1878 engraving by Yōshū Chikanobu (1838–1912). The figures represented in these three panels are: * Centre: Front. Emperor Meiji in a Western chair with his wife, Empress Shōken, seated in the foreground. The Imperial couple are accompanied behind and in the flanking panels with an array of Shinto kami and historical figures from Japan's past. Rear. The kami Izanami, Kunitokotatchi and Izanagi. * Right: Front. Emperor Kōmei (seated in foreground), Empress Go-Sakuramachi (here presented as a man with a false goatee), and Emperor Jinmu (carrying a rough bow and perched eagle. Rear. The kami Amaterasu (standing and holding the three Sacred Treasures of Japan) and Ninigi-no-Mikoto (who first brought to earth the Imperial regalia—the sword, Kusanagi, the mirror, Yata no Kagami, and the jewel, Yasakani no magatama). * Left: Front: Emperor Go-Momozono (clothed in red), Emperor Kōkaku (clothed in black) and Emperor Ninkō (clothed in green). Rear. The kami Hiko-hohodemi (clothed in white) and Ugayafukiaezu (clothed in yellow).

The modern system of ranked Shinto shrines (近代社格制度, Kindai Shakaku Seido, sometimes called simply shakaku (社格)) was an organizational aspect of the establishment of Japanese State Shinto. This system classified Shinto shrines as either official government shrines or "other" shrines. The official shrines were divided into

  1. Imperial shrines (kampeisha), which are parsed into minor, medium, or major sub-categories; and
  2. National shrines (kokuheisha), which are similarly categorized as minor, medium, or major.[1]

Some shrines are the "first shrines" called ichinomiya that have the highest rank in their respective provinces of Japan.

The Ise Grand Shrine stood at the top of all shrines and thus was outside the classification.[2][3]

All listed shrines on this page with the exception of Ise Grand Shrine are Beppyo shrines.


On the fourteenth day of the fifth month of 1871, by decree of the Dajō-kan, the fundamental elements of the modern shrine system were established: a hierarchic ranking of Shinto shrines, with specification of the grades of priest who could officiate at the various levels of shrine.[4] These rankings were set aside in 1946, when such rankings were deemed "State Shinto" by the Occupation Shinto Directive. The Jinja Honcho currently has a slightly different List of Special Shrines (別表神社, beppyo jinja).

Ise Grand Shrine

name location notes
Ise Grand Shrine Ise, Mie one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Upper Seven; Outside of classification due to being first ranked

Izawa-no-miya the Shima Province Ichinomiya was considered part of it, as was Izawa-jinja which was also seen as the Shima Province Ichinomiya

Kashima Jingu and Katori Jingu were considered the two shrines directly below Ise Jingu.


The Kan-sha (官社) or "official government shrines" had two subdivisions, Kanpei-sha or "government shrines" and Kokuhei-sha or "national shrines".[4]

For future tables, red cells denote shrines in the Japanese colonial empire.


In 1871, the Japanese government established the Kanpei-sha (官幣社) system to classify Shinto shrines based on their level of association with the imperial family. The highest category included shrines that venerated the imperial family members, emperors, or meritorious retainers of the Imperial family. These shrines were considered to be the most closely associated with the imperial family and received government support.[1]

Imperial shrines, 1st rank

The Kanpei-taisha were the most highly ranked shrines in Japan that were officially designated by the government. There were 67 shrines that held this status, which were closely associated with the imperial family. These shrines were considered to be of great historical and cultural significance, and were often visited by members of the imperial family as well as the general public.[5]

name location Category notes
Katori jingu[6] Katori, Chiba Myojin Taisha, Chokusaisha ichinomiya of Shimōsa Province[7] directly under Ise Grand Shrine, Futsunushi
Kashima Jingū[8] Kashima, Ibaraki Myojin Taisha, Chokusaisha ichinomiya of Hitachi Province[7] directly under Ise Grand Shrine, Takemikazuchi
Iwashimizu Hachimangū[5] Yawata Kokushi genzaisha, Chokusaisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Upper Seven; Homuda-wakeno-mikoto (Emperor Ōjin); Okinaga-tarashi-hime-no-mikoto (Empress Jingū),
Kamigamo Shrine[5] Kita-ku, Kyoto Myojin Taisha, Chokusaisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Upper Seven, combined with Shimogamo Shrine; Wake-ikazuchi-no-kami; ichinomiya of Yamashiro Province[7]
Shimogamo Shrine[5] Sakyō-ku, Kyoto Myojin Taisha, Chokusaisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Upper Seven, combined with Kamigamo Shrine; Tamayori-hime-no-mikoto; Kamo Taeketsunumi-no-mikoto; ichinomiya of Yamashiro Province[7]
Kasuga-taisha[9] Nara Myojin Taisha, Chokusaisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Upper Seven, Takemikazuchi, Futsunushi, Ame no Koyane, Himegami
Matsunoo Taisha[5] Ukyō-ku, Kyoto Myojin Taisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Upper Seven; Oyamakui-no-mikoto; Nakatsushima-hime-no-mikoto, Tsukuyomi-no-Mikoto
Hirano Shrine[5] Kita-ku, Kyoto Myojin Taisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Upper Seven; Imaki-no-kami, Kudo-no-kami; Furuaki-no-kami, Himegami
Fushimi Inari-taisha[5] Fushimi-ku, Kyoto Myojin Taisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Upper Seven; Inari Ōkami, Ukanomitama
Tatsuta Taisha[5] Sangō, Nara Myojin Taisha, Chokusaisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Middle Seven, Shinatsuhiko
Ōmiwa Shrine[5] Sakurai, Nara Myojin Taisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Middle Seven; ichinomiya of Yamato Province[7] Ōmononushi

Ōnamuchi Sukunahikona-no-kami Mount Miwa

Isonokami Shrine[10] Tenri, Nara Myojin Taisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Middle Seven, Futsu-no-mitama [ja]
Ōyamato Shrine[5] Tenri, Nara Myojin Taisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Middle Seven, Yamato Okunitama
Hirose Taisha[5] Kawai, Nara Myojin Taisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Middle Seven
Sumiyoshi-taisha[8] Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka Myojin Taisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Middle Seven; ichinomiya of Settsu Province,[7] Sumiyoshi sanjin, Empress Jingū
Hiyoshi Taisha[5] Ōtsu Myojin Taisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Lower Eight, Ninomiya, Ōkuninushi, Oyamakui no Kami
Hirota Shrine[8] Nishinomiya Myojin Taisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Lower Eight, Amaterasu
Yasaka Shrine[11] Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto Kokushi genzaisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Lower Eight, Susanoo-no-Mikoto (Gion cult, Yashimajinumi
Niukawakami Shrine[5] Higashiyoshino, Nara Myojin Taisha one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Lower Eight
Itsukushima Shrine[11] Hatsukaichi Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Aki Province[12] proposed addition to the Twenty-Two Shrines, Ichikishimahime [ja], Tagitsuhime [ja], Takiribime [ja]
Izumo-taisha[8] Izumo, Shimane Myojin Taisha, Chokusaisha ichinomiya of Izumo Province[13] head shrine of Izumo-taishakyo, sometimes seen as a rival to Ise Grand Shrine, Susanoo-no-Mikoto
Hikawa Shrine[14] Saitama Myojin Taisha, Chokusaisha ichinomiya of Musashi Province[7]Susanoo

Kushinadahime Ōkuninushi Ashinazuchi Tenazuchi

Usa Jingū[8] Usa, Ōita Myojin Taisha, Chokusaisha ichinomiya of Buzen Province[12]Hachiman
Kashii-gū[8] Higashi-ku, Fukuoka Kokushi genzaisha, Chokusaisha Emperor Chuai, Empress Jingu
Kashihara Jingu[8] Kashihara, Nara Chokusaisha Emperor Jimmu, Himetataraisuzu-hime
Heian Jingu[8] Sakyō-ku, Kyoto Chokusaisha
Meiji Jingu[15] Shibuya Chokusaisha Emperor Meiji

Empress Shoken

Omi Jingū[11] Ōtsu Chokusaisha Emperor Tenji
Awa Shrine[8] Tateyama, Chiba Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Awa Province[7] Ame-no-Futodama
Aso Shrine[11] Aso, Kumamoto Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Higo Province[12] Takeiwatatsu-no-Mikoto [ja]
Atsuta Jingu[16] Atsuta-ku, Nagoya Myojin Taisha Atsuta no Ōkami





Takeinadane [ja]

Fujisan Hongū Sengen Taisha[8][17] Fujinomiya, Shizuoka[18] Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Suruga Province,[7] Konohanasakuya-hime
Gassan Shrine Tsuruoka Myojin Taisha one of the Three Mountains of Dewa; Tsukuyomi-no-Mikoto
Hakozaki Shrine[11] Higashi-ku, Fukuoka Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Chikuzen Province[12]Emperor Ōjin

Empress Jingū Tamayori-hime

Hinokuma Jingu[8] Wakayama Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Kii Province,[12] shared with Kunikakasu Shrine;
Hie Shrine[14] Chiyoda, Tokyo Oyamakui no Kami
Hiraoka Shrine[5] Higashiōsaka Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Kawachi Province[7] Ame-no-Koyane, Hime-gami, Futsunushi, Takemikazuchi
Hokkaidō Jingū[19] Sapporo ichinomiya of Ezo Province[20] Ōkunitama, Ōkuninushi, and Sukunahikona,
Ikukunitama Shrine[8] Tennōji-ku, Osaka Myojin Taisha
Izanagi Jingu[8] Awaji, Hyōgo Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Awaji Province[12] Izanagi, Izanami
Kehi Jingu[8] Tsuruga, Fukui Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Echizen Province[13]
Kagoshima Jingū[8] Kirishima, Kagoshima Shikinai Taisha ichinomiya of Ōsumi Province[12]Hoori

Toyotama-hime Emperor Chūai Emperor Ōjin Empress Jingū

Kamayama Shrine[11] Wakayama Itsuse no Mikoto (彦五瀬命)
Kirishima Jingū[11] Kirishima, Kagoshima Konohanasakuya-hime

Hoori Toyotama-hime Ugayafukiaezu Tamayori-bime Ninigi-no-Mikoto

Kumano Hongū Taisha Tanabe, Wakayama Myojin Taisha
Kumano Hayatama Taisha Shingū, Wakayama Shikinai Taisha
Kunikakasu Shrine[8] Wakayama Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Kii Province;[12] shared with Hinokuma Shrine;
Mishima Taisha[8] Mishima, Shizuoka Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Izu Province,[7] Ōyamatsumi
Miyazaki Jingū[8] Miyazaki Emperor Jimmu

Ugayafukiaezu Tamayori-bime

Munakata Taisha[8] Munakata, Fukuoka Myojin Taisha Ichikishimahime [ja], Tagitsuhime [ja], Takiribime [ja]
Niutsuhime Shrine Katsuragi, Wakayama Myojin Taisha Niutsuhime-no-Ōkami

Kōyamiko-no-Ōkami Ōgetsuhime-no-kami Ichikishimahime-no-Ōkami

Ōtori taisha[8] Sakai Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Izumi Province[7] Ōtori-no-muraji and Yamato Takeru
Suwa-taisha[11] Suwa, Nagano Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Shinano Province[13]Takeminakata

Yasakatome Kotoshironushi

Takebe taisha[8] Ōtsu[21] Myojin Taisha Yamato-takeru-no-mitoko; ichinomiya of Ōmi Province[7]
Taga-taisha[11] Taga, Shiga Sannomiya Izanagi, Izanami
Udo Jingū[8] Nichinan, Miyazaki Ugayafukiaezu

Amaterasu Ame-no-oshihomimi Ninigi-no-Mikoto Hoori Emperor Jimmu

Yoshino Jingu[22] Yoshino, Nara Emperor Go-Daigo
Taiwan Grand Shrine[11] Taipei, Taiwan now extinct
Karafuto Shrine[11] Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Karafuto Prefecture, Russia removed from Sakhalin
Chōsen Jingu[11] Seoul, Korea under Japanese rule now extinct

Kunitama Okami Amaterasu Okami

Fuyo Jingū Buyeo County, Korea never completed[23]Emperor Ōjin (Hachiman),

Empress Kōgyoku, Emperor Tenji, Empress Jingū

Kantō Jingu Lüshunkou District, Kwantung Leased Territory, China now extinct

Emperor Meiji Amaterasu Omikami

Nan'yō Shrine[24] Koror, Palau Amaterasu Ōmikami. holy relics and kami were evacuated by submarine in 1944[25]

Imperial shrines, 2nd rank

The mid-range of ranked Imperial shrines or Kanpei Chūsha (官幣中社) included 23 sanctuaries. These shrines were considered to be of intermediate rank among the government-supported shrines and were given lesser financial support compared to the Kanpei-taisha.[8]

name location category notes
Ōharano Shrine.[11] Nishikyō-ku, Kyoto.[11] Kokushi genzaisha Take-mikazuchi-no-mitoko, Futsunushi Ame-no-Koyane, Himegami, one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Middle Seven;
Kifune Shrine.[11] Sakyō-ku, Kyoto Myojin Taisha Kuraokami-no-kami, one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Lower Eight
Kitano Tenmangū.[11] Kamigyō-ku, Kyoto Kokushi genzaisha Sugawara no Michizane , one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Lower Eight
Umenomiya Taisha.[11] Ukyō-ku, Kyoto[26] Myojin Taisha Sakatoke-no-kami, Ōwakako-no-kami, Satatokeko-no-kami, one of the Twenty-Two Shrines, Lower Eight;
Yoshida Shrine.[11] Sakyō-ku, Kyoto Shikigeisha [ja; simple] Twenty-Two Shrines, Lower Eight, Take-mikazuchi-no-mitoko, Futsunushi Ame-no-Koyane, Himegami,[27]
Akama Jingu[11] Shimonoseki Emperor Antoku; n.b., raised to kanpei-taisha in 1940
Dazaifu Tenmangū.[28] Dazaifu, Fukuoka Sugawara no Michizane
Hikosan Jingū.[28] Soeda, Fukuoka Prefecture Amenooshihomimi

Izanagi Izanami-no-Mikoto

Iinoya-gū[11] Kita-ku, Hamamatsu[29] Munenaga-shinnō
Ikasuri Shrine Chūō-ku, Osaka Shikinai Taisha ichinomiya of Settsu Province[7] Zamagami
Ikuta Shrine[28] Chūō-ku, Kobe Myojin Taisha Wakahiru-me
Itakiso Shrine[28] Wakayama (city)[30] Myojin Taisha Isotakeru-no-kami [ja] (五十猛神)
Kamakura-gū[11] Kamakura[31] Morinaga-shinnō
Kanasana Shrine Kodama District, Saitama Myojin Taisha Amaterasu, Susanoo-no-Mikoto
Kanegasaki-gū[28] Tsuruga, Fukui[32] Takanaga Shinnō, Tsunenaga shinnō
Kibitsu Shrine[28] Okayama Myojin Taisha Ōkibitsu-hiko-no-mikoto, son of Emperor Kōrei; ichinomiya of Bitchū Province[12]
Kumano Nachi Taisha[28] Nachikatsuura[33] Kokushi genzaisha Ketsumiko, Kumano Hayatama-no-kami, Kumano Fusumi-no-kami
Minase Shrine[34] Shimamoto, Osaka Emperor Go-Toba, Emperor Tsuchimikado and Emperor Juntoku; n.b., raised to kanpei-taisha in 1940
Mikami Shrine[28] Yasu, Shiga[35] Myojin Taisha Ame-no-mikage-no-mikoto [ja]
Nagata Shrine.[28] Nagata-ku, Kobe[36] Myojin Taisha Kotohshironushi-no-mikoto
Shiramine Jingū[34] Kamigyō-ku, Kyoto Emperor Junnin; n.b., raised to kanpei-taisha in 1940
Sumiyoshi Shrine[28] Shimonoseki[37] Myojin Taisha Sumiyoshi sanjin, the aramitama of the Sun Goddess, Tsuki-sasaki-itsu no mitama-amasakaru-muka-tsu-hime-no- mitoko; ichinomiya of Nagato Province[12]
Yatsushiro-gū[11] Yatsushiro, Kumamoto[38] Prince Kaneyoshi
Watatsumi Shrine.[28] Tarumi-ku, Kobe, Harima Province Myojin Taisha Watatsumi
Tainan Shrine.[28] Tainan, Taiwan now extinct; Prince Kitashirakawa Yoshihisa-no-mikoto

Imperial shrines, 3rd rank

There were five shrines that were considered the lowest ranked among the Imperial shrines. They were called Kanpei-shōsha (官幣小社).[28]

name location Category notes
Kamado Shrine.[28] Dazaifu, Fukuoka[39] Myojin Taisha Tamayori-bime

Emperor Ōjin Empress Jingū

Naminoue Shrine.[28] Naha, Okinawa[40] Izanami, Hayatama, Kotosaka; ichinomiya of Ryukyu Islands[41]
Ōkunitama Shrine.[28] Fuchū, Tokyo[42] Ōkuninushi


Shikaumi Shrine.[28] Higashi-ku, Fukuoka[43] Myojin Taisha Uwatsutsunoo-no-mikoto, Kakatsutsunoo-no-mitoko, Sokotsutsunoo-no-mikoto,
Sumiyoshi Shrine.[28] Hakata-ku, Fukuoka[44] Myojin Taisha Uwatsutsunoo-no-mikoto, Kakatsutsunoo-no-mitoko, Sokotsutsunoo-no-mikoto; ichinomiya of Chikuzen Province[12]

Other Imperial shrines

After the establishment of the officially ranked Imperial shrines, another group of special shrines known as Bekkaku kanpeisha (別格官幣社) was created. These shrines were not included in the ranking system of the Imperial shrines, but were still imperial.[45]

name location Category notes
Yasukuni Shrine Chiyoda, Tokyo Chokusaisha Gokoku Shrines are categorized separately but considered branches of this shrine[46]
Abeno Shrine Abeno-ku, Osaka
Fujishima Shrine Fukui (city)
Fukui Shrine [ja; simple] Fukui (city)
Goō Shrine Kamigyō-ku, Kyoto
Karasawayama Shrine Tochigi Sano, Tochigi
Kenkun Shrine Kita-ku, Kyoto
Kikuchi Shrine Kikuchi, Kumamoto
Kitabatake Shrine Tsu, Mie
Komikado Shrine Narita, Chiba
Kunōzan Tōshō-gū Suruga-ku, Shizuoka
Minatogawa Shrine Chūō-ku, Kobe, Kobe, Japan
Nashinoki Shrine [ja; simple] Kamigyō-ku, Kyoto
Nawa Shrine Saihaku District, Tottori Daisen, Tottori
Nikkō Tōshō-gū Nikkō
Oyama Shrine Kanazawa
Ryōzen Shrine Date, Fukushima
Saga Shrine [ja; simple] Saga (city)
Shijōnawate Shrine Shijōnawate
Tanzan Shrine Sakurai, Nara
Toyokuni Shrine (Kyoto) Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto, Kyoto, Kyoto Prefecture
Toyosaka Shrine [ja; simple] Yamaguchi (city)
Noda Shrine [ja; simple] Yamaguchi (city)
Terukuni shrine Kagoshima
Tokiwa shrine Mito, Ibaraki
Uesugi Shrine Yonezawa, Yamagata
Yamauchi Shrine [ja; simple] Kōchi Prefecture Kōchi, Kōchi
Yūki Shrine Tsu, Mie


The Kokuhei-sha (国幣社) identified the hierarchy of government-supported shrines with national significance. The kokuheisha enshrined kami considered beneficial to more local areas.[1]

National shrines, 1st rank

The most highly ranked, nationally significant shrines or Kokuhei Taisha (国幣大社) were six sanctuaries.

name location Category notes
Keta Taisha Hakui, Ishikawa Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Noto Province[13] Ōkuninushi
Kōra taisha Kurume, Fukuoka Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Chikugo Province[12] Hachiman
Kumano Taisha Matsue, Shimane Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Izumo Province[13] Sumiyoshi sanjin
Nangū Taisha Tarui, Gifu Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Mino Province[7]
Ōyamazumi Shrine Imabari, Ehime Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Iyo Province[12] Ōyamatsumi
Tado Taisha Kuwana, Mie Myojin Taisha Ninomiya, Amatsuhikone

National shrines, 2nd rank

The mid-range of ranked, nationally significant shrines or Kokuhei Chūsha (国幣中社) encompassed 47 sanctuaries.

name location Category notes
Aekuni Shrine Ueno, Iga ichinomiya of Iga Province[7]
Ani Shrine Okayama, Okayama Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Bizen Province[12]
Chōkaisan Ōmonoimi Shrine Yuza, Yamagata Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Dewa Province;
Chinzei Taisha Suwa Shrine Nagasaki, Nagasaki
Hakodate Hachiman Shrine Hakodate, Hokkaidō
Hayatani Shrine Hatsukaichi, Hiroshima Ninomiya
Ichinomiya Nukisaki Shrine Tomioka, Gunma Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Kōzuke Province[13]
Isasumi Shrine Aizumisato, Fukushima Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Iwashiro Province
Ichinomiya Asama Shrine Fuefuki, Yamanashi Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Kai Province[7]
Ikushimatarushima Shrine Ueda, Nagano Myojin Taisha
Imizu Shrine Takaoka, Toyama Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Etchū Province
Izumo daijingu Kameoka, Kyoto Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Tanba Province[13]
Izushi Shrine Toyooka, Hyōgo Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Tajima Province[13]
Iwa Shrine Shisō, Hyōgoe Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Harima Province[12]
Isono Shrine Saijō, Ehime Myojin Taisha
Inbe Shrine Tokushima, Tokushima Myojin Taisha
Kaijin Shrine Tsushima, Nagasaki Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Tsushima Province;
Kono Shrine Miyazu, Kyoto Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Tango Province[13]
Kotohira-gu Kotohira, Kagawa
Masumida Shrine Ichinomiya, Aichi Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Owari Province[7]
Mizuwakasu Shrine Okinoshima, Shimane Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Oki Province[13]
Miho Shrine Matsue, Shimane
Nakayama Shrine Tsuyama, Okayama Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Mimasaka Province[12]
Nikkō Futarasan Shrine Nikkō, Tochigi Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Shimotsuke Province[13]
Nitta Shrine Satsumasendai, Kagoshima ichinomiya of Satsuma Province[12]
Ōasahiko Shrine Naruto, Tokushima Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Awa Province[12]
Ōagata Shrine Inuyama, Aichi Myojin Taisha Ninomiya,
Oarai Isosaki Shrine Ōarai, Ibaraki Myojin Taisha
Shiogama Shrine Shiogama, Miyagi Shikigeisha [ja; simple] ichinomiya of Mutsu Province[13]
Sakatsura Isosaki Shrine Hitachinaka, Ibaraki Myojin Taisha
Sumiyoshi Shrine (Iki City) Iki, Nagasaki Myojin Taisha
Samukawa Shrine Samukawa, Kanagawa Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Sagami Province[7]
Shirayamahime Shrine Hakusan, Ishikawa ichinomiya of Kaga Province[13]
Sasamuta Shrine Ōita, Ōita Shikinai Taisha ichinomiya of Bungo Province[12]
Tsutsukowake Shrine Tanagura, Fukushima Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Mutsu Province[13]
Tamanooya Shrine Hōfu, Yamaguchi ichinomiya of Suō Province[12]
Tamasaki Shrine Ichinomiya, Chiba Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Kazusa Province[7]
Tamura Shrine Takamatsu, Kagawa Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Sanuki Province[12]
Tashima Shrine Karatsu, Saga Myojin Taisha
Tosa Shrine Kōchi, Kōchi Shikinai Taisha ichinomiya of Tosa Province[12]
Tsurugaoka Hachimangū Kamakura, Kanagawa
Utsunomiya Futarayama Shrine Utsunomiya, Tochigi Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Shimotsuke Province[13]
Ube Shrine Tottori, Tottori Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Inaba Province[12]
Wakasahiko Shrine Obama, Fukui Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Wakasa Province[13]
Yahiko Shrine Yahiko, Niigata Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Echigo Province[13]

National shrines, 3rd rank

The lowest ranked, nationally significant shrines or Kokuhei Shōsha (国幣小社) includes 50 sanctuaries.

Name location category notes
Chichibu Shrine Chichibu, Saitama Shinomiya
Chiriku Hachiman Shrine Miyaki, Saga ichinomiya of Buzen Province
Dewa Shrine Tsuruoka, Yamagata one of the Three Mountains of Dewa
Fujisaki-hachimangu Kumamoto, Kumamoto
Hakone Shrine Hakone, Kanagawa
Hinomisaki Shrine Izumo, Shimane
Hirasaki Shrine Ibusuki, Kagoshima ichinomiya of Satsuma Province[12]
Hotaka Shrine Azumino, Nagano Myojin Taisha
Iminomiya Shrine Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi
Inaba Shrine Gifu, Gifu
Iwakiyama Shrine Hirosaki, Aomori ichinomiya of Mutsu Province
Izusan Shrine Atami, Shizuoka
Kibitsuhiko Shrine Okayama, Okayama Myojin Taisha ichinomiya of Bizen Province[12]
Kibitsu Shrine Fukuyama, Hiroshima ichinomiya of Bingo Province[12]
Koshiō Shrine Akita, Akita Kokushi genzaisha
Komagata Shrine Ōshū, Iwate ichinomiya of Rikuchū Province
Minashi Shrine Takayama, Gifu ichinomiya of Hida Province[13]
Mononobe Shrine Ōda, Shimane ichinomiya of Iwami Province[13]
Nunakuma Shrine Fukuyama, Hiroshima
Ōgamiyama Shrine Yonago, Tottori
Oguni shrine Mori, Shizuoka ichinomiya of Tōtōmi Province[7]
Owari Ōkunitama Shrine Inazawa, Aichi
Oyama Shrine Tateyama, Toyama ichinomiya of Etchū Province[13]
Sada Shrine Matsue, Shimane
Shitori Shrine Yurihama, Tottori ichinomiya of Hōki Province[13]
Shizuoka Sengen Shrine Aoi-ku, Shizuoka
Susa Shrine Izumo, Shimane
Sugo Ishibe Shrine [ja; simple] Kaga, Ishikawa Ninomiya
Tsushima Shrine Tsushima, Aichi
Tsurugi Shrine [ja; simple] Echizen, Fukui Ninomiya
Togakushi Shrine Nagano, Nagano
Takase Shrine Nanto, Toyama ichinomiya of Etchū Province[13]
Toga Shrine Toyokawa, Aichi ichinomiya of Mikawa Province[7]
Tsuno Shrine Tsuno, Miyazaki ichinomiya of Hyūga Province[12]
Watatsu Shrine Sado, Niigata ichinomiya of Sado Province[13]
Yudonosan Shrine Tsuruoka, Yamagata one of the Three Mountains of Dewa
Yusuhara Hachimangū Oita, Oita ichinomiya of Bungo Province[12]
Heijō Shrine Pyongyang, Korea extinct
Kagi Shrine Chiayi, Taiwan extinct
Kankō Shrine [simple] Hamhung, Korea extinct
Keijō Shrine Seoul, Korea extinct
Kōshū Shrine [simple] Gwangju, Korea extinct
Kōgen Shrine [simple] Chuncheon, Korea extinct
Ryūtōsan Shrine Busan, Korea extinct
Shinchiku Shrine [simple] Hsinchu, Taiwan extinct
Taichu Shrine Taichung, Taiwan extinct
Taikyu Shrine [simple] Daegu, Korea extinct
Zenshū Shrine [simple] Jeonju, Korea extinct

Gokoku shrines

Gokoku shrines were ranked separately.[a] They were considered branches of Yasukuni Shrine.[46] This list only includes those which are currently ranked as Beppyo shrines.

name location Beppyo notes
Yasukuni Shrine Tokyo formerly Traditional head shrine. Also ranked as a Bekkaku Kanpeisha
Miyagi Gokoku Shrine Sendai, Miyagi [] yes
Akita Prefecture Gokoku Shrine [ja] Akita (city) yes
Yamagata Prefecture Gokoku Shrine [ja] Yamagata yes
Fukushima Gokoku Shrine [ja] Fukushima (city) yes
Ibaraki Prefectural Gokoku Shrine [ja] Mito, Ibaraki yes
Gunma Gokoku Shrine [ja] Takasaki yes
Chiba Gokoku Shrine [ja] Chiba (city) Chūō-ku, Chiba yes
Niigata Gokoku Shrine [ja] Niigata (city) Chūō-ku, Niigata yes
Toyama Gokoku Shrine Toyama (city) yes
Ishikawa Gokoku Shrine [ja] Kanazawa yes
Fukui Gokoku Shrine [ja] Fukui (city) yes
Yamanashi Gokoku Shrine [ja; de; simple] Kōfu yes
Nagano Gokoku Shrine [ja] Matsumoto, Nagano yes
Gifu Gokoku Shrine Gifu yes
Shizuokaken Gokoku Shrine [ja] Aoi Ward, Shizuoka (city) yes
Aichi Gokoku Shrine Naka-ku, Nagoya yes
Mie Prefecture Gokoku Shrine [ja] Tsu, Mie yes
Shiga Prefecture Gokoku Shrine [ja; sv; simple] Hikone, Shiga yes
Kyoto Ryozen Gokoku Shrine Higashiyama Ward, Kyoto, Kyoto Prefecture yes
Osaka Gokoku Shrine [ja] Suminoe-ku, Osaka yes
Hyogo Himeji Gokoku Shrine [ja] Himeji yes
Hyogo Prefecture Kobe Gokoku Shrine [ja] Nada-ku, Kobe yes
Nara Gokoku Shrine [ja] Nara (city) yes
Matsue Gokoku Shrine [ja] Matsue yes
Hamada Gokoku Shrine Hamada, Shimane yes
Okayama Gokoku Shrine [ja] Naka-ku, Okayama yes
Bingo Gokoku Shrine Fukuyama, Hiroshima yes
Hiroshima Gokoku Shrine Naka-ku, Hiroshima yes
Yamaguchi Prefecture Gokoku Shrine [ja] Yamaguchi (city) yes
Tokushima Gokoku Shrine [ja] Tokushima (city) yes
Ehime Prefecture Gokoku Shrine [ja] Matsuyama yes
Kochi Gokoku Shrine [ja] Kōchi, Kōchi yes
Fukuoka Prefecture Gokoku Shrine [ja] Chūō-ku, Fukuoka yes
Saga Gokoku Shrine [ja] Saga (city) yes
Nagasaki Gokoku Shrine Nagasaki yes
Oita Gokoku Shrine [ja] Ōita (city) yes
Kagoshima Prefecture Gokoku Shrine [ja] Kagoshima yes
Miyazaki Gokoku Shrine [ja] Miyazaki (city) yes Not a proper Gokoku Shrine but listed as equivalent due to having been finished after the war
Kumamoto Gokoku Shrine [ja] Kumamoto yes Not a proper Gokoku Shrine but listed as equivalent due to having been finished after the war
Okinawa Gokoku Shrine [ja] Okinawa Prefecture no
Hida Gokoku Shrine Takayama, Gifu Prefecture no
Aomori Gokoku Shrine [ja] Aomori no
Wakayama Gokoku Shrine [ja] Wakayama (city) no
Meguro Gokoku Shrine [ja] Meguro no
Iki Gokoku Shrine [ja] Iki, Nagasaki no
Kagawa Gokoku Shrine [ja] Zentsūji, Kagawa no
Kawanami Gokoku Shrine [ja] Kawaminami, Miyazaki no
Saitama Gokoku Shrine [ja] Saitama (city) no
Sapporo Gokoku Shrine [ja] Sapporo no
Tanao Gokoku Shrine [ja] Hekinan no
Tochigi Gokoku Shrine [ja] Tochigi (city) no
Nōhi Gokoku Shrine Ōgaki, Gifu Prefecture no
Hakodate Gokoku Shrine [ja] Hakodate no
Matsumae Gokoku Shrine [ja] Matsumae, Hokkaido no
Taiwan Gokoku Shrine [ja] Taiwan no


The Sho-sha (諸社) or various smaller shrines ranking below these two levels of Kan-sha ("official government shrines") are commonly, though unofficially, referred to as "people's shrines" or Min-sha (民社). These lower-ranking shrines were initially subdivided by the proclamation of the fourteenth day of the fifth month of 1871 into four main ranks, "Metropolitan", "Clan" or "Domain", "Prefectural", and "District" shrines.[4] By far the largest number of shrines fell below the rank of District shrine. Their status was clarified by the District Shrine Law (郷社定則, Gōsha Teisoku) of the fourth day of the seventh month of 1871, in accordance with which "Village shrines" ranked below their respective "District shrines", while the smaller local shrines or Hokora ranked beneath the "Village shrines".[4]

Here is a non-exhaustive list of shrines under each categorization. This list only includes ones now listed as Beppyo shrines unless otherwise specified.

Metropolitan and Prefectural Shrines

"Metropolitan shrines" were known as Fu-sha (府社).[4] "Prefectural shrines" were known as Ken-sha (県社).[4] At a later date, the "Prefectural shrines" were classed together with the "Metropolitan shrines" as "Metropolitan and Prefectural Shrines" or Fuken-sha (府県社).[4]

Name location Category notes
Metropolitan Shrine (府社)
Nogi Shrine (Tokyo) Minato, Tokyo
Kanda Shrine Chiyoda, Tokyo
Tōgō Shrine Tokyo Shibuya
Ōmiya Hachiman Shrine (Tokyo) Suginami
Yushima Tenmangū Bunkyō
Atago Shrine (Kyoto) Kyoto, Kyoto Prefecture Ukyō-ku, Kyoto Shikinai Shosha
Osaka Tenmangū Kita-ku, Osaka
Kōzu-gū Chuo Ward, Osaka City, Osaka Prefecture
Prefectural Shrine (県社)
Sumiyoshi Shrine Otaru
Kamikawa Shrine Asahikawa
Obihiro Shrine Obihiro
Tarumaezan Shrine Tomakomai
Saruka Shrine Hirakawa, Aomori
Shiwa Inari Shrine [ja] Shiwa District, Iwate Shiwa, Iwate
Morioka Hachimangū Morioka
Kinkasan Shrine [ja] Ishinomaki Shōsha Ronsha (小社論社)
Takekoma Inari Shrine Iwanuma
Taiheiyama Miyoshi Shrine [ja] Akita (city)
Akita Suwa Shrine [ja] Senboku District, Akita Misato, Akita
Kinpō Shrine Tsuruoka
Kumano Shrine Nan'yō, Yamagata
Ayukai Hachimangu [ja] Nishiokitama District, Yamagata Shirataka
Yachi Hachimangu [ja] Nishimurayama District, Yamagata Kahoku, Yamagata
Chōkai gassan ryōsho-gu [ja; simple] Yamagata
Sagae Hachimangu [ja] Sagae
Tsukubasan Shrine Tsukuba Myojin Taisha (名神)・Shikinai Shosha
Mito Tōshō-gū Mito, Ibaraki
Mitsumine Shrine [ja] Chichibu, Saitama
Hodosan Shrine [ja] Nagatoro, Saitama
Yakyu Inari Shrine [ja] Higashimatsuyama, Saitama
Hikawa Shrine (Kawagoe) Kawagoe, Saitama
Washinomiya Shrine Kuki, Saitama
Koma Shrine Hidaka, Saitama
Enoshima Shrine Fujisawa, Kanagawa
Iseyama Kotaijingu [ja] Yokohama
Hiratsuka Hachimangu [ja] Hiratsuka
Hōtoku Ninomiya Shrine Odawara
Oyama Aburi Shrine [ja] Isehara, Kanagawa Shikinai Shosha
Hakusan Shrine [ja] Niigata (city) Chūō-ku, Niigata Shōsha Ronsha (小社論社)
Hie Shrine (Toyama) [ja] Toyama city
Onominato Shrine [ja] Kanazawa Shikinai Shosha
Shinmei Shrine [ja] Fukui (city)
Kitaguchi Hongu Fuji Asama Shrine [ja] Fujiyoshida
Fuji Omuro Asama Shrine [ja] Minamitsuru District, Yamanashi Fujikawaguchiko
Takeda Shrine Kōfu
Fukashi Shrine [ja] Matsumoto, Nagano
Tenaga Shrine [ja] Suwa, Nagano
Takemizuwake Shrine [ja] Chikuma, Nagano Myojin Taisha (名神)
Nyakuichi Ouji Shrine [ja] Ōmachi, Nagano
Sakurayama Hachimangu [ja] Takayama, Gifu
Akihasan Hongū Akiha Shrine Tenryū Ward
Shirahama Shrine [ja] Shimoda, Shizuoka Myojin Taisha (名神)
Yaizu Shrine Yaizu
Oi Shrine [ja] Shimada, Shizuoka
Gosha Suwa Shrine [ja; fr; simple] Naka-ku, Hamamatsu
Wakamiya Hachiman Shrine Naka Ward, Nagoya City
Chiryu Shrine [ja] Chiryū Shikinai Shosha
Tsubaki Grand Shrine Suzuka, Mie Shōsha Ronsha (小社論社)
Himure Hachiman-gū Ōmihachiman
Nagahama Hachimangu [ja] Nagahama, Shiga
Nishinomiya Shrine Nishinomiya
Itatehyōzu Shrine Himeji Shikinai Shosha
Hiromine Shrine Himeji Kokushi genzaisha (国史)
Oishi Shrine Akō, Hyōgo
Tada Shrine Kawanishi, Hyōgo
Isonozatakumushitama Shrine [ja] Yamatotakada, Nara Taisha (大社)
Tokei Shrine [ja] Tanabe, Wakayama
Hirahama Hachimangu [ja] Matsue
Yaegaki Shrine Matsue Shikinai Shosha
Fukuyama Hachimangū Fukuyama, Hiroshima
Kameyama Shrine [ja] Kure, Hiroshima
Hōfu Tenmangū Hōfu
Kotozaki Hachimangu [ja] Ube, Yamaguchi
Kameyama Hachimangū Shimonoseki
Ishizuchi Shrine [ja] Saijō, Ehime
Warei Shrine [ja] Uwajima, Ehime
Iyozu Hikomei Shrine [ja] Matsuyama Myojin Taisha (名神)
Ushioe Tenmangu shrine [ja] Kōchi (city)
Miyajidake Shrine Fukutsu, Fukuoka
Kurume Suitengū Kurume City
Kushida Shrine Hakata-ku, Fukuoka
Furogu Shrine Ōkawa, Fukuoka
Tobata Hachimangu [ja] Kitakyushu Tobata-ku, Kitakyūshū
Kosou Hachimangu [ja] Moji-ku, Kitakyūshū
Umi Hachiman-gū Kasuya District, Fukuoka Umi, Fukuoka
Otomi Shrine [ja] Buzen, Fukuoka
Terumo Shrine Chūō-ku, Fukuoka
Noso Hachimangu [ja] Iizuka, Fukuoka
Yūtoku Inari Shrine Kashima, Saga
Kameyama Hachimangu Shrine [ja] Sasebo
Aoi Aso Shrine Hitoyoshi, Kumamoto
Hachiman Asami Shrine [ja] Beppu
Kasuga Shrine [ja] Ōita (city)
Kanhashira-gū [ja; fr] Miyakonojō
Sano Shrine [ja] Nishimorokata District, Miyazaki Takaharu, Miyazaki
Susaki Shrine Awa Province Ichinomiya, Not a Beppyo shrine
Rokusho Shrine [ja] Soja Shrine, Not a Beppyo shrine
Take Shrine Fuchu, Aki District, Hiroshima Myojin Taisha (名神) Not a Beppyo shrine
Tsubaki-Nakato Shrine Suzuka, Mie Prefecture Ise Province Ichinomiya, Not a Beppyo shrine
Kotonomama Hachiman-gū Kakegawa, Shizuoka Prefecture Tōtōmi Province Ichinomiya, Not a Beppyo shrine
Keta Jinja Takaoka, Toyama Prefecture ichinomiya of former Etchū Province, Not a Beppyo shrine
Kota Shrine Jōetsu, Niigata Prefecture ichinomiya of former Echigo Province, Not a Beppyo shrine
Amatsu Shrine Itoigawa, Niigata ichinomiya of former Echigo Province, Not a Beppyo shrine
Awaga-jinja Asago in Hyōgo Prefecture ichinomiya of former Tajima Province, Not a Beppyo shrine
Ichinomiya Shrine Tokushima in Tokushima Prefecture, Japan ichinomiya of former Awa Province, Not a Beppyo shrine
Yodohime Shrine [simple] Saga, Saga Prefecture Hizen Province ichinomiya, Not a Beppyo shrine
Adachi Myokengu [ja] Kitakyushu, Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan Not a Beppyo shrine
Awata Shrine [ja] Kyoto, Japan Not a Beppyo shrine
Izumi Inoue Shrine [ja] Izumi Province, Japan Not a Beppyo shrine
Kitaoka Shrine [sv; ja] Higo Province, Japan Not a Beppyo shrine
Mizokui Shrine [ja] Ibaraki, Osaka Prefecture, Japan Not a Beppyo shrine
Nanba Shrine [ja; de; fr; simple] Osaka Not a Beppyo shrine
Nitta Shrine (Ōta) Not a Beppyo shrine
Suga Shrine Unnan, Shimane Prefecture, Japan Not a Beppyo shrine
Sakurai Shrine (Sakai) Sakai, Osaka Prefecture, Japan Not a Beppyo shrine
Onji Shrine [ja] Osaka Prefecture, Japan Myojin Taisha Not a Beppyo shrine
Suda Hachiman Shrine Hashimoto, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan Not a Beppyo shrine
Hyōzu Shrine [ja] Nishiwaki, Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan Not a Beppyo shrine
Konda Hachimangu [ja] Habikino Not a Beppyo shrine
Fujishiro-ōji [fr] Kainan City, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan Not a Beppyo shrine
Ikoma Shrine Ikoma, Nara Not a Beppyo shrine
Yamato Okunitama Shrine [ja; simple] Minamiawaji, Hyōgo Prefecture Not a Beppyo shrine, Yamato Okunitama, Awaji Province Ninomiya
Koxinga Shrine Tainan, Taiwan Was proposed to be the highest shrine in Taiwan[47]: 108 

Clan or Domain shrines

"Clan shrines" or "Domain shrines" were known as Han-sha (藩社).[4] Due to the abolition of the han system, no shrines were ever placed in this category.[45]

District shrine

"District shrines" were known as Gō-sha (郷社).[4]

Name location Category notes
Hokutan Shrine [ja] Shōnai, Yamagata
Osugi Shrine [ja] Inashiki
Igusa Hachimangu [ja] Suginami
Inage Shrine [ja] Kawasaki, Kanagawa Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki
Fuji Yamashitamiya Komuro Asama Shrine [ja] Fujiyoshida
Fuji Rokusho Sengen Shrine [ja] Fuji, Shizuoka Shikinai Shosha
Imamiya Ebisu Shrine Naniwa-ku, Osaka
Taikodani Inari Shrine [ja] Kanoashi District, Shimane Tsuwano, Shimane
Tsunomine Shrine [ja] Anan, Tokushima
Washio Atago Shrine [ja] Nishi-ku, Fukuoka
Tagata Shrine Not a Beppyo shrine
Yatsurugi Shrine [simple] Not a Beppyo shrine
Ono Shrine Not a Beppyo shrine

Musashi Province Ichinomiya

Ebetsu shrine Not a Beppyo shrine
Hokumon Shrine Not a Beppyo shrine
Kushihiki Hachimangū Not a Beppyo shrine
Ōsasahara Shrine Not a Beppyo shrine
Shirahigetawara Shrine Not a Beppyo shrine
Torigoe Hachiman Shrine Not a Beppyo shrine
Tosa Kokubun-ji Not a Beppyo shrine
Katano Shrine [ja] Not a Beppyo shrine
Namba Yasaka Shrine [fr; ja] Not a Beppyo shrine
Yagi Shrine [ja] Kishiwada, Osaka Not a Beppyo shrine

Village shrines

"Village shrines" were known as Son-sha (村社) and ranked below their respective "District shrines", in accordance with the District Shrine Law of 4 July 1871.[4]

Name location Category notes
Ōsaki Hachimangū Sendai Aoba-ku, Sendai
Kasama Inari Shrine Kasama, Ibaraki
Yohashira Shrine [ja] Matsumoto, Nagano
Kinomiya Shrine [ja] Atami
Futami Okitama Shrine Ise, Mie
Aga Shrine [ja] Higashiōmi
Hijiyama Shrine [ja] Hiroshima Minami-ku, Hiroshima
Wakamatsu Ebisu Shrine [ja] Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyūshū
Aoshima Shrine Miyazaki (city)
Takachiho Shrine Nishiusuki District, Miyazaki Takachiho, Miyazaki Kokushi genzaisha (国史)
Amanoiwato Shrine Takachiho Town, Nishiusuki District
Amanotanagao Shrine [ja; simple] Iki, Nagasaki Myojin Taisha (名神) Iki Province Ichinomiya, not a Beppyo shrine
Araki Shrine Okinoshima, Shimane Sōja shrine, not a Beppyo shrine
Hinumanai Shrine [ja] Kyōtango, Kyoto Prefecture not a Beppyo shrine
Ichinomiya Sengen Shrine Ichikawamisato, Nishiyatsushiro District in Yamanashi Prefecture Myojin Taisha (名神) Kai Province Ichinomiya, not a Beppyo shrine
Kamochi Shrine Hino, Tottori Prefecture not a Beppyo shrine
Nagakusa Tenjin Shrine Aichi Prefecture, Obu City not a Beppyo shrine
Togakushi Shrine not a Beppyo shrine
Yurahime Shrine [ja; simple] Oki-gun, Shimane Myojin Taisha (名神) Oki Province Ichinomiya, not a Beppyo shrine
Kō Shrine [ja] Iki Province Sōja shrine

Hokora or Ungraded shrines

Small local shrines known as Hokora () are ranked beneath the village shrines, in accordance with the District Shrine Law of 4 July 1871.[4] At a later date, shrines beneath the rank of "Village shrines" were classed as "Ungraded shrines" or Mukaku-sha (無格社).[4]

Name location Category notes
Sarutahiko Shrine Ise, Mie Sarutahiko Ōkami
Takahashi Inari Shrine Kumamoto
Itsukushima Shrine (Kyoto) Not a Beppyo shrine
Shirakumo Shrine Not a Beppyo shrine
Suitengū (Tokyo) Not a Beppyo shrine


New shrines were established and existing shrines promoted to higher ranks at various dates, but a 1903 snapshot of the 193,297 shrines in existence at that time saw the following:[4]

See also


  1. ^ Miyazaki Gokoku Shrine [ja] and Kumamoto Gokoku Shrine [ja] were completed after World War II, when the war ended and the Ministry of Home Affairs was abolished, so they were not designated by the Minister of Home Affairs and are actually correctly designated as "equivalent to designated Gokoku-jinja Shrine".


  1. ^ a b c Institute for Japanese Culture and Classics, Kokugakuin University: Glossary of Shinto Names and Terms, Kampei Taisha.
  2. ^ Holtom, D.C. (2012-11-12) [First published 1965]. The National Faith Of Japan. A Study in Modern Shinto. Routledge. p. 12. ISBN 9781136165573.
  3. ^ Bocking, Brian (1997). A Popular Dictionary of Shinto. Curzon Press. p. 120. ISBN 9780700710515.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Fridell, Wilbur M (1975). "The Establishment of Shrine Shinto in Meiji Japan". Japanese Journal of Religious Studies. 2 (2–3). Nanzan Institute for Religion and Culture: 137–168. doi:10.18874/jjrs.2.2-3.1975.137-168.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, p. 124.
  6. ^ Chiba prefectural government: Chiba, Katori Shrine[permanent dead link]
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v "Nationwide List of Ichinomiya," p. 1; retrieved 2013-1-28.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Ponsonby-Fane. Imperial, p. 125.
  9. ^ National Diet Library (NDL): Kanpei Taisha Kasuga Jinja
  10. ^ Nara National Museum: No. 31, Map of the Precincts of Kanpei Taisha Isonokami Shrine Archived 2011-07-19 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Ponsonby-Fane. Imperial, p. 126.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab "Nationwide List of Ichinomiya," p. 3; retrieved 2013-1-28.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w "Nationwide List of Ichinomiya," p. 2; retrieved 2013-1-28.
  14. ^ a b Sawada, Janine Anderson. (2004). Practical pursuits: religion, politics, and personal cultivation in nineteenth-century Japan, p. 312 n15.
  15. ^ Breen, John et al. (2000). Shinto in History: ways of the Kami, p. 276.
  16. ^ Encyclopedia of Shinto: Atsuta Shinkō
  17. ^ Bernstein, Andrew. "Whose Fuji?: Religion, Region, and State in the Fight for a National Symbol,"[permanent dead link] Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 63, No. 1, Spring 2008, pp. 51-99; Ponsonby-Fane, (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, p. 125.
  18. ^ Asama Shrine: Fujinomiya, Shizuoka = Ōmiya in Suruga province
  19. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, (1963). The Vicissitudes of Shinto, p. 328.
  20. ^ 北海道神宮 ... Hokkaido Jingu Shrine at Nippon-Kichi.jp; retrieved 2012-1-29.
  21. ^ Takebe Taisha: Ōtsu, Shiga = Seta in Ōmi province
  22. ^ NDL: Kanpei Taisha Yoshino Jingu
  23. ^ Michio, Nakajima; 𠀓𤚇𙥷𡌕𰀇 (2010). "Shinto Deities that Crossed the Sea: Japan's "Overseas Shrines," 1868 to 1945". Japanese Journal of Religious Studies. 37 (1): 21–46. ISSN 0304-1042.
  24. ^ Peattie, Mark R. (1988). Nanʻyō: the rise and fall of the Japanese in Micronesia, 1885-1945, pp. 225-229; n.b., construction completed in 1941
  25. ^ Peattie, p. 339 n61.
  26. ^ Umenomiya Shrine: Ukyō-ku, Kyoto = Umetsu in Yamashiro province
  27. ^ "Japanese Shrines". www.taleofgenji.org. Retrieved 2023-04-10.
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Ponsonby-Fane. Imperial, p. 127.
  29. ^ Iinoya-gū:Kita-ku, Hamamatsu = Iya in Tōtōmi province.
  30. ^ Itakeso Shrine: Wakayama, Wakayama = Nishiyama Higashimura in Kii province; n.b., Kii Province (紀伊国, Kii no Kuni) = Kishū (紀州)
  31. ^ Kamakura-gū: Kamakura, Kanagawa = Kamakura in Sagami province
  32. ^ Kanegazaki Shrine: Tsuruga, Fukui = Tsuruga in Echizen province
  33. ^ Kumano Nachi Taisha: Nachikatsuura, Wakayama = Nachi in Kii province; n.b., Kii Province (紀伊国, Kii no Kuni) = Kishū (紀州), was a province of Honshū in Wakayama Prefecture and Mie Prefecture.
  34. ^ a b Ponsonby-Fane. Imperial, p. 126; n.b., raised to kanpei-taisha in 1940
  35. ^ Mikami Shrine: Yasu, Shiga = Mikamimura in Ōmi province
  36. ^ Nagata Shrine: Nagata-ku, Kobe = Kobe in Settsu province.
  37. ^ Sumiyoshi Shrine: Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi = Katsuyama in Nagato province
  38. ^ Yatsushiro Shrine: Yatsushiro, Kumamoto = Yatsushiro in Higo province
  39. ^ Kamado Shrine: Dazaifu, Fukuoka = Fukuoka in Chikuzen province
  40. ^ Naminoe Shrine: Naha, Okinawa = Wakasa on Okinawa Island in the Ryukyu Kingdom
  41. ^ Kerr, George H. (1953). Ryukyu Kingdom and Province before 1945, p. 203.
  42. ^ Ōkunitama jinja at Fuchū, Tokyo = Fuchū in Musashi province
  43. ^ Shigaumi Shrine: Higashi-ku, Fukuoka = Fukuoka, Chikuzen province
  44. ^ Sumiyoshi Shrine: Hakata-ku, Fukuoka = Fukuoka in Chikuzen province
  45. ^ a b "Modern Shrine Ranking System". Encyclopedia of Shinto. Kokugakuin University. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
  46. ^ a b TAKAYAMA, K. PETER (1990). "Enshrinement and Persistency of Japanese Religion". Journal of Church and State. 32 (3): 527–547. ISSN 0021-969X.
  47. ^ Shimizu, Karli; Rambelli, Fabio (2022-10-06). Overseas Shinto Shrines: Religion, Secularity and the Japanese Empire. London New York (N.Y.) Oxford: Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 978-1-350-23498-7.