.mw-parser-output .hidden-begin{box-sizing:border-box;width:100%;padding:5px;border:none;font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .hidden-title{font-weight:bold;line-height:1.6;text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .hidden-content{text-align:left}You can help expand this article with text translated from the corresponding article in Japanese. Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the Japanese article. Machine translation, like DeepL or Google Translate, is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Consider adding a topic to this template: there are already 3,775 articles in the main category, and specifying|topic= will aid in categorization. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing Japanese Wikipedia article at [[:ja:八坂刀売神]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|ja|八坂刀売神)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.
Yasakatome
八坂刀売神
God of water, agriculture, hot springs, nation building
Suwa-taisha Shimosha Akimiya Hall
Other names姫大明神, 八坂刀売神, 八坂斗女命, 八坂比売命, 八坂刀自神, 八坂入姫命 等
Major cult centerSuwa Taisha Kamisha Maemiya, Tsumashina Shrine
Personal information
ParentsUnclear (Watatsumi or Amayasakahiko no Mikoto)
ConsortTakeminakata
ChildrenIzuhayao, Katakurabe, etc.

Yasakatome-no-Kami (八坂刀売神) is a kami in Shinto. She is worshipped in the Suwa Taisha network of shrines.[1] She is the spouse of Takeminakata and most often considered to be the deity of the Lower Shrine of Suwa or the Shimosha.[2] Unlike the relatively well-documented Suwa Kamisha, very little concrete information is available regarding the origins of the Shimosha and its goddess.[3]

At Suwa Taisha Takeminakata is enshrined at Hon Miya and Yasakatome is enshrined in Mae Miya.[4]

She is considered to be the concubine of Takeminakata no Kami, the enshrined deity of Suwa Taisha Shrine, and is enshrined at Suwa Taisha Shitasha and Suwa Shrines in various places.[1]

Yasakatome's first historical attestation is in the Shoku Nihon Kōki, where the goddess is given the rank of junior fifth, lower grade (従五位下) by the imperial court in the tenth month of Jōwa 9 (842 CE), five months after the same rank was conferred on Takeminakata.[5][6] She is not found in the Kojiki or the Nihonshoki.[5][6] As Takeminakata rose up in rank, so did Yasakatome,[7][8][9][10] so that by 867 CE, Yasakatome had been promoted to senior second (正二位).[11] The goddess was finally promoted to senior first rank (正一位) in 1074 (Jōhō 1).[12]

Stories and claims about the goddess are diverse and contradictory. Regarding her parentage for instance, the lore of Kawaai Shrine (川会神社) in Kitaazumi District identifies Yasakatome as the daughter of Watatsumi, god of the sea,[13] which has been seen as hinting to a connection between the goddess and the seafaring Azumi clan (安曇氏).[14] Another claim originating from sources dating from the Edo period is that Yasakatome was the daughter of Ame-no-yasakahiko (天八坂彦命), a god recorded in the Kuji Hongi as one of the companions of Nigihayahi-no-Mikoto when the latter came down from heaven.[15][16][14]

Local Shinto tradition of Lake Suwa holds that the ridges are formed by the gods crossing the lake when traveling between the various buildings of the Suwa Grand Shrine. Folklore says it is the guardian god of Suwa, Takeminakata-no-kami, leaving his sanctuary to meet with his wife, the goddess Yasakatome, joining the opposite bank by walking on frozen water.[17] The ice cracks that appear on Lake Suwa during cold winters, the omiwatari (see above) are reputed in folklore to be caused by Suwa Myōjin's crossing the frozen lake to visit Yasakatome.[18]

An alternative explanation for the word -tomi (as well as the -tome in 'Yasakatome', the name of this god's consort) is to link it with dialectal words for "snake" (tomi, tobe, or tōbe), thereby seeing the name as hinting to the god being a kind of serpentine water deity (mizuchi).[19]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Suwa Shinkō | 國學院大學デジタルミュージアム". 2023-05-22. Archived from the original on 2023-05-22. Retrieved 2023-12-07.
  2. ^ Muraoka (1969). pp. 5–6.
  3. ^ Suwa Shishi Hensan Iinkai, ed. (1995). p. 696.
  4. ^ Gerbert, Elaine (1996). "The Suwa Pillar Festival Revisited". Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. 56 (2): 325. doi:10.2307/2719402. ISSN 0073-0548. JSTOR 2719402.
  5. ^ a b "續日本後紀". J-TEXTS 日本文学電子図書館.
  6. ^ a b "南方刀美神社二座(八坂刀売命神)". 神社資料データベース (Shinto Jinja Database). Kokugakuin University.
  7. ^ Miyasaka (1987). pp. 37-38.
  8. ^ "卷第二" . Nihon Montoku Tennō Jitsuroku (日本文德天皇實錄) – via Wikisource.
  9. ^ "卷第三" . Nihon Montoku Tennō Jitsuroku (日本文德天皇實錄) – via Wikisource.
  10. ^ "卷第十" . Nihon Sandai Jitsuroku (日本三代實錄) – via Wikisource.
  11. ^ "卷第十四" . Nihon Sandai Jitsuroku (日本三代實錄) – via Wikisource.
  12. ^ Ōwa (1990). p. 221-223.
  13. ^ "八坂刀売神(ヤサカトメノカミ". 日本の神様辞典 (Nihon no Kamisama Jiten). Archived from the original on June 25, 2017. Retrieved May 27, 2017.
  14. ^ a b Miyasaka (1987). p. 39.
  15. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, R. A. B. (2014). Studies in Shinto & Shrines. Routledge. ISBN 978-1136893018.
  16. ^ "先代舊事本紀卷第三 天神本紀". 私本 先代舊事本紀.
  17. ^ Takahiro, Nogami. "Encyclopedia of Shinto - Home : Shrines and Cultic Practices : Suwa Shinkō". eos.kokugakuin.ac.jp. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  18. ^ Japan. Dept. of railways (1922). The Hot Springs of Japan (and the Principal Cold Springs) Including Chosen (Korea) Taiwan (Formosa) South Manchuria, Together with Many Tables Giving Classification, Chemical Basis, Curative Values, Radio-activity, Etc. 196 Illustrations, 15 Maps, Specially Drawn, 2 Colored Lithographs. p. 194.
  19. ^ Tomiku, Takashi (1970). Himiko (卑弥呼). Gakuseisha. p. 48, cited in Kanai (1982). p. 6.

Bibliography