The Harbin Y-12 (Chinese: 运-12; pinyin: Yùn-12) is a high wing twin-engine turboprop utility aircraft built by Harbin Aircraft Industry Group (HAIG).

Y-12
Harbin Y-12 II of the Iranian IRGC
Role Twin-engine turboprop utility aircraft
National origin China
Manufacturer Harbin Aircraft Industry Group
First flight 14 July 1982
Status Active, In production
Primary user People's Liberation Army Air Force
Produced 1985–present
Developed from Harbin Y-11

Design and development

The Y-12 started as a development of the Harbin Y-11 airframe called Y-11T in 1980.[citation needed] The design featured numerous improvements including a redesigned wing with a new low drag section, a larger fuselage and bonded rather than riveted construction. It also replaced the radial piston engines with turboprops.[citation needed]

The prototype was followed by about 30 production Y-12 (I) aircraft before a revised version was produced. This was designated the Y-12 (II), which featured more powerful engines and removal of leading edge slats, first flying on 16 August 1984 and receiving Chinese certification in December of the following year.[1] The power plants are two Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-27 turboprops with Hartzell propellers. The Y-12 has a maximum takeoff weight of 5,700 kg (12,600 lb) with seating for 17 passengers and two crew. The aircraft is operated as a light commuter and transport aircraft.[citation needed]

The latest development is the Y-12F, which is almost a new design with many improvements: new wings, landing gear, fuselage, more powerful engines, and extended payload and range. The Y-12F made its maiden flight on December 29, 2010,[2] received CAAC type certification on December 10, 2015, FAA type certification on February 22, 2016,[3] and EASA type certification on July 13, 2023.[4] In 2015, Kenmore Air announced that they would begin development of floats for the Y-12 for FAA certification.[5] The Y-12 completed the FAA evaluation flight tests for its automatic flight control system on June 30, 2018, with its performance meeting the requirements, said AVIC Harbin Aircraft Industry Company Ltd (AVIC HAFEI).[6]

Variants

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources in this section. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Harbin Y-12 (II) at China Aviation Museum, Beijing
Harbin Y-12E
Harbin Y-12F

Operators

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources in this section. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Military operators

Namibian Air Force Harbin Y-12
 Afghanistan
 Cambodia
 China
 Djibouti
 Eritrea
 Ghana
 Guyana
Harbin Y-12 II of the Sri Lanka Air Force
 Iran
 Kenya
 Mali
 Mauritania
 Myanmar
 Namibia
 Pakistan
 Peru
 Sri Lanka
 Tanzania
 Zambia

Government operators

 Costa Rica
 China
 Republic of the Congo
 Federated States of Micronesia
 Seychelles

Civil operators

An Air Vanuatu Harbin Y-12 with revised wingtips
 China
 Colombia
 Republic of the Congo
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
 Federated States of Micronesia
 Fiji
 Indonesia
 Iran
 Kiribati
 Malaysia
 Mongolia
   Nepal
 Pakistan
 Sri Lanka
 Tonga
 Uganda

Accidents and incidents

Specifications (Y-12 (II))

Data from Brassey's World Aircraft & Systems Directory 1999/2000,[50] Jane's all the World's Aircraft 2000–01[51]

General characteristics

Performance

250 km/h (160 mph; 130 kn) (economical) at 3,000 m (9,800 ft)
3,000 m (9,800 ft) on one engine
1.4 m/s (4.6 ft/s) on one engine

See also

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

Related lists

References

Notes

  1. ^ JWR Taylor 1988, p.38.
  2. ^ 霍尼韦尔航空航天 (8 January 2016). "【纪录】运-12F背后的霍尼韦尔力量". CARNOC.com (民航资源网) (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
  3. ^ a b Ge, Lena (25 February 2016). "China-Made Y12F Turboprop Aircraft Gets FAA Type Certification". China Aviation Daily. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
  4. ^ "EASA.IM.A.679 - Y12F". EASA. Retrieved 2023-07-14.
  5. ^ Stepen Trimble (2 October 2015). "AVIC launches seaplane conversion for Y-12". www.flightglobal.com. Flight International. Archived from the original on 13 February 2017. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  6. ^ a b 江巍. "China's Y-12 plane passes FAA flight tests for automatic flight control - Chinadaily.com.cn". www.chinadaily.com.cn. Archived from the original on 2018-07-07. Retrieved 2018-07-07.
  7. ^ FAA Y-12 IV and Y-12E Type Certificate Archived 2015-03-22 at the Wayback Machine retrieved 17 August 2013.
  8. ^ FAA Y-12 IV and Y-12E Type Certificate Archived 2015-03-22 at the Wayback Machine retrieved 12 November 2009.
  9. ^ Francis, Leithen. "Harbin Y-12 turboprop to be bigger" Flight International 20 September 2007 (online version) Archived 31 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine retrieved 12 November 2009
  10. ^ "ok365.com便民导航-最为便捷的上网导航服务". y-12.com.cn. Archived from the original on 10 January 2014. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
  11. ^ "Y12F". 10 January 2014. Archived from the original on 10 January 2014.
  12. ^ "World Air Forces 2021". FlightGlobal. 4 December 2020. Retrieved 5 January 2021.
  13. ^ Hoyle Flight International 6–12 December 2016, p. 32.
  14. ^ Hoyle Flight International 6–12 December 2016, p. 34.
  15. ^ Hoyle Flight International 6–12 December 2016, p. 35.
  16. ^ a b Hoyle Flight International 6–12 December 2016, p. 36.
  17. ^ Hoyle Flight International 6–12 December 2016, p. 37.
  18. ^ Hoyle Flight International 6–12 December 2016, p. 39.
  19. ^ "Kenya Air Force commissioned newly acquired C-145 Skytruck aircraft".
  20. ^ de Cherisey, Erwan (2 October 2017). "Mali receives new aircraft". IHS Jane's 360. Archived from the original on 3 October 2017. Retrieved 3 October 2017.
  21. ^ Hoyle Flight International 6–12 December 2016, p. 40.
  22. ^ a b Hoyle Flight International 6–12 December 2016, p. 41.
  23. ^ Hoyle Flight International 6–12 December 2016, p. 43.
  24. ^ Hoyle Flight International 6–12 December 2016, p. 44.
  25. ^ Jackson 2003, p. 82.
  26. ^ Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 57.
  27. ^ Hoyle Flight International 6–12 December 2016, p. 47.
  28. ^ Hoyle Flight International 6–12 December 2016, p. 48.
  29. ^ Hoyle Flight International 6–12 December 2016, p. 53.
  30. ^ a b c d Thisdell and Fafard Flight International 9–15 August 2016, p. 42.
  31. ^ "Fiji Aircraft Register | Civil Aviation Authority of Fiji (CAAF)". caaf.org.fj. 2022-11-18. Registrations DQ-FHC, DQ-FHF. Archived from the original on 2022-11-30. Retrieved 2023-02-12.
  32. ^ Xinhua (14 February 2018). "Two new Chinese-made planes delivered to Nepal". Archived from the original on 13 February 2018. Retrieved 14 February 2018.
  33. ^ "Nepal Airlines retires MA-60s, Y12Es". Ch-Aviation. 17 July 2020.
  34. ^ "Air Eagle". www.aireagle.pk. Archived from the original on 2017-05-17. Retrieved 2017-05-22.
  35. ^ Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 60.
  36. ^ https://www.stuff.co.nz/travel/travel-troubles/300926766/tongas-only-available-domestic-aircraft-is-flying-again
  37. ^ Accident description for RDPL-34117 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 20 January 2013.
  38. ^ Accident description for B-3822 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 20 January 2013.
  39. ^ Accident description for CR851 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 20 January 2013.
  40. ^ Accident description for JU-1020 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 20 January 2013.
  41. ^ Accident description for RDPL-34130 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 20 January 2013.
  42. ^ Accident description for AF-216 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 20 January 2013.
  43. ^ Accident description for 132 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 20 January 2013.
  44. ^ Accident description for B-3841 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 20 January 2013.
  45. ^ Harro Ranter (12 July 2012). "ASN Aircraft accident Harbin Yunshuji Y-12-II 5T-MAE Nouakchott Airport (NKC)". aviation-safety.net. Archived from the original on 23 July 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
  46. ^ Accident description for registration unknown at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 5 June 2014.
  47. ^ {AirForces Monthly, Issue 330}
  48. ^ "Four air force personnel killed in aircraft crash at Haputale". Ada Derana. 3 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  49. ^ "Kenya Air Force Harbin Y-12-II Aircraft Crash-landed At Somalia Airstrip". Fighter Jets World. 2020-08-04. Retrieved 2020-08-05.
  50. ^ Taylor 1999, p.189
  51. ^ Jackson, Paul, ed. (2000). Jane's all the World's Aircraft 2000–01 (91st ed.). Coulsdon, Surrey, United Kingdom: Jane's Information Group. pp. 71–72. ISBN 978-0710620118.

Bibliography

  • Hoyle, Craig. "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International. Vol. 182, No. 5321, 11–17 December 2012, pp. 40–64. ISSN 0015-3710.
  • Hoyle, Craig. "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International. Vol. 190, No. 5566, 6–12 December 2016, pp. 22–53. ISSN 0015-3710.
  • Jackson, Paul. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 2003–2004. Coulsdon, Surry, UK: Jane's Information Group, 2003. ISBN 0-7106-2537-5.
  • Taylor, John W R. (ed.). Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1988-89. Coulsdon, Surrey, UK: Jane's Information Group, 1988. ISBN 0-7106-0867-5.
  • Taylor, Michael J.H. (ed.). Brassey's World Aircraft & Systems Directory 1999/2000. London: Brassey's, 1999. ISBN 1-85753-245-7.
  • Thisdell, Dan and Fafard, Antoine. "World Airliner Census". Flight International. Vol. 190, No. 5550, 9–15 August 2016, pp. 20–43. ISSN 0015-3710.