Russian icon of the prophet Amos
An 18th-century Russian icon of the prophet Amos (Iconostasis of Transfiguration Church, Kizhi monastery, Karelia, Russia).
Died745 BCE
Venerated inJudaism
FeastJune 15 (Orthodox)
Major worksBook of Amos

In the Hebrew Bible and Christian Old Testament, Amos (/ˈməs/; Hebrew: עָמוֹס – ʿĀmōs) was one of the Twelve Minor Prophets. According to the Bible, Amos was the older contemporary of Hosea and Isaiah and was active c. 760–755 BCE during the rule of kings Jeroboam II of Israel and Uzziah of Judah and is portrayed as being from the southern Kingdom of Judah yet preaching in the northern Kingdom of Israel. The prophet is characterized as speaking against an increased disparity between the very wealthy and the very poor with themes of justice, God's omnipotence, and divine judgment. The Book of Amos is attributed to him. In recent years, scholars have grown more skeptical of The Book of Amos’ presentation of Amos’ biography and background.[1]


Main article: Book of Amos

Prophet Amos as depicted by Gustave Doré

Before becoming a prophet, Amos was a sheep herder and a sycamore fig farmer.[2] His prior professions and his claim "I am not a prophet nor a son of a prophet" (7:14) indicates that Amos was not from the school of prophets, which Amos claims would qualify him as a true prophet. Amos' declaration marks a turning-point in the development of Old Testament prophecy. It is not mere chance that Hosea, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and almost all of the prophets given significant coverage in the Hebrew Bible, give first of all the story of their special calling. All of them seek to protest against the suspicion that they are professional prophets, because the latter discredited themselves by flattering national vanities and ignoring the misdeeds of prominent men.[3]

The Bible speaks of his prophecies concluding around 765 BC, two years before the earthquake that is spoken of in Amos 1:1, "...two years before the earthquake."[4] The prophet Zechariah was likely alluding to this same earthquake several centuries later: Zechariah 14:5, "And you shall flee as you fled from the earthquake in the days of Uzziah, King of Judah."[4]

Though he came from the southern kingdom of Judah, Amos aimed his prophetic message at the northern kingdom of Israel, particularly the cities of Samaria and Bethel.[5]

Jeroboam II (c. 781–741 BC), ruler of the Northern kingdom, had rapidly conquered Syria, Moab, and Ammon, and thereby extended his dominions from the source of the Orontes on the north to the Dead Sea on the south. The whole northern empire had enjoyed a long period of peace and security marked by a revival of artistic and commercial development. Social corruption and the oppression of the poor and helpless were prevalent. Others, carried away by the free association with heathen peoples which resulted from conquest or commercial contact, went so far as to fuse with the Lord's worship that of pagan deities.[6]

Amos is the first of the prophets to write down the messages he has received. He has always been admired for the purity of his language, his beauty of diction, and his poetic art. In all these respects he is Isaiah's spiritual progenitor.[3] What we know of Amos derives solely from the book that he himself authored.[7] This makes it hard to know who the historical Amos truly was.

Amos felt himself called to preach in Bethel, where there was a royal sanctuary (7:13), and there to announce the fall of the reigning dynasty and of the northern kingdom. But he is denounced by the head priest Amaziah to King Jeroboam II and is advised to leave the kingdom. There is no reason to doubt that he was actually forced to leave the northern kingdom and to return to his native country. Being thus prevented from bringing his message to an end, and from reaching the ear of those to whom he was sent, he wrote instead. If they could not hear his messages, they could read them, and if his contemporaries refused to do so, following generations might still profit by them. No earlier instance of a literary prophet is known; but the example he gave was followed by others in an almost unbroken succession. It cannot be proved that Hosea knew the book of Amos, though there is no reason to doubt that he was acquainted with the latter's work and experiences. It is certain that Isaiah knew his book, for he follows and even imitates him in his early speeches (compare Amos 5:21–24, 4:6ff, 5:18 with Isaiah 1:11–15; Amos 4:7ff with Isaiah 9:7ff, 3:12). Cheyne concludes that Amos wrote the record of his prophetical work at Jerusalem, after his expulsion from the northern kingdom, and that he committed it to a circle of faithful followers residing there.[3]

The apocryphal work The Lives of the Prophets records that Amos was killed by the son of Amaziah, priest of Bethel. It further states that Amos had made his way back to his homeland before he died, and then was buried there.[8]


God's omnipotence and divine judgment


Some of his main teachings are:


Ancient interpretations

The ancient exhortation towards justice is expressed by the voice of God in Amos' teachings. Amos is told by God that the Israelites are going to face divine intervention as oppression was running rampant in Israel. God expressed this oppression by saying that the Israelites were practicing religiosity without righteousness. By oppressing the poor and failing to practice justice the Israelites were behaving unrighteously; justice was to be enacted as a core of God's message in Amos' prophetic teachings.[12]

Modern interpretations

Influences of or references to Amos' teachings can be found in certain modern political and civil rights speeches. In Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream", King states "we will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream", which is an allusion to Amos 5:24: "But let justice roll on like a river, righteousness like a never-failing stream!".[13] Bernie Sanders also referenced Amos 5:24 in a speech during his 2016 presidential campaign.[14] It was used in a sub-tweet by James Comey after Michael Flynn pleaded guilty to lying to FBI agents during the ongoing Trump Russia scandal.[15]

Feast days/religious veneration

Within Roman, Byzantine, and other high liturgical churches saints are regularly celebrated and venerated on Feast days throughout the calendar year. This practice honors Christian martyrs on the traditional day of their death with facts about their life and insights attributed to them meant to edify the faithful.

In the Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar, Amos' feast day is celebrated on June 15[16] (for those churches which follow the traditional Julian Calendar, June 15 currently falls on June 28 of the modern Gregorian Calendar). He is commemorated along with the other minor prophets in the Calendar of Saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church on July 31.

In Catholic tradition Amos' day is celebrated on March 31.[17]

In the Eastern Church the Troparion of Amos is sung:

"Celebrating the memory / Of Your Prophet Amos, O Lord, / For his sake, we entreat You, save our souls."

Reflecting Amos' sense of urgency and social justice, the Kontakion of Amos is sung:

"Purifying your fervent heart by the Spirit, / O glorious Prophet Amos, / And receiving the gift of prophecy from on high, / You cry with a loud voice to the nations: / This is our God, and there is none beside Him."[18]


  1. ^ Couey, J. Blake. The Oxford Handbook of the Minor Prophets. p. 424–436. 2021. “In more recent scholarship, one finds greater skepticism about historical reconstructions of Amos’s prophetic career. The superscription and Amaziah narrative are increasingly viewed as late, which raises questions about their historical validity (Coggins 2000, 72, 142–143; Eidevall 2017, 3–7). The vision reports may also belong to later stages of the book’s development (Becker 2001; Eidevall 2017, 191–193). Doubts about the existence of a united monarchy under King David undermine arguments that Amos advocated for a reunified Davidic kingdom (Davies2009, 60; Radine2010, 4). These questions reflect larger scholarly trends, in which prophetic books are increasingly viewed as products of elite scribes. Even if they reflect historical prophetic activity, one cannot uncritically equate the prophet with the author. There may in fact have been no “writing prophets,” in which case Amos loses one source of his/its traditional prestige as the first of this group. Further complicating the matter, the portrait of prophets like Amos as proclaimers of judgment contrasts starkly with surviving records of prophetic activity from other ancient Near Eastern cultures, in which prophets consistently support the state (Kratz 2003).”
  2. ^ Coogan, Michael. A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament. p. 257. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.
  3. ^ a b c "Amos", Jewish Encyclopedia. 1906.
  4. ^ a b The Bible, English Standard Version.
  5. ^ Dearman, J Andrew. Amos. Harper Collins Study Bible. Edited by Meeks, Wayne A. San Francisco: HarperCollins, 2006.
  6. ^ Gigot, Francis. "Amos." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 11 Feb. 2014
  7. ^ Mays, James Luther (1969). The Old Testament Library Collection. Philadelphia, PA: The Westminster Press. pp. 1–7.
  8. ^ Anderson, Francis I., and David Noel Freedman, Amos, The Anchor Yale Bible, vol. 24A, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008. p. 24.
  9. ^ a b c Waterman, Leroy (September 1945). "The Ethical Clarity of the Prophets". Journal of Biblical Literature. 64 (3). Society of Biblical Literature: 297–307. doi:10.2307/3262384. JSTOR 3262384.
  10. ^ Escobar, David (September 2011). "Amos & Postmodernity: A Contemporary Critical & Reflective Perspective on the Interdependency of Ethics & Spirituality in the Latino-Hispanic American Reality". Journal of Business Ethics. 103 (1): 59–72. doi:10.1007/s10551-011-0841-x. JSTOR 41476011. S2CID 142874167.
  11. ^ a b Hastings, James (1908). Dictionary of the Bible. New York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons.
  12. ^ Escobar, Donoso S. (1995). "Social Justice in the Book of Amos". Review and Expsoitor. 92 (2): 169–174. doi:10.1177/003463739509200204. S2CID 147391159.
  13. ^ Rau, Andy (28 August 2011). "Bible References in Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" Speech". Bible Getaway Blog.
  14. ^ Taylor, Florence. "How Bernie Sanders used the Bible to try and win over Evangelical students".
  15. ^ "James Comey throws Bible shade after Flynn plea: Let 'justice roll down like waters'". USA TODAY. Retrieved 2017-12-01.
  16. ^ "Prophet Amos". The Orthodox Church in America. The Orthodox Church in America. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
  17. ^ "S. Amos, profeta".
  18. ^ "Prophet Amos – Troparion & Kontakion". Orthodox Church in America. Orthodox Church in America. Retrieved 4 December 2015.


Further reading