Hazari Prasad Dwivedi
Hazari Prasad Dwivedi on a 1997 Indian stamp
Hazari Prasad Dwivedi on a 1997 Indian stamp
Born(1907-08-19)19 August 1907
Ballia, United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, British India
Died(1979-05-19)19 May 1979
(aged 71)
Delhi, India
OccupationWriter, essayist, scholar, historian, novelist, critic
Notable worksKabir, Banbhatt Ki Aatmkatha, Sahitya Ki Bhumika, Nakhoon Kyon Barhte Hain, Kutaj, Alok Parva
Notable awards1973: Sahitya Akademi Award
1957: Padma Bhushan

Hazari Prasad Dwivedi (19 August 1907 – 19 May 1979) was a Hindi novelist, literary historian, essayist, critic and scholar. He penned numerous novels, collections of essays, historical research on medieval religious movements of India especially Kabir and Natha Sampradaya, and historical outlines of Hindi literature.

Besides Hindi, he was master of many languages including Sanskrit, Bengali, Punjabi, Gujarati as well as Pali, Prakrit, and Apabhramsa.

Steeped in traditional knowledge of Sanskrit, Pali and Prakrit, and modern Indian languages, Dwivedi was destined to be the great bridge maker between the past and the present. As a student of Sanskrit, steeped in the Sastras, he gave a new evaluation to Sahitya-sastra and he can rightly be considered as a great commentator on the textual tradition of the Indian literature.

He was awarded the Padma Bhushan in 1957 for his contribution to Hindi literature,[1] and the 1973 Sahitya Akademi Award for his collection of essays, 'Alok Parva'.[2]

Early life

He was born on 19 August 1907 at Dubey-ka-Chhapra village in Ballia district of Uttar Pradesh[3] in a traditional family famous for astrologers. His father Pandit Anamol Dwivedi was a learned Sanskrit scholar.

Dwivedi had his early education until middle examination at his village school. After completing his intermediate, he also studied Jyotisha (astrology) and Sanskrit at a traditional school to qualify for 'AchArya' degree in astrology and 'Shastri' degree in Sanskrit.


Dwivedi joined Visva Bharati in 1930. He taught Sanskrit and Hindi, and was engaged in research and creative writing. He stayed on in Santiniketan for two decades. He helped to found the Hindi Bhavana and was its head for many years. [4]

During his stay at Shantiniketan, he came in close contact with Rabindranath Tagore and other prominent figures of Bengali literature. He came to imbibe the subtleties of Bengali, the aesthetic sensibilities of Nandalal Bose, the search for roots of Kshitimohan Sen and the gentle but piercing humour of Gurudayal Mallik. These influences are evident in his later writings.

He left Shantiniketan in 1950 and became Reader in the Hindi Department at the Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, where Dr. Jagannath Prasad Sharma was the rofessor and head of the department. Dwivedi Ji served there till 1960. While in this position, he was also appointed a Member of the first Official Language Commission set up in 1955 by Indian Government.

In 1960 he joined Panjab University, Chandigarh, as Professor and Head of its Hindi Department, a post that he held till his retirement.


Dwivedi's were very best sahityakar contributions to Indian creative and critical writings are phenomenal and his interests diverse.

He wrote the following important works in literary history and criticism:

The above writings of his gave a new direction to the history of criticism in the Hindi literature.

He also published his historical analysis of medieval religious life of India in following books:

His work on medieval saint Kabir is considered a masterpiece, and is a thoroughly researched analysis of Kabir's thought, works, and teachings.

He was also an eminent novelist. His novels revolved around Historical themes and personages. His following Historical Novels are considered classics:

He was also a great essayist. Some of his memorable essays are:

He also translated many works from English and other languages to Hindi. These include:

See also


  1. ^ "Padma Awards" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
  2. ^ Acharya Hazari Prasad Dwivedi Collection Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts (IGNCA) website. A collection of 10,000 volumes of Acharya Hazari Prasad Dwivedi has been donated by his children to IGNCA.
  3. ^ Hazari Prasad Dwivedi
  4. ^ "Hazariprasad Dwivedi (1907-1979)". Visva Bharati. Retrieved 23 August 2019.