Utility transport aircraft
The Harbin Y-12 (Chinese: 运-12; pinyin: Yùn-12) is a high wing twin-engine turboprop utility aircraft built by Harbin Aircraft Industry Group (HAIG).
Design and development
The Y-12 started as a development of the Harbin Y-11 airframe
called Y-11T in 1980. The design featured numerous improvements including a redesigned wing with a new low drag section, a larger fuselage and bonded rather than riveted construction. It also replaced the radial piston engines with turboprops.
The prototype was followed by about 30 production Y-12 (I) aircraft before a revised version was produced. This was designated the Y-12 (II), which featured more powerful engines and removal of leading edge slats, first flying on 16 August 1984 and receiving Chinese certification in December of the following year. The power plants are two Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-27 turboprops with Hartzell propellers. The Y-12 has a maximum takeoff weight of 5,700 kg (12,600 lb) with seating for 17 passengers and two crew. The aircraft is operated as a light commuter and transport aircraft.
The latest development is the Y-12F, which is almost a new design with many improvements: new wings, landing gear, fuselage, more powerful engines, and extended payload and range. The Y-12F made its maiden flight on December 29, 2010, received CAAC type certification on December 10, 2015, and FAA type certification on February 22, 2016. In 2015, Kenmore Air announced that they would begin development of floats for the Y-12 for FAA certification. The Y-12 completed the FAA evaluation flight tests for its automatic flight control system on June 30, 2018, with its performance meeting the requirements, said AVIC Harbin Aircraft Industry Company Ltd (AVIC HAFEI).
Harbin Y-12 (II) at China Aviation Museum, Beijing
- Y-12 (I): Twin-engined STOL utility transport aircraft, powered by two 500-shp (373-kW) Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-11 turboprop engines. Prototype version.
- Y-12 (II): Fitted with more powerful PT6A-27 engines.
- Y-12 (III): Planned version to be fitted with WJ-9 turboprop. Evolved to Y-12C because of IV's success when WJ-9 development was completed.
- Y-12 (IV): Improved version. Revised wingtips (span increased to 19.2 m (63 ft)) and increased takeoff weight. 19 passenger seats. This version is the first aircraft in the series certified by the FAA in 1995.
- Y-12C: Basically a (IV) version with WJ-9 turboprop, used by PLAAF for aerial survey.
- Y-12D: Domestically deployed military version with upgraded engines driving four-bladed propellers, used by PLA Airborne Corps for parachute training.
- Y-12E: Variant with 18 passenger seats. PT6A-135A engines of equal horsepower but increased torque driving four-bladed propellers. This version was certified by the FAA in 2006.
- Y-12F: The latest development with almost everything redesigned: wider fuselage, new wings, retractable landing gear and more powerful PT6A-65B engines. The Y-12F has higher cruise speed, longer range and can accommodate 19 passengers or 3x LD3 containers. Design started in April 2005 and the maiden flight was on 29 December 2010. CAAC type certification was received on 10 December 2015 and FAA certification on 22 February 2016. The Y-12F passed flight tests for its automatic flight control system by the FAA on 30 June 2018. It was demonstrated during the 2012 Zhuhai Airshow.
- Y-12G: Proposed cargo version of Y-12F.
- Turbo Panda: Export name for (II) version, marketed by England and Japanese companies. No real order due to airworthiness certification.
- Twin Panda: Originally (II) version for export. Later a modified Y-12 (IV) powered by two Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-34 turboprop engines and fitted with uprated undercarriage, upgraded avionics and interior. Thirty-five orders reportedly received by 2000 but production not proceeded with.
Specifications (Y-12 (II))
Data from Brassey's World Aircraft & Systems Directory 1999/2000, Jane's all the World's Aircraft 2000–01
- Crew: 2
- Capacity: 17 max / 1,700 kg (3,748 lb) max payload
- Length: 14.86 m (48 ft 9 in)
- Wingspan: 17.235 m (56 ft 7 in)
- Height: 5.575 m (18 ft 3 in)
- Wing area: 34.27 m2 (368.9 sq ft)
- Airfoil: LS(1)-0417
- Empty weight: 2,840 kg (6,261 lb)
- Max takeoff weight: 5,300 kg (11,684 lb)
- Fuel capacity: 1,616 L (427 US gal; 355 imp gal) / 1,230 kg (2,712 lb) max usable fuel weight
- Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-27 turboprop engines, 462 kW (620 hp) each
- Propellers: 3-bladed Hartzell HC-B3TN-3B/T10173B-3, 2.49 m (8 ft 2 in) diameter constant-speed fully-feathering reversible-pitch propellers (4 and 5 bladed propellers used on some models)
- Maximum speed: 328 km/h (204 mph, 177 kn) VMO (maximum operating speed) at 3,000 m (9,843 ft)
- Cruise speed: 292 km/h (181 mph, 158 kn) (max) at 3,000 m (9,843 ft)
- 250 km/h (160 mph; 130 kn) (economical) at 3,000 m (9,843 ft)
- Range: 1,340 km (830 mi, 720 nmi) at econ cruise, 45 min reserves at 3,000 m (9,843 ft)
- Endurance: 5 hours 12 minutes at econ cruise
- Service ceiling: 7,000 m (23,000 ft)
- 3,000 m (9,843 ft) on one engine
- Rate of climb: 8.1 m/s (1,590 ft/min)
- 1.4 m/s (4.6 ft/s) on one engine
- Wing loading: 145.9 kg/m2 (29.9 lb/sq ft)
- Power/mass: 0.106 kW/kg (0.064 hp/lb)
- Take-off run: 370 m (1,214 ft)
- Take-off run to 15 m (49 ft): 490 m (1,608 ft)
- Landing run: 340 m (1,115 ft)
- Landing run from 15 m (49 ft): 630 m (2,067 ft)
AVIC aircraft and aero engines
Chinese People's Liberation Army transport aircraft designations
Active Chinese military aircraft
Chinese military aircraft