神社の参拝方法についての案内板。日本語と英語。
Worshiping manners, 2016, Nagoya, Japan. The etiquette of Two bows, two claps, one bow is explained in both Japanese and English.
An example of prewar two-beat, one-beat worship. The upper row is the second worship, the middle row is the second clap, and the lower row is the first worship. This is the worship after offering the tamagushi, and the tamagushi can be seen on the table in front. Source: NDLJP:1054789/27.

Hakushu 拍手 (神道) is a word used to refer to ceremonial clapping in Shinto.[1] It is also known as Kashiwade.

It is a part of the two bows, two claps, one bow [ja; simple] practice done when entering a shrine in Japan.[2][3][4][5][6]

Ceremonial clapping is quiet and soft.[7]

It is considered to have a Buddhist meaning with the right hand meaning Buddha and the left hand meaning all beings so unification of Buddha and all beings.[8] As Buddhism and shinto have been together for so long it is unclear which one it originated from.[9]

The practice is present in Aikido.[10][11] and Bujinkan.[12]

History

Hakushu has a long history in Shinto.[13] The Wajinden describes the people of the Yayoi period as clapping in worship.[14]

Some people considered it as Buddhist, with the right hand meaning Buddha and the left hand meaning all beings so unification of Buddha and all beings.[15] As Buddhism and shinto have been together for so long it is unclear which one it originated from.[16]

However the origin of the modern "Two bows, two claps, one bow" etiquette can be traced back to the "Shrine Festival" in 1873, where it was written as "revisit applause." Over time, various methods were devised and improved, leading to the creation of the current etiquette. The "Shrine Rituals and Events Etiquette" enacted in the 40th year of the Meiji era defined the etiquette as "returning, clapping twice, pressing together, praying, praying, clapping twice, and bowing again."[17]

It is widely accepted that "two bows, two claps, one bow" is the formal etiquette of worship for the chief priest. The etiquette was created through the long experience and improvement of the predecessors and is a reflection of the respect for the gods.[17]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Encyclopedia of Shinto詳細". 國學院大學デジタルミュージアム (in Japanese). Retrieved 2023-03-11.
  2. ^ https://archive.today/20230408005036/https://d-museum.kokugakuin.ac.jp/eos/detail/?id=9055
  3. ^ "How many times should you bow and clap at the shrine? (Tips #2)". Akemi's Blog. Retrieved 2023-04-08.
  4. ^ D, John (2019-02-17). "First steps in Shinto". Green Shinto. Retrieved 2023-04-08.
  5. ^ "The Basics of Shrine Visiting! Must-Know Information and Some Recommended Shrines in Japan". The KANSAI Guide - The Origin of Japan, KANSAI. 19 October 2021. Retrieved 2023-04-08.
  6. ^ Rodrigue, Craig E (2017). American Shinto Community of Practice: Community Formation outside Original Context (Thesis). ProQuest 1925951527.[page needed]
  7. ^ "Kashiwade (Ceremonial Clapping". issuu. Retrieved 2023-02-16.[unreliable source?][self-published source?]
  8. ^ "Why are the hands clapped when praying at shrines (Shintoism) and placed together when praying at temples (Buddhism)? Online Atlas English school. Teaching jobs in Osaka,Sapporo,Yokohama,Nagoya,Kyoto,Kobe". atlasp.net. Retrieved 2023-02-12.
  9. ^ "Why do some Japanese people clap their hands when they pray for something at the temple?". GoWithGuide by Travelience. 2013-04-14. Retrieved 2023-02-12.
  10. ^ "Hakushu - Culturesmith". culturesmith.com. Retrieved 2023-02-16.
  11. ^ dontmakemeangrymrmcgee (2015-07-06). "Shinto Clapping and Aikido". dontmakemeangrymrmcgee. Retrieved 2023-02-16.
  12. ^ "拍手 Hakushu: The Sound of Ninjas Clapping ?". INFOS BUJINKAN. 2011-07-01. Retrieved 2023-02-16.
  13. ^ "Encyclopedia of Shinto詳細". 國學院大學デジタルミュージアム (in Japanese). Retrieved 2023-03-11.
  14. ^ https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/%E9%AD%8F%E5%BF%97%E5%80%AD%E4%BA%BA%E4%BC%9D
  15. ^ "Why are the hands clapped when praying at shrines (Shintoism) and placed together when praying at temples (Buddhism)? Online Atlas english school. Teaching jobs in Osaka,Sapporo,Yokohama,Nagoya,Kyoto,Kobe". atlasp.net. Retrieved 2023-02-12.
  16. ^ "Why do some Japanese people clap their hands when they pray for something at the temple?". GoWithGuide by Travelience. 2013-04-14. Retrieved 2023-02-12.
  17. ^ a b "二礼二拍一礼は参拝の基本。その歴史と考え方とは。|葬儀・家族葬なら【よりそうお葬式】". www.yoriso.com (in Japanese). Retrieved 2023-02-11.