him.[f] The St. Gregory of Narek Armenian Apostolic Church in Richmond Heights, Ohio, near Cleveland, was built in 1964.[102] The Armenian Catholic Diocese of Buenos Aires is called the Eparchy of Saint Gregory of Narek.[103]

Catholic Church

A mosaic depicting Gregory of Narek, St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican[104]
A mosaic depicting Gregory of Narek, St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican[104]

In his 1987 encyclical Redemptoris Mater, Pope John Paul II called him "one of the outstanding glories of Armenia."[105] Article 2678 of Catechism of the Catholic Church, promulgated by John Paul II in 1992, mentions the tradition of prayer in his works.[106] John Paul II referred to him in several addresses,[107][108][109] and described Gregory as "one of Our Lady's principal poets" and "the great doctor of the Armenian Church" in his 18 February 2001 Angelus address.[110]

On 23 February 2015 Pope Francis declared Gregory of Narek a Doctor of the Church.[42][111][8] On 12 April 2015, on Divine Mercy Sunday, during a Mass for the centennial of the Armenian genocide at St. Peter's Basilica, Pope Francis officially proclaimed Gregory of Narek as Doctor of the Church[4] in attendance of Armenian President Serzh Sargsyan, Catholicos of All Armenians Karekin II, Catholicos of Cilicia Aram I, and Armenian Catholic Patriarch Nerses Bedros XIX Tarmouni.[112] During a Mass on 25 June 2016 in Vartanants Square in Gyumri, Francis stated that he "wished to draw greater attention" to Gregory by making him a Doctor of the Church.[113]

Gregory became the 36th and the first Armenian Doctor of the Church.[114] He is also the "second saint coming out of the Eastern Church" to become a Doctor[115] and the only Doctor "who was not in communion with the Catholic Church during his lifetime."[116][g] St. Gregory's proclamation as a Doctor of the Church was commemorated by the Vatican City state with a postage stamp put into circulation on 2 September 2015.[117][118] On 5 April 2018 a two-meter-high bronze statue of Gregory, erected by Davit Yerevantsi, was unveiled at the Vatican Gardens by Mikael Minasyan, Armenia's Ambassador to the Holy See. The inaugural ceremony was attended by Pope Francis, Armenian President Serzh Sargsyan, Armenian Apostolic leaders Karekin II and Aram I.[119][120]

In 2021 the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments established an optional memorial for him on 27 February on the General Roman Calendar.[121][122]

Legacy

Literary influence

Gregory influenced virtually all Armenian literature that came after him. Manuk Abeghian argued that his mark on Armenian Christian literature was "comparable to Homer for Greek and Dante for Italian."[97][123] Grigor Magistros Pahlavuni (c. 990–1058) is considered his direct literary successor.[124] Scholars have noted Gregory's influence on Armenian poets—medieval and modern ones alike. He inspired prominent medieval poets Hovhannes Imastaser (c. 1047–1129),[125] Nerses Shnorhali (1102–1173) and Frik (c. 1230–1310),[9] and in the modern period, Sayat-Nova (1712–95), Hovhannes Tumanyan (1869–1923),[125] Misak Metsarents (1886–1908),[126] Daniel Varoujan (1884–1915),[126] Siamanto (1878–1915),[127][126] Yeghishe Charents (1897–1937),[9] and Paruyr Sevak (1924–1971).[128]

Charents lauds the "hallowed brows" of Gregory and Nahapet Kuchak in his 1920 poem "I Love My Armenia" («Ես իմ անուշ Հայաստանի»).[129] In another poem, entitled "To Armenia" («Հայաստանին»), Charents lists Gregory, Nerses Shnorhali and Naghash Hovnatan as geniuses.[130] Sevak describes the Book of Lamentations a "temple of poesy, on which the destructive action of time has had no effect."[40]

Tributes

Gregory depicted on a 2001 stamp of Armenia.
Gregory depicted on a 2001 stamp of Armenia.

Narek (Western Armenian: Nareg) is highly popular male first name among Armenians. In 2018 it was the second most common name given to baby boys.[131] It originates from the village and monastery of Narek and owns its popularity to Gregory of Narek and the Book of Lamentations, popularly known as "Narek."[132] The village of Narek in Armenia's Ararat Province was named after Gregory in 1984.[133]

The Narekatsi Professorship of Armenian Language and Culture, established in 1969, is the oldest endowed chair of the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).[134] In Yerevan, a public school (established in 1967 and renamed in 1990) and a medical center (established in 2003) are named after Gregory.[135][136] Gregory is depicted on a postage stamp issued by Armenia in 2001.[137] The Naregatsi Art Institute (Նարեկացի Արվեստի Միություն),[138] has its headquarters in Yerevan, Armenia (since 2004) and a center in Shushi, Karabakh (since 2006).[139]

A statue of Gregory was erected in Yerevan's Malatia-Sebastia district in 2002.[140] A large stone resembling an old manuscript with inscribed lines and images from the Book of Lamentations was unveiled in the Narekatsi quarter of Yerevan's Avan district in 2010.[141]

Soviet composer Alfred Schnittke composed music for the Russian translation of the Book of Lamentations in 1985 named “Concerto for mixed chorus".[142]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Ms. 1568, kept at the Matenadaran, in Yerevan, Armenia. It was created by Grigor Mlichetsi at the monastery of Skevra, near Lambron, in the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, on the request of Archbishop Nerses Lambronatsi. The Armenian text reads ՍԲՆ ԳՐԻԳՈՐ ՃԳՆԱՒՈՐ, i.e. "St. Gregory the Monk".[1][2][3]
  2. ^ Also transliterated as Narekac'i. Western Armenian pronunciation: Krikor Naregatsi.
  3. ^ Latinized: Gregorius Narecensis;[10] Italian: Gregorio di Narek[11]
  4. ^
    • Agop Jack Hacikyan et al.: "it is accorded an importance second only to that of the Bible itself."[35]
    • Vahan Kurkjian: "Narek, the Book of Prayer, was once regarded with veneration but little short of that accorded to the Bible itself."[29]
    • Vrej Nersessian: "After the Bible and the Book of Lamentations (Narek) of Grigor Narekatsi, 'Jesus the Son' was the most widely read book among the Armenians..."[38]
    • Robert W. Thomson: "Indeed, this book is often known simply as 'Narek', and it traditionally held a place in the Armenian household hardly less honourable than that of the Bible."[23]
    • Armenian Catholic independent researcher and writer Nareg Seferian said, describing it as "a mystical prayer book," only "second to the Bible as a holy work."[39]
  5. ^ «Վարք սրբոյ առնն Աստուծոյ Գրիգորի Նարեկացւոյ»
  6. ^ e.g. churches in Alaverdi (completed in 2001),[100] Vanadzor (completed in 2005) and Armavir (completed in 2014)[101]
  7. ^ Del Cogliano clarifies that this was facilitated by a "common declaration of faith in Christ" by Pope John Paul II and Armenian Apostolic Catholicos Karekin I which confirmed that the two churches "believe the same things about Christ, even if they express these things in different language" that has led to unfortunate divisions since the Second Council of Constantinople; "this statement effectively exonerates St. Gregory of any 'Christological' errors: even if St. Gregory was not in communion with the Catholic Church, in doctrinal matters there was complete agreement."[116]

Citations

  1. ^ Nersessian 2018, p. 239.
  2. ^ "Ս. Գրիգոր Նարեկացի (951–1003)". sacredtradition.am (in Armenian). Archived from the original on 29 December 2016.
  3. ^ Nersessian, Vrej (2001). "The Book of Lamentations, 1173". Treasures from the Ark: 1700 Years of Armenian Christian Art. Getty Publications. p. 162. ISBN 9780892366392.
  4. ^ a b "Message of His Holiness Pope Francis on the 100th anniversary of "Metz Yeghern" and proclamation of St. Gregory of Narek as a Doctor of the Church". vatican.va. 12 April 2015. Archived from the original on 8 November 2020.
  5. ^ a b Hasratyan, Murad (1982). "Նարեկավանք [Narekavank]". Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia Vol. 8 (in Armenian). Yerevan: Armenian Encyclopedia. p. 203.
  6. ^ "Saints and Feasts (According to the Liturgical Calendar of the Armenian Apostolic Church)". Holy See of Cilicia. Archived from the original on 24 November 2020. Holy Translators – Mesrob, Yeghishe, Moses (Movses) the Poet, David (Tavit) the Philosopher, Gregory of Nareg, Nerses of Kla (grace-filled)
  7. ^ "Armenian Church of the Holy Translators". armenianchurchofmetrowest.org. Armenian Church of the Holy Translators. Archived from the original on 13 October 2016.
  8. ^ a b "Gregory of Narek is declared a Doctor of the Church". La Stampa. 23 February 2015. Archived from the original on 23 September 2020.
  9. ^ a b c d e f "Գրիգոր Նարեկացի [Grigor Narekatsi]" (in Armenian). Institute for Armenian Studies of Yerevan State University. 2007. Archived from the original on 22 March 2018.
  10. ^ "Quibus Sanctus Gregorius Narecensis Doctor Ecclesiae universalis renuntiatur". vatican.va. Archived from the original on 26 November 2020.
  11. ^ Tornielli, Andrea (23 February 2015). "Gregorio di Narek sarà dottore della Chiesa". La Stampa (in Italian). Archived from the original on 11 April 2019.
  12. ^ Tamrazyan, G. G.; Manukyan, S. S.; Arevshatyan, A. S. (8 September 2011). "Григор Нарекаци (Grigor Narekatsi)". Orthodox Encyclopedia (in Russian). Russian Orthodox Church. Archived from the original on 7 August 2020.
  13. ^ a b Hacikyan et al. 2002, pp. 274–275.
  14. ^ a b La Porta 2016, pp. 336–337.
  15. ^ a b Thomson 1997, p. 231.
  16. ^ Nersessian 2018, p. 240.
  17. ^ [9][12][13][14][15][16]
  18. ^ Hewsen, Robert H. (2001). Armenia: A Historical Atlas. University of Chicago Press. p. 95. ISBN 0-226-33228-4.
  19. ^ Hovannisian, Richard G. (2000). "An Introduction". In Hovannisian, Richard G. (ed.). Armenian Van/Vaspurakan. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers. ISBN 1-56859-130-6.
  20. ^ Papazian 2019, p. 56.
  21. ^ Papazian 2019, pp. 59–60.
  22. ^ a b La Porta 2016, pp. 343–344.
  23. ^ a b c d e Thomson 1983, p. 453.
  24. ^ Avagyan 2017, p. 119.
  25. ^ Suciyan, Talin (7 April 2007). "Holy Cross survives, diplomacy dies" (PDF). The Armenian Reporter. No. 6. p. A7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 December 2014.
  26. ^ Nişanyan, Sevan (2006). Eastern Turkey: A Travellers Handbook. Istanbul: Boyut Yayin Grubu. p. 239. ISBN 978-9752301962.
  27. ^ Hampikian, Nairy (2000). "The Architectural Heritage of Vaspurakan". In Hovannisian, Richard G. (ed.). Armenian Van/Vaspurakan. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-56859-130-8.
  28. ^ a b de Laet, Sigfried J., ed. (1994). "Armenians". History of Humanity: From the seventh to the sixteenth century. UNESCO. p. 665. ISBN 9789231028137.
  29. ^ a b Kurkjian, Vahan (1964) [1958]. A History of Armenia. New York: Armenian General Benevolent Union of America. p. 374.
  30. ^ a b c d e Baliozian, Ara (1980). The Armenians: Their History and Culture. New York: AGBU Ararat Press. pp. 52–53.
  31. ^ a b Hacikyan et al. 2002, p. 277.
  32. ^ a b c d Thomson, Robert W. (2010). "Review of two French books on Narekatsi". The Journal of Theological Studies. 61 (1): 389–390. doi:10.1093/jts/flp172. JSTOR 43665092.
  33. ^ Hacikyan et al. 2002, pp. 277–278.
  34. ^ a b Nersessian, Vrej (2001). "Armenian". In France, Peter (ed.). The Oxford Guide to Literature in English Translation. Oxford University Press. p. 191. ISBN 9780199247844.
  35. ^ a b c Hacikyan et al. 2002, p. 274.
  36. ^ Douglas, John M. (1992). The Armenians. J.J. Winthrop Corporation. p. 177. It was a custom for every Armenian household to have a copy of Nareg.
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Bibliography

Further reading

Armenian Wikisource has original text related to this article: Գրիգոր Նարեկացի