This article needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (April 2024)

Kauaʻi
Nickname: The Garden Isle
March 2003 satellite photo
Location in Hawaiʻi
Geography
Coordinates22°04′12″N 159°29′51″W / 22.07000°N 159.49750°W / 22.07000; -159.49750
Area562.3 sq mi (1,456 km2)
Area rank4th largest Hawaiian Island
Highest elevation5,243 ft (1598.1 m)
Highest pointKawaikini
Administration
United States
Symbols
FlowerMokihana (Melicope anisata)[1]
ColorPoni (Purple)
Largest settlementKapaʻa
Demographics
DemonymKauaian
Population73,298 (2020[2])
Pop. density118/sq mi (45.6/km2)

Kauaʻi (Hawaiian: [kɐwˈwɐʔi]), anglicized as Kauai[a] (English: /ˈk/ KOW-eye[3] or /kɑːˈwɑː./ kah-WAH-ee),[4] is one of the main Hawaiian Islands.

It has an area of 562.3 square miles (1,456.4 km2), making it the fourth-largest of the islands and the 21st-largest island in the United States.[5] Kauaʻi lies 73 miles (117 km) northwest of Oʻahu, across the Kauaʻi Channel. The island's 2020 population was 73,298.[6]

Styling itself the "Garden Isle", Kauaʻi is the site of Waimea Canyon State Park and Na Pali Coast State Park. It forms the bulk of Kauai County, which also includes the small nearby islands of Kaʻula, Lehua, and Niʻihau.

Etymology and language

Hawaiian narrative derives the name's origin from the legend of Hawaiʻiloa, the Polynesian navigator credited with discovering the Hawaiian Islands. The story relates that he named the island after a favorite son; a possible translation of Kauaʻi is "place around the neck", describing how a father would carry his child. Another possible translation is "food season".[7]

Kauaʻi was known for its distinct dialect of the Hawaiian language, which still survives on Niʻihau. While the dominant dialect is based on that of Hawaiʻi island, which has no [t] sound, the Kauaʻi dialect had this sound. This happened because the Kauaʻi dialect had retained the old Polynesian /t/ sound, replaced in the "standard" Hawaiʻi dialect by [k]. This difference applies to all words with these sounds, so the Kauaian name for Kauaʻi was pronounced "Tauaʻi", and Kapaʻa was pronounced "Tapaʻa".

History

Polynesian inhabitants settled on the island centuries before others arrived, as shown by excavations dating from 200 to 600 CE.[8] These first inhabitants, originally from the Marquesas Islands, lived undisturbed for around five centuries until a second wave arrived by sea-canoe from Tahiti.[9][10] Many Hawaiian traditions and belief structures derive from the culture that arrived with these Tahitians.[9]

In 1778, Captain James Cook arrived at Waimea Bay, the first European known to have reached the Hawaiian islands.[11] He named the archipelago the "Sandwich Isles" after his patron, the 6th Earl of Sandwich, George Montagu.[12]

During the reign of King Kamehameha, Kauaʻi and Niʻihau joined his Kingdom of Hawaiʻi, the last to do so. Their ruler, Kaumualiʻi, resisted Kamehameha for years. Kamehameha twice prepared a huge armada of ships and canoes to take the islands by force, and twice failed, once because of a storm, and once because of an epidemic.[citation needed] But in the face of the threat of a further invasion, Kaumualiʻi decided to join the kingdom without bloodshed, and became Kamehameha's vassal in 1810. He ceded the island to the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi upon his death in 1824.[12]

Schäffer affair

The Schäffer affair was a controversial diplomatic incident caused by Georg Anton Schäffer, a German physician who attempted to seize the Kingdom of Hawaii for the Russian Empire. After two years, his scheme failed and he returned to Germany.

Plantations

From the 1830s till the mid-20th century, sugarcane plantations were Kauaʻi's most important industry. In 1835, the first sugarcane plantation was founded on Kauaʻi, and for the next century the industry dominated Hawaiʻi's economy.[13] Kauaʻi's last sugarcane plantation, the 118-year-old Gay & Robinson Plantation, stopped planting sugar in 2008.[14]

Old Sugar Mill of Koloa

Main article: Old Sugar Mill of Koloa

In 1835, Old Koloa Town opened a sugar mill.[12] From 1906 to 1934 the office of County Clerk was held by John Mahiʻai Kāneakua, who had been active in attempts to restore Queen Liliuokalani to the throne after the U.S. takeover of Hawaiʻi in 1893.[15]

Valdemar Knudsen

Valdemar Emil Knudsen was a Norwegian who arrived on Kauai in 1857. Knudsen, or "Kanuka", originally managed Grove Farm in Koloa. He later sought a warmer land and purchased the leases to Mana and Kekaha, where he became a successful sugarcane plantation owner. He settled in Waiawa, between Mana and Kekaha, immediately across the channel from Niʻihau Island.[16] His son, Eric Alfred Knudsen, was born in Waiawa.

Knudsen was appointed land administrator by King Kamehameha for an area covering 400 km2, and was given the title konohiki as well as a position as a noble under the king. Knudsen, who spoke fluent Hawaiian, later became an elected representative and an influential politician.[17]

Knudsen lends his name to the Knudsen Gap, a narrow pass between Hã’upu Ridge and the Kahili Ridge. Its primary function was as a sugar farm.[18][19]

Hurricane Iniki

Hurricane Iniki at peak intensity south of Kauaʻi on September 11
Hurricane Iniki (/ˈnk/ ee-NEE-kee; Hawaiian: ʻiniki meaning "strong and piercing wind") was a hurricane that struck the island of Kauaʻi on September 11, 1992. It was the most powerful hurricane to strike Hawaiʻi in recorded history, and the only hurricane to directly affect the state during the 1992 Pacific hurricane season.[20] Forming on September 5, 1992, during the strong 1990–1995 El Niño, Iniki was one of eleven Central Pacific tropical cyclones during that season. It attained tropical storm status on September 8 and intensified into a hurricane the next day. After abruptly turning north, Iniki struck Kauaʻi at peak intensity; it had winds of 145 mph and reached Category 4 status on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale.

Mark Zuckerberg

In 2014 Zuckerberg purchased 700 acres of land on the Hawaiian island of Kauaʻi. In January 2017, Zuckerberg filed eight "quiet title and partition" lawsuits against hundreds of native Hawaiians to claim small tracts of land that they owned within his acreage.[21] Zuckerberg responded to criticisms in a Facebook post, stating that the lawsuits were a good faith effort to pay the partial owners of the land their "fair share".[21] When he learned that Hawaiian land ownership law differs from that of the other 49 states, he dropped the lawsuits. Zuckerberg stated that he regretted not taking the time to understand the process and its history before moving ahead.[22][23]

Geography

Aerial view of Kauai
Na Pali Coast State Park
Kalalau Beach

The five-million-year-old island, the oldest of the main islands (Niʻihau is older), was formed volcanically as the Pacific Plate passed over the Hawaii hotspot.[24] It consists of an eroded shield volcano with a 9.3–12.4 mi (15.0–20.0 km) diameter summit caldera and two flanking calderas. Rejuvenation of the volcano 0.6–1.40 million years ago left lava flows and cones over the eastern two-thirds of the island.[25]

Kauaʻi's highest peak is Kawaikini, at 5,243 ft (1,598 m).[26] The second-highest is Mount Waiʻaleʻale, near the center of the island, 5,148 ft (1,569 m) above sea level. One of the wettest spots on earth, with an annual average rainfall of 460 in (38.3 ft; 11.7 m), is on the east side of Mount Waiʻaleʻale. The rain has eroded deep valleys in the central mountains, carving out canyons with many scenic waterfalls. On the west side of the island, Waimea town is at the mouth of the Waimea River, whose flow formed Waimea Canyon, one of the world's most scenic canyons, which is part of Waimea Canyon State Park. At three thousand ft (910 m) deep, Waimea Canyon is often called "The Grand Canyon of the Pacific". Kokeo Point lies on the island's south side.[citation needed] The Na Pali Coast is an isolated center for recreation, including kayaking along the beaches and hiking on the trail along the coastal cliffs.[27] The headlands Kamala Point, Kawai Point, Kawelikoa Point, Kuahonu Point, Paoʻa Point, and Molehu Point are on the southeast of the island; Makaokahaʻi Point and Weli Point are in the south.

Climate

Kauaʻi
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
31
 
 
22
16
 
 
110
 
 
22
14
 
 
99
 
 
24
15
 
 
34
 
 
24
15
 
 
37
 
 
24
17
 
 
4
 
 
25
18
 
 
11
 
 
26
18
 
 
27
 
 
25
18
 
 
15
 
 
24
19
 
 
35
 
 
24
18
 
 
27
 
 
23
18
 
 
107
 
 
21
17
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [28]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
1.2
 
 
72
61
 
 
4.3
 
 
72
57
 
 
3.9
 
 
75
59
 
 
1.3
 
 
75
59
 
 
1.5
 
 
75
63
 
 
0.2
 
 
77
64
 
 
0.4
 
 
79
64
 
 
1.1
 
 
77
64
 
 
0.6
 
 
75
66
 
 
1.4
 
 
75
64
 
 
1.1
 
 
73
64
 
 
4.2
 
 
70
63
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

Kauaʻi's climate is tropical, with generally humid and stable conditions year-round, although infrequent storms cause severe flooding. At the lower elevations, the annual precipitation varies from an average of about 50 in (130 cm) on the windward (northeastern) shore to less than 20 in (51 cm) on the (southwestern) leeward side of the island. The average temperature in Lihu'e, the county seat, ranges from 78 °F (26 °C) in February to 85 °F (29 °C) in August and September.

Kauaʻi's mountainous regions offer cooler temperatures in contrast to the warm coastal areas. At Kōkeʻe State Park, 3,200–4,200 ft (980–1,280 m) ASL, day temperatures vary from an average of 45 °F (7 °C) in January to 68 °F (20 °C) in July. In the winter, temperatures have been known to drop down to the 30s and 40s at the park, which holds an unofficial record low of 29 °F (−2 °C), recorded in February 1986 at Kanaloahuluhulu Meadow.

Precipitation in Kauaʻi's mountainous regions averages 50–100 in (1,300–2,500 mm) annually. About ten mi (16 km) southeast of Kōkeʻe state park, at an elevation of 5,075 ft (1,547 m), is the Mt. Waiʻaleʻale rain gauge.[29] Mt. Waiʻaleʻale is often cited as the wettest spot on earth, although this has been disputed. Based on data for the period from 1931 through 1960, the average yearly precipitation was 460 in (11,700 mm) (U.S. Environmental Science Services Administration, 1968). Between 1949 and 2004, the average yearly precipitation at Mt. Waiʻaleʻale was 374 in (9,500 mm).[30]

Kauaʻi also holds a record in hourly precipitation. During a storm on January 24–25, 1956, a rain gauge at Kauaʻi's former Kilauea Sugar Plantation recorded a record twelve in (305 mm) of precipitation in just 60 minutes. The value for one hour is an underestimate, since the rain gauge overflowed, which may have resulted in an error by as much as 1 in (25 mm).[31] An accurate measurement may have exceeded Holt, Missouri's world-record rainfall of 12 in (300 mm) in 42 minutes on June 22, 1947.[32]

Time zone

Hawaii Standard Time (UTC−10:00) is observed on Kauaʻi year-round. When mainland states are on daylight saving time, for example, the time on Kauaʻi is three hours behind the West Coast of the United States and six hours behind the East Coast.[33]

River system

Waterfalls

Economy

Main article: Economic history of Kauaʻi

Tourism is Kauaʻi's largest industry. In 2007, 1,271,000 people visited. The two largest groups were from the continental United States (84% of all visitors) and Japan (3%).[34] As of 2003, approximately 27,000 jobs existed on Kauaʻi. The largest sector was accommodation/food services (26%, 6,800 jobs), followed by government (15%) and retail (14.5%), with agriculture accounting for 2.9% (780 jobs) and educational services providing 0.7% (183 jobs).[35] The visitors' industry accounted for one third of Kauaʻi's income.[35] Employment is dominated by small businesses, with 87% of all non-farm businesses having fewer than 20 employees.[35] As of 2003, Kauaʻi's poverty rate was 10.5%, compared to the mainland at 10.7%.[35]

As of 2014, the median home price was about $400,000.

Pacific Missile Range Facility northwest of Kekaha, Kauai

Land in Kauaʻi is very fertile; farmers raise many varieties of fruit and other crops. Guava, coffee, sugarcane, mango, banana, papaya, avocado, star fruit, kava, noni and pineapple are all cultivated on the island, but most agricultural land is used for raising cattle.[34]

Kauaʻi is home to the U.S. Navy's "Barking Sands" Pacific Missile Range Facility, on the western shore.

MF and HF ("shortwave") radio station WWVH, sister station to WWV and low frequency WWVB in Fort Collins, Colorado, is on the west coast of Kauaʻi, about 3 mi (5 km) south of Barking Sands. WWVH, WWV and WWVB are operated by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology, broadcasting standard time and frequency information to the public.

Energy

Main article: Kauaʻi Island Utility Cooperative

Kauaʻi Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) is a not-for-profit electric utility cooperative headquartered in Līhuʻe, which provides electricity for the island. It has 24,000 member-owners who elect a nine-member board of directors.[36]

In the 1970s, Kauaʻi burned sugarcane waste to supply most[37] of its electricity.[37]

By 2008, transition of energy sources and growth in generating capacity had occurred, with most of Kauaʻi's electricity produced by imported liquid petroleum. In 2006 and 2007, the inputs cost $69.3 million and $83 million, respectively.[38] By 2011, 92% of KIUC's power came from diesel.[39]

By 2017, KIUC's fuel mix was 56% fossil fuels, 9% hydroelectric, 12% biomass and 23% solar. KIUC integrated large-scale solar into its grid so that, during sunny daylight hours, 97% or more of its generation came from renewable sources. KIUC offers $1,000 rebates to residential customers who have solar water heating systems installed on their homes.[40]

In 2017, KIUC opened a Tesla Energy 13 MW / 52 MWh battery next to the 12 MW Kapaia solar plant[41] for 13.9¢/kWh.[39] In December 2018, KIUC opened an AES Distributed Energy project for 20 MW solar with 20 MW / 100 MWh batteries priced at 11.1¢/kWh.[42]

Towns and communities

Līhuʻe, on the island's southeastern coast, is the seat of Kauaʻi County and the island's second-largest town. Kapaʻa, on the "Coconut Coast" (site of an old coconut plantation) about 6 mi (9.7 km) north of Līhuʻe, has a population of over 10,000, or about 50% greater than Līhuʻe. Princeville, on the island's north side, was once the capital of Kauaʻi.

Communities on Kauaʻi range in population from the roughly 10,000 people in Kapaʻa to tiny hamlets. Below are the larger or more notable of those from the northernmost end of Hawaii Route 560 to the western terminus of Hawaii Route 50:[citation needed]

Kauai towns and villages by population
Name population
Haʻena State Park 550
Wainiha 419
Hanalei 450
Princeville 2,158
Kalihiwai 428
Kilauea 3,014
Anahola 2,311
Kapaʻa 11,652
Wailua 2,359
Hanamāʻulu 4,994
Līhuʻe 8,004
Wailua Homesteads 5,863
Puhi 3,380
Poʻipū 1,299
Kōloa 2,231
Lāwaʻi 2,578
Kalāheo 4,996
ʻEleʻele 2,515
Hanapēpe 2,678
Kaumakani 749
Waimea 2,057
Kekaha 3,715
Pakala 294
Kealia 103

Transport

Air

The commercial area in Port Allen

Located on the southeastern side of the island, Lihue Airport is the island's only commercial airport. It has direct routes to Honolulu, Kahului/Maui, Kona/Hawaii, the U.S. mainland, and Vancouver, Canada. General aviation airports on the island are Port Allen Airport and Princeville Airport. The Pacific Missile Range Facility has a 6,006-foot runway that is closed to general aviation traffic, but could be used for an emergency landing.

Highways

Several state highways serve Kauaʻi County:

Other major highways that link other parts of the Island to the main highways of Kauaʻi are:

Hawaii Scenic Byway

Mass transit

The Kauaʻi Bus is the public transportation service of the County of Kauaʻi.

Places of interest

Kauai Hindu monastery in Kauai Island in Hawaii.
The Spouting Horn: located on the southern coast of Kauaʻi

The Kauaʻi Heritage Center of Hawaiʻian Culture and the Arts was founded in 1998. Its mission is to nurture appreciation and respect for Hawaiian culture. It offers classes in Hawaiian language, hula, lei and cordage making, the lunar calendar, chanting, and trips to cultural sites.

Panorama gallery

A view of the Hanalei Valley in Northern Kauaʻi. The Hanalei River runs through the valley and 60% of Hawaiʻi's taro is grown in its fields.
A view of the Hanalei Valley in Northern Kauaʻi. The Hanalei River runs through the valley and 60% of Hawaiʻi's taro is grown in its fields.
view of the Nā Pali coastline from the ocean. It is part of the Nā Pali Coast State Park which encompasses 6,175 acres (20 km2) of land and is located on the northwest side of Kauaʻii.
A view of the Nā Pali coastline from the ocean. It is part of the Nā Pali Coast State Park which encompasses 6,175 acres (20 km2) of land and is located on the northwest side of Kauaʻi.
A view of the Kalalau Valley on Kauaʻi's Nā Pali Coast from the Kalalau Lookout
A view of the Kalalau Valley on Kauaʻi's Nā Pali Coast from the Kalalau Lookout

Popular culture

Manawaiopuna Falls known as "Jurassic Falls" featured in 1993 Steven Spielberg film Jurassic Park

Kauaʻi has been featured in more than 70 Hollywood movies and TV shows, including the musical South Pacific and Disney's 2002 animated feature film Lilo & Stitch along with its franchise's three sequel films (2003's Stitch! The Movie, 2005's Lilo & Stitch 2: Stitch Has a Glitch, and 2006's Leroy & Stitch) and first television series (Lilo & Stitch: The Series). Scenes from South Pacific were filmed in the vicinity of Hanalei. Waimea Canyon was used in the filming of the 1993 film Jurassic Park and its 2015 sequel Jurassic World was shot in Kauai. Scenes by a waterfall in Mighty Joe Young were shot in Kauai. The 2016 film Mike and Dave Need Wedding Dates was also filmed there. Parts of the island were used for the opening scenes of the film Raiders of the Lost Ark. Other movies filmed here include Six Days Seven Nights, the 1976 King Kong,[43] and John Ford's 1963 film Donovan's Reef. Recent films include Tropic Thunder and a biopic of Bethany Hamilton, Soul Surfer. A scene in the opening credits of popular TV show M*A*S*H was filmed in Kauaʻi (helicopter flying over mountain top). Some scenes from Just Go with It, George of the Jungle, and Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides were also filmed in Kauaʻi.[44] A Perfect Getaway is set in Kauaʻi.

Parts of the 2002 film Dragonfly were filmed there, although the people and the land were presented as South American.[citation needed]

Major acts of two Elvis Presley films, 1961's Blue Hawaii and 1966's Paradise, Hawaiian Style, were filmed on Kauaʻi. Both have scenes shot at the Coco Palms resort.

The Descendants, a 2011 film, has major parts shot in Kauaʻi, where the main character and his cousins own ancestral lands they are considering selling.[45] The film is based on the 2007 novel by Hawaiian writer Kaui Hart Hemmings.

See also

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ In Hawaiian there is a glottal stop before the final i, spelled with the ʻokina. English speakers may approximate this by pronouncing the name as /kɑːˈwɑː/ kow-AH-ee. Sometimes Kauaʻi is spelled with an apostrophe or grave accent rather than the ʻokina, as in Kaua'i or Kaua`i.

References

  1. ^ "Mokihana". Native Hawaiian Plants. Kapiʻolani Community College. Archived from the original on March 23, 2009. Retrieved March 7, 2009.
  2. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Kauai County, Hawaii". United States Census Bureau. April 1, 2020.
  3. ^ "Kauai". Dictionary.com Unabridged (Online). n.d.
  4. ^ "Kauai". Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary.
  5. ^ "Table 5.08 – Land Area of Islands: 2000" (PDF). 2004 State of Hawaii Data Book. State of Hawaii. 2004. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 9, 2013. Retrieved July 23, 2007.
  6. ^ Census Tracts 401 through 409, Kauaʻi County United States Census Bureau
  7. ^ Pukui, Mary Kawena; Elbert, Samuel H.; Mookini, Esther T. (1974). Place Names of Hawaii. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0524-1.
  8. ^ "Ka Moolelo o Kauai- The Story of Kauai". Kaua'i Historical Society. Archived from the original on June 10, 2021. Retrieved June 10, 2021.
  9. ^ a b "Kauai's History". Kauai.com. Archived from the original on June 10, 2021. Retrieved June 10, 2021.
  10. ^ "Kauai in History: Hawaii's Oldest Paradise". Makana Charters and Tours. Makana Charters. March 3, 2020. Archived from the original on June 10, 2021. Retrieved June 10, 2021.
  11. ^ Hough, Richard (1997). Captain James Cook: a biography. New York: Norton. p. 311. ISBN 978-0-393-31519-6.
  12. ^ a b c "Kauai History". Hawaiian Tourism Authority. Archived from the original on July 19, 2013. Retrieved June 16, 2012.
  13. ^ "Kauai Plantation Railway – Kauai Sugarcane Plantations". Archived from the original on March 29, 2014. Retrieved May 8, 2011.
  14. ^ "About Gay and Robinson in Hawaii". www.hawaiiforvisitors.com. Retrieved April 18, 2024.
  15. ^ Soboleski, Hank (August 10, 2013). "John Mahiai Kaneakua". The Garden Island. Archived from the original on January 23, 2014. Retrieved January 15, 2014.
  16. ^ Joesting, Edward (1988). Kauai: The Separate Kingdom. University of Hawaii Press. Pages 198–199. ISBN 9780824811624.
  17. ^ Lund, Fredrik Larsen (2017). Norske utposter. Vega forlag. Pages 301–302. ISBN 978-82-8211-537-7.
  18. ^ Lougheed, Vivien (2007). Adventure Guide: Mazatalan and Vicinity. Hunter Publishing, Inc. Page 250. ISBN 9781588435910.
  19. ^ Ward, Greg (2002). Hawaii. Rough Guides. Page 472. ISBN 9781858287386.
  20. ^ Central Pacific Hurricane Center (1993). The 1992 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season (PDF) (Report). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved November 24, 2003.
  21. ^ a b "Hawaiians call Mark Zuckerberg 'the face of neocolonialism' over land lawsuits". The Guardian. January 23, 2017. Archived from the original on April 4, 2022. Retrieved April 4, 2022.
  22. ^ Mark Zuckerberg hits back at 'misleading' claims he is suing Hawaiian landowners Archived November 10, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Wired, January 20, 2017
  23. ^ "Facebook's Zuckerberg officially drops Hawaii 'quiet title' actions" Archived March 4, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Pacific Business News, February 26, 2017
  24. ^ Juvik, Sonia P.; Juvik, James O.; Paradise, Thomas R. (1998). Atlas of Hawai'i. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 3–6. ISBN 978-0-8248-2125-8.
  25. ^ "Kauai". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
  26. ^ "Table 5.11 – Elevations of Major Summits" (PDF). 2004 State of Hawaii Data Book. State of Hawaii. 2004. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 9, 2013. Retrieved July 23, 2007.
  27. ^ "Trail Information – Kalalau Trail". Archived from the original on August 30, 2011. Retrieved September 7, 2011.
  28. ^ "NASA Earth Observations Data Set Index". NASA. Archived from the original on November 28, 2017. Retrieved January 30, 2016.
  29. ^ Henning, D. (1967). Mt. Waialeale. Wetter und Leben (Vienna). 19(5–6), 93–100
  30. ^ USGS, NWIS
  31. ^ Schmidli, R.J. (1983). Weather extremes (NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS WR-28, Revised.) Salt Lake City, UT: NOAA.
  32. ^ National Climatic Data Center
  33. ^ "Discover Kauai". H&S Publishing, LLC. Archived from the original on February 13, 2011. Retrieved April 2, 2011.
  34. ^ a b "Kauai Economic Outlook Summary: Tourism Woes Mean No Growth Through 2009". University of Hawaii Economic Research Organization. 2008. Archived from the original on September 27, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
  35. ^ a b c d "Kauai Economic Development Plan 2005–2015" (PDF). County of Kauai Office of Economic Development, Kauai Economic Development Board. 2004. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 18, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
  36. ^ "Home | Kauai Island Utility Cooperative". website.kiuc.coop. Archived from the original on June 17, 2021. Retrieved June 10, 2021.
  37. ^ a b "Hawaii's sugar growers are putting new emphasis on their..." United Press International. Archived from the original on July 29, 2021. Retrieved July 29, 2021.
  38. ^ Flynn, Meghan. Kauai Island Utility Cooperative. Energy Today Magazine. September 30, 2008
  39. ^ a b Wagman, David (March 16, 2017). "Tesla Teams With Tiny Hawaiian Utility to Store Solar". IEEE. Archived from the original on March 30, 2017. Retrieved March 29, 2017. as 2011 we were 92% dependent on fossil fuel generation," primarily diesel and naphtha.
  40. ^ "Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Rebate" (PDF). Kaua'i Island Utility Cooperative. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 29, 2021. Retrieved July 29, 2021.
  41. ^ "Tesla launches its Powerpack 2 project in Hawaii, will help Island of Kauai get more out of its solar power". March 8, 2017. Archived from the original on March 8, 2017. Retrieved March 8, 2017.
  42. ^ "AES' New Kauai Solar-Storage 'Peaker' Shows How Fast Battery Costs Are Falling". January 16, 2017. Archived from the original on January 18, 2017. Retrieved January 24, 2017.
  43. ^ "King Kong (1976) Filming Locations" Archived 2017-03-19 at the Wayback Machine imdb.com
  44. ^ "Kauai Film Locations | GoHawaii.com". www.gohawaii.com. February 14, 2017. Archived from the original on August 3, 2017. Retrieved August 3, 2017.
  45. ^ "Kauai 'Cane Fire' Documentary Will Blow Lid Off Hawaii Tourism". Beat of Hawaii. May 20, 2022. Retrieved May 21, 2022.

Further reading