|Part of a series on the|
|Mariology of the|
Roman Catholic Church
Marian apparitions are reported supernatural appearances by Mary, the mother of Jesus. Below is a list of alleged events concerning notable Marian apparitions, which have either been approved by a major Christian church, or which retain a significant following despite the absence of official approval or despite an official determination of inauthenticity. While a number of Marian apparitions are approved or received positive judgments, many receive no-decision or negative judgments from the church.
See also: Normae Congregationis
According to norms of the Catholic Church which have been in effect since the Council of Trent in the 16th century, the initial responsibility of evaluating the merits of any purported apparition falls to the bishop of the area in which the events allegedly occurred. If, after an investigation, the bishop determines that the apparition constitutes an authentic supernatural appearance of the Blessed Virgin Mary, then the apparition is considered approved for the entire Catholic Church, unless his successor or the Holy See were to contradict his decision.
The apparitions in this category have been judged to be "worthy of belief."
A distinction is sometimes made between apparitions that are "Vatican approved" and those that are not. However, by the norms of Normae Congregationis, the only formal mechanisms for Holy See approval of an apparition would be the pope approving an apparition that had occurred in the Diocese of Rome, or the pope approving an apparition against the will of the local bishop, neither of which has happened to date. Even in cases in which the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith cooperates with an investigation that yields a positive result, the consequent approval derives its authority from the local bishop, not from the Holy See. Because approval by the Holy See can therefore only be claimed based on informal indicators of endorsement, lists of "Vatican-approved Marian apparitions" vary widely depending on the criteria used. The criterion used here is that the Holy See must have approved the widespread veneration of the apparition by inscribing it on a liturgical calendar besides that of the particular diocese in which the apparition occurred.
|Associated Marian titles||Years||Location||Seers||Approval||Feast day|
|Our Lady of Guadalupe||1531||Tepeyac, Mexico City, Mexico||Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin
|1555||December 12 in the General Roman Calendar|
|Juan Diego, an Aztec who had recently converted to the Catholic faith, saw an apparition of Mary early in the morning on December 9, 1531, during which Mary asked that a church be built in the site of the apparition. The local bishop did not believe his story. In response, during another appearance to Juan Diego three days later, after also appearing to Diego's sick uncle Juan Bernardino, Our Lady imprinted an image of herself on Juan Diego's cloak (tilma). The cloak is on display at the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico City. Over the years, Our Lady of Guadalupe became a symbol of the Catholic faith in Mexico and the Mexican diaspora.|
|Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal
Our Lady of Graces
|1830||Rue du Bac, Paris, France||Catherine Labouré||1836
Archbishop Hyacinthe-Louis de Quélen
Archdiocese of Paris
|November 27 in the Roman Calendar for Venezuela and the Vincentian orders|
|Catherine, a novice at the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul, reported that Mary appeared to her one night in the convent chapel and asked that a specific medallion be made, promising that "all who wear this medal will receive great graces." The medal eventually produced is most commonly known as the Miraculous Medal due to the many miracles that were connected with it. The front of the medal displays a picture of Mary as Catherine described her. The design on the reverse includes the letter M and a cross.|
|Our Lady of La Salette||1846||Mount Sous-Les Baisses, La Salette-Fallavaux, France||Mélanie Calvat
|September 19, 1851
Bishop Philibert de Bruillard
Diocese of Grenoble
|September 19 in the Roman Calendar for France|
|Two shepherd children reported seeing an apparition of Mary, who was weeping because of disrespect shown to the Lord's Day and to the Lord's name. She entrusted one secret to each of the two children, which they wrote down and delivered to Pope Pius IX.|
|Our Lady of Lourdes
The Immaculate Conception
|1858||Lourdes, France||Bernadette Soubirous||January 18, 1862
Bishop Bertrand-Sévère Laurence
Diocese of Tarbes
|February 11 in the General Roman Calendar|
|A 14-year-old shepherd girl named Bernadette Soubirous reported seeing Mary appear to her while she was out gathering firewood in the countryside. Mary identified herself as "the Immaculate Conception" and told Bernadette of the location of a spring, promising miraculous healings from its waters. Since 1862, more than sixty medical cures associated with Lourdes have been certified as "miraculous" by the Catholic Church, which established its own Medical Bureau in 1883 to review and evaluate claims of cures. An independent study of cures published during 2012 concluded that some of the cures were "currently beyond our ken but still impressive, incredibly effective, and awaiting a scientific explanation."|
|Our Lady of Knock||1879||Knock, County Mayo, Ireland||Group of 15 people||1879
Archbishop John MacHale
Archdiocese of Tuam
|August 17 in the Roman Calendar for Ireland|
On August 21, 1879,[note 1] a group of 15 men, women, and children, ranging in age from 5 to 75, reported seeing an apparition behind their church, against the back wall, of an altar with a lamb on it (understood to represent Jesus), surrounded by a multitude of angels. Off to the side in prayer stood Mary, Joseph, and St. John (with St. John dressed as a bishop). Because Mary was among those seen, the apparition is classified as Marian, although the simultaneous appearance of Jesus, Mary, Joseph, John, and numerous angels makes it unique among this category. A further distinctive characteristic is that this apparition was silent: no verbal messages were given. The apparition lasted for an hour and a half.
|Our Lady of Fátima
Our Lady of the Rosary
The Immaculate Heart of Mary
|1917||Cova da Iria, Fátima, Portugal||Lúcia Santos
|October 13, 1930
Bishop José Alves Correia da Silva
Diocese of Leiria
|May 13 in the General Roman Calendar|
|Three shepherd children reported seeing apparitions of an angel (who identified himself as the Guardian Angel of Portugal) followed by apparitions of Mary. Mary revealed to the children three secrets: first, the reality of hell and the means of saving people from it through personal sacrifices and Acts of reparation; second, a prediction of future upheavals (beginning with World War II), the spiritual means of ending them (a Consecration of Russia and Communions of reparation on First Saturdays), and a prediction of an eventual "triumph of the Immaculate Heart of Mary"; third, an obscure vision of future persecution of the Catholic Church. The apparitions culminated with the Miracle of the Sun, an astronomical phenomenon witnessed by a crowd of approximately 70,000 people, and even by others located miles away. All nine popes since the apparitions – Benedict XV, Pius XI, Pius XII, John XXIII, Paul VI, John Paul I, John Paul II, Benedict XVI and Francis – have indicated their belief in the authenticity of the apparitions. Pope John Paul II credited Our Lady of Fátima with saving his life after he was shot in Rome on the May 13 feast day of the apparition in 1981, and donated the bullet that wounded him to the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fátima. In 1925, eight years after the Fátima events, Lúcia, then Sister Lúcia, reported another set of related apparitions, which became known as the Pontevedra apparitions.|
Below is a list of additional apparitions which have been approved by the local ordinary (i.e. the bishop assigned to the area in which the events allegedly occurred).
|Associated Marian titles||Years||Location||Seers||Approval|
|Our Lady of the Good Event||1594–1634||Quito, Ecuador||Mariana de Jesus Torres||1611|
Bishop Salvador Ribera Avalos
Diocese of Quito
|A religious sister, Mother Mariana de Jesus Torres, reported that the Virgin Mary appeared to her at the Conceptionist Convent in Quito, Ecuador, under the title "Nuestra Señora del Buen Suceso." According to Mother Mariana, Mary requested that a statue be made in her likeness and made several predictions, saying that the church and the world would enter into a period of crisis beginning in the mid-20th century, and that this period would be followed by a complete restoration. Although the phrase "Good Event" in the apparition title is also understood to refer to this prophesied restoration, the phrase, properly speaking, refers to the Purification of Mary and the Presentation of Jesus.|
|Our Lady of Laus||1664–1718||Saint-Étienne-le-Laus, France||Benoîte Rencurel||May 4, 2008[note 2]|
Bishop Jean-Michel Di Falco
Diocese of Gap and Embrun
|Beginning in 1664, a young shepherdess reported seeing multiple visions of Mary, who said, "I have asked my Son for this place for the conversion of sinners and He has granted it to me." Mary charged Benoîte to prepare sinners for the Sacrament of Penance, a vocation for which she received the gift of reading souls. Mary asked for a sanctuary to be built, and foretold that it would last until the end of the world, emerging from obscurity and becoming well-known shortly before the onset of the endtimes. Benoîte continued to receive apparitions until her death in 1718. The local archbishop at the time approved the public veneration of the initial apparitions in 1665, but the apparitions themselves were not approved until almost four centuries later.|
|Our Lady of Good Help||1859||Champion, Wisconsin, United States||Adele Brise||December 8, 2010|
Bishop David L. Ricken
Diocese of Green Bay
|In Robinsonville (now called Champion), Wisconsin, a young Belgian immigrant woman named Adele Brise was walking through a wooded area when she saw a beautiful woman standing between a maple and a hemlock tree. She saw the lady again on her way to Mass, and walked past her again. After Mass she told her priest about the apparition, and he told her to ask the Lady "In God's name, who are you and what do you want of me?" When Adele walked past the spot again, the Lady was there, and Adele asked what she was told by the priest. The Lady replied, "I am the Queen of Heaven who prays for the conversion of sinners." She gave Adele the mission to pray for sinners and teach the children of the area their Catechism, with the assurance, "Go and fear nothing, I will help you." Soon after, Adele's father built a small chapel between the trees, and later two more churches were built on the spot before the present brick church, built in 1942. Our Lady of Good Help is the first approved apparition in the United States.|
|Our Lady of Pontmain
Our Lady of Hope
|1871||Pontmain, France||Eùgene Barbadette
|February 2, 1872|
Bishop Casimir Wicart
Diocese of Laval
|At the height of the Franco-Prussian War, Pontmain, a hamlet of about 500 inhabitants, found itself between the oncoming Prussian army and the city of Laval. While two boys, Joseph and Eugène, aged ten and twelve, were helping their father in the barn, Eugène saw in the night sky an apparition of a beautiful woman smiling at him; she was wearing a blue gown covered with golden stars, and a black veil under a golden crown. Joseph came to look and could see the lady as well. As a crowd gathered, two girls, Françoise Richer and Jeanne-Marie Lebosse, ages nine and eleven, reported seeing Mary as well, and described her in the same way. None of the adults, however, could see Mary, but only saw three stars forming a triangle. The crowd began praying the Rosary. The children saw a banner unfurl beneath the Lady with a message: "But pray, my children. God will hear you in time. My Son allows Himself to be touched." The apparition lasted about three hours. It was later discovered that the advance of the Prussian troops was halted at the same time that the apparition began; the general reported that the advance was blocked by a "Madonna."|
|Our Lady of Gietrzwałd||1877||Gietrzwałd, Warmia-Mazury, Poland||Stanisława Samulowska
|September 1, 1977|
Bishop Józef Drzazga
Diocese of Warmia
|A 13-year-old girl named Justyna Szafryńska reported that, while praying the Angelus on June 27, 1877, she saw a woman seated on a gold throne near a maple tree, accompanied by an angel. The following day, she saw another apparition, this time also with the Christ child. Three days after the first event, both she and 12-year-old Barbara Samulowska saw Mary, and Justyna asked: "What do you want, Holy Mary?" Mary answered in the local Polish dialect, "I want you to pray the Rosary daily." During the apparition the next day, Justyna asked, "Who are You?" and Mary replied, "I am the Blessed Virgin Mary of Immaculate Conception." In the coming days, Mary promised that fervent prayer would be able to end the persecutions of Catholic Poles that had occurred under Kulturkampf. The apparitions continued for three months. On September 8, about a week before the apparitions ended, Mary blessed a spring of water, from which pilgrims have subsequently reported healings. Our Lady of Gietrzwałd is the only approved Marian apparition in Poland.|
|Our Lady of Beauraing
Virgin of the Golden Heart
|1932–1933||Beauraing, Belgium||Andree Degeimbre
|July 2, 1949|
Bishop André-Marie Charue
Diocese of Namur
|Five children, ages 9 to 15, reported seeing 33 apparitions of Mary between November 1932 and January 1933. Mary asked for prayer and for the construction of a chapel as a place of pilgrimage, promising to convert sinners.|
|Our Lady of Banneux
Virgin of the Poor
|1933||Banneux, Belgium||Mariette Beco||August 22, 1949|
Bishop Louis-Joseph Kerkhofs
Diocese of Liège
|A child named Mariette Beco reported that Mary appeared to her, calling herself "the Virgin of the Poor." Mary said "I come to relieve suffering" and indicated a spring through which miracles of healing would be worked.|
|Our Lady of Akita||1973||Yuzawadai, Akita, Japan||Agnes Katsuko Sasagawa||April 22, 1984|
Bishop John Shojiro Ito
Diocese of Niigata
|Sister Agnes Katsuko Sasagawa reported seeing a statue of The Lady of All Nations illuminate and reported hearing messages, even though she was deaf. The same statue also miraculously wept, a phenomenon repeated on 101 occasions and broadcast on Japanese national television. The messages were apocalyptic in nature, warning of coming calamities if mankind is to not repent. One such prophesy stated, |
|Our Lady of Cuapa||1980||San Francisco de Cuapa, Nicaragua||Bernardo Martinez||1994|
César Bosco Vivas Robelo
Diocese of León in Nicaragua
|A sacristan named Bernardo Martinez reported seeing a supernatural light emanating from a statue of the Virgin Mary in the parish church on April 15, 1980. When walking through the fields shortly thereafter on May 8, he saw a vision of the Virgin Mary, who encouraged him to pray the Rosary daily and to promote peace, saying, "Make peace. Don't ask Our Lord for peace because, if you do not make it, there will be no peace." At this time, Nicaragua was going through a civil war, with the Sandinista government facing armed opposition from the Contras. Bernardo reported that Mary asked people to burn books that deny God and promote sin. Many locals understood this to mean Marxist books, and the consequent book-burnings resulted in backlash from supporters of the Communist government. In 2005, Silvio Sirias wrote a novel, Bernardo and the Virgin, based on the apparition events.|
|Our Lady of Kibeho
Mother of the Word
|1981–1983||Kibeho, Rwanda||Alphonsine Mumureke
Marie Claire Mukangango
|June 29, 2001|
Bishop Augustin Misago
Diocese of Gikongoro
|On November 28, 1981, in the African college of Kibeho, Rwanda, the Virgin Mary reportedly appeared to three teenage students, Alphonsine Mumureke, Nathalie Mukamazimpaka, and Marie Claire Mukangango. The apparition identified herself in the native Rwandan dialect as "Nyina wa Jambo" ("Mother of the Word") and warned of the coming 1994 Rwandan Genocide (in which Mukangango was killed). The Marian sanctuary at Kibeho was named "Shrine of Our Lady of Sorrows" in 1992, two years before the genocide. Only the apparitions to Mumureke, Mukamazimpaka, and Mukangango were approved; other apparitions reported by several other girls and one boy were not. An estimated 500,000 pilgrims visit the site every year.|
|Our Lady of the Rosary of San Nicolás||1983–1990||San Nicolás de los Arroyos, Buenos Aires, Argentina||Gladys Quiroga de Motta||May 22, 2016|
Bishop Héctor Cardelli
Diocese of San Nicolás de los Arroyos
|Amid reports of rosaries mysteriously glowing in homes throughout San Nicolas, a mother and grandmother named Gladys Quiroga de Motta, upon witnessing the phenomenon, began to pray to the Virgin Mary, who then appeared to Gladys wearing a blue gown and veil. Mary asked Gladys to go look for a statue that had been blessed by Pope Leo XIII but was hidden away, forgotten, in a church. She found the Marian statue, which bore a resemblance to Mary's appearance in the apparition, in the belfry of the diocesan cathedral. Gladys continued to receive apparitions from Mary and Jesus, some of them apocalyptic in nature, warning of mankind's impending self-destruction and the loss of many souls.|
|Mary, Virgin and Mother, Reconciler of All Peoples and Nations||1984||Finca Betania, Miranda, Venezuela||Maria Esperanza de Bianchini and 150 other people||1987|
Bishop Pío Bello Ricardo
Diocese of Los Teques
|Maria Esperanza de Bianchini had several Marian apparitions among her many mystical experiences. In one event on March 25, 1984, 150 other people also said they saw the Blessed Mother along with Maria Esperanza. The apparition is known under the title "Mary, Virgin and Mother, Reconciler of All Peoples and Nations."|
In some cases, the apparitions do not receive a positive judgment in themselves (because an investigation is still in progress, or because an investigation is judged not to be feasible or necessary, etc.), but elements surrounding the apparition receive approval.
In cases in which a seer reports that Mary appeared to him or her and worked a miracle, ecclesial authorities will occasionally evaluate and certify the miracle – thereby implying belief in the person's account of how it happened – but without directly commenting on the apparition itself.
|Associated Marian titles||Years||Location||Seers||Approval of associated miracle|
|Madonna of the Miracle
Our Lady of Zion
|1842||Sant'Andrea delle Fratte, Rome, Italy||Marie-Alphonse Ratisbonne||June 3, 1842|
Cardinal Costantino Patrizi
Vicariate of Rome
|A Jewish man named Marie-Alphonse Ratisbonne reported seeing an apparition of the Blessed Virgin Mary in a side chapel in the church of Sant'Andrea delle Fratte in Rome. The experience led him to convert to Catholicism. His complete transformation from vehement opposition to the Catholic faith was determined a miracle. St. Maximilian Kolbe, a devotee of the apparition, celebrated his first Mass as a priest in that same chapel.|
There are cases in which the Holy See or a local ordinary chooses not to open or definitively conclude an investigation into the supernatural character of the apparitions themselves, but approves of the public religious activity inspired by the apparition. Such approval can come by way of an explicit decree or by implicit means such as the authorization of liturgical veneration.
|Associated Marian titles||Years||Location||Seers||Approval of public veneration|
|Our Lady of the Pillar||40||Zaragoza, Spain||James the Apostle||Liturgical veneration approved|
Pope Clement XII
|Catholic tradition holds that, in the early days of Christianity, the Apostles of Jesus spread the Gospel throughout the known world, with James the Greater evangelizing in Roman Hispania (modern-day Spain). James confronted great difficulties in his missionary efforts and faced severe discouragement. In AD 40, while he was praying by the banks of the Ebro at Caesaraugusta (Zaragoza), Mary bilocated from Jerusalem, where she was living at the time, and appeared to James accompanied by thousands of angels, to console and encourage him. Our Lady of the Pillar is considered the first Marian apparition, although it is unique in this regard because it is the only one to have occurred while Mary may have still been alive on Earth.|
|Our Lady of Walsingham||1061||Walsingham, England||Richeldis de Faverches||Shrine approved|
Pope Leo XIII
|In 1061, a devout Saxon noblewoman named Richeldis de Faverches reported that Mary showed her, through a vision, the house of Mary in Nazareth in which the Annunciation took place, and asked her to build a replica of it. Once constructed, the shrine passed into the care of the Canons Regular of St. Augustine sometime between 1146 and 1174. Late in 1538, King Henry VIII's soldiers sacked the priory at Walsingham, killed two monks and destroyed the shrine. In 1896, the 14th-century Slipper Chapel was restored. In 1897, Pope Leo XIII established the Holy House in the Lady Chapel of Our Lady of the Annunciation Church, King's Lynn as a Roman Catholic shrine. There is the also the Anglican Shrine of Our Lady of Walsingham in the care of the Church of England.|
|Our Lady of Mount Carmel||1251||Aylesford, England||Simon Stock||Repeated endorsement of the associated devotional scapular by the Holy See|
|According to Carmelite tradition, Mary appeared to Simon Stock, who was Prior General of the Order in the mid-13th century. The earliest reference to the tradition of his Marian apparition, dating from the late 14th century, states that "St. Simon was an Englishman, a man of great holiness and devotion, who always in his prayers asked the Virgin to favor his Order with some singular privilege. The Virgin appeared to him holding the Brown Scapular in her hand saying, 'This is for you and yours a privilege; the one who dies in it will be saved.'" A scapular, properly speaking, is a double-sided apron-like garment that forms part of the Carmelite religious habit. In its original context, the Blessed Virgin Mary's promise was an assurance that Carmelites who persevered in their vocation would be saved. Beginning in the latter half of the 16th century, a small devotional scapular became very popular as a sacramental.|
|Our Lady of the Watch||1490||Monte Figogna, Italy||Benedetto Pareto||Shrine elevated to Minor Basilica|
March 11, 1915
Pope Benedict XV
|An Italian peasant named Benedetto Pareto reported seeing an apparition of Mary on top of Monte Figogna (near Genoa, Italy) on August 29, 1490. Pareto said that the Virgin Mary appeared to him and asked him to build a church atop the mountain. Pareto at first refused, saying that he was just a poor man, but he eventually built a small wooden structure, which in time gathered many pilgrims and is now contained within the Shrine of Our Lady of the Watch. (The apparition is so-named because Monte Figogna used to be a watch-point for the strategic observation of armies and ships.)|
|Our Lady of Good Health
Our Lady of Velankanni
|1570 and 1587||Velankanni, Tamil Nadu, India||Two children, on separate occasions||Shrine elevated to Minor Basilica|
Pope John XXIII
|The Basilica of Our Lady of Good Health in Velankanni commemorates two distinct but similar apparitions: the first in 1570 and the second in 1587. In each case, a local child reported a woman appearing and asking for milk to feed her infant. Each appearance was followed by a miracle, leading the locals to believe that both times it was Mary with the child Jesus who had appeared.|
|Our Lady of Šiluva||1608||Šiluva, Lithuania||Group of non-Catholics||Public veneration approved|
Pope Pius VI
|With the advent of the Reformation in 16th century Lithuania, many of the inhabitants in the region around Šiluva converted to Calvinism. This caused the Catholic church building in Šiluva to eventually be ransacked and closed around 1569. The last parish priest, John Holubka, buried the remaining church valuables and legal documents and deeds in an iron box near the vandalized church. Subsequent attempts by the Catholics to regain the property through legal proceedings against the Calvinists were hindered by the fact that the exact location of the documents pertaining to the church were unknown. In 1608, Mary appeared to miraculously intervene in the matter by appearing at the church and holding the baby Jesus in her arms and weeping bitterly. The apparition was on the site of the buried valuables and documents, leading to the recovery of the deed, the reclaiming of the church land by the Catholics, and the conversion of many Calvinists. Devotion to Our Lady of Šiluva was temporarily suppressed during the period that Lithuania was part of the Soviet Union. She remains a significant symbol of Lithuanian cultural heritage.|
|Our Lady of La Vang||1798||Hải Lăng, Quảng Trị, Vietnam||Vietnamese villagers||Shrine elevated to Minor Basilica|
August 22, 1961
Pope John XXIII
|A group of Vietnamese had been fleeing anti-Catholic persecution by hiding in the jungle, and many had become very ill. The community would gather every night at the foot of a tree to pray the Rosary. The group reported that, one night, Mary appeared to them all, wearing the traditional áo dài Vietnamese dress, holding the child Jesus, and accompanied by angels. She comforted them and instructed them on how to use herbs in the rainforest to cure their illnesses. Although ecclesial authorities never opened a formal investigation, Our Lady of La Vang and her importance for Vietnamese Catholics has been endorsed numerous times by various bishops and popes. She is also venerated by some Vietnamese Protestants and Buddhists.|
|Our Lady of Pellevoisin||1876||Pellevoisin, France||Estelle Faguette||Associated confraternity and scapular approved by Pope Leo XIII|
|In 1876, a French domestic servant, Estelle Faguette, reported seeing a series of 15 apparitions of the Virgin Mary in the bedroom where she was staying near Pellevoisin, France. When her visions allegedly began, Faguette was terminally ill with tuberculosis and near death. However, in the second apparition, she heard Mary tell her that she would be healed; she recovered and lived until 1929. (In 1983, following a medical and theological inquiry, Archbishop Paul Vignancour of Bourges recognized her recovery as having a miraculous nature.) Faguette also said that during a later apparition, she saw Mary show her the design for the Scapular of the Sacred Heart and told her to ask her bishop to encourage its devotional use. The Shrine of Our Lady of Pellevoisin was later constructed near the site of the apparitions. Although Pope Leo XIII approved the scapular and a confraternity to spread its use, the apparition itself was never approved.|
|Our Lady of China
Our Lady of Donglü
Queen of All Chinese People in Heaven
|1900||Donglü, Hebei, China||Small Christian community, ~700||Commemorative image approved|
Pope Pius XI
|In April 1900, during the Boxer Rebellion, a large number of soldiers attacked the small village of Donglü. Our Lady reportedly appeared dressed in white, and a fiery horseman (believed to be St Michael) chased the soldiers away. A small shrine was built to venerate her in the village, but was destroyed twice. The village pastor, Fr. Wu, commissioned a painting of Mary and Jesus in Chinese royal garb. It has been used as a popular symbol of Chinese Christians. Despite the rampant persecution, there are many shrines consecrated to Our Lady of Donglü.|
|Our Lady of All Nations
The Mother of All Nations
Coredemptrix, Mediatrix, and Advocate
|1945–1959||Amsterdam, Netherlands||Ida Peerdeman||Public veneration approved[note 3]|
Bishop Hendrik Bomers
Diocese of Haarlem
|A Dutch secretary named Ida Peerdeman claimed to have received Marian apparitions over the course of 14 years. Peerdeman's apparition messages predict a future Marian dogma that will express Mary's universal motherhood using the three titles of Coredemptrix, Mediatrix, and Advocate.
In 1956, the bishop of Haarlem "found no evidence of the supernatural nature of the apparitions,"[note 4] a judgment which the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) confirmed in 1974. Nevertheless, two decades later, the CDF gave Bishop Bomers permission to authorize public veneration of the title, image, and prayer associated with the apparition, which he did in 1996. In 2002, Bishop Punt took the further step of declaring the apparitions themselves to be approved, despite the CDF's previous ruling on the question. In 2020, Bishop Hendriks, in consultation with the CDF, reiterated that the CDF's unfavorable judgment stands, and that the veneration of the associated title, image, and prayer cannot be construed as endorsement of the apparition itself.
|Our Lady of Prayer||1947||L'Île-Bouchard, France||Jacqueline Aubry
|Public veneration approved|
December 8, 2001
Archbishop André Vingt-Trois
Archdiocese of Tours
|On December 8, 1947, 12-year-old Jacqueline Aubry, her sister Jeannette, and cousin Nicole Robin were among students in L'Île-Bouchard in France whose teacher asked them to spend the lunch hour "praying for France". Although their families were nonpracticing and anticlerical, the girls agreed to their teacher's request. This was a period of intense civil strife in France and many believed civil war was imminent. The girls were saying the Rosary in the church of St. Gilles when they experienced the first of several Marian apparitions. They said they saw a beautiful young lady with long curly blonde hair, accompanied by an angel (whom they later identified as Gabriel) who knelt at her side. Running out into the street, the girls asked two friends to come and see the vision: one, Laura Croizon, was able to see it and became the fourth visionary. The day after the first apparition, labor unions agreed to go into negotiations with the government, and believers credited the apparition and the children's prayers. The visitations went on for six days.|
For alleged apparitions in this category, public pilgrimages are permitted, but not public veneration.
|Associated Marian titles||Years||Location||Seers||Approval of pilgrimages|
|Our Lady of Medjugorje
Queen of Peace
|1981–present||Medjugorje, Bosnia and Herzegovina||Jakov Čolo
|May 12, 2019|
|The reported apparitions of the Virgin Mary to six children in Medjugorje, beginning in 1981, have received significant attention due to the numerous miracles that large crowds of pilgrims report experiencing on an almost-daily basis, including dramatic conversions, visions, rosaries turning to a gold color, astronomical phenomena like the Miracle of the Sun, etc. The alleged apparitions are also notable for their duration, having been occurring continuously for almost 40 years. The apparition messages contain five main requests: first, to pray the entire Rosary daily; second, to fast on Wednesdays and Fridays; third, to attend Mass as often as possible; fourth, to go to Confession at least monthly; and fifth, to read the Bible daily. The alleged apparitions were vigorously opposed by the local bishop, Pavao Žanić of Mostar-Duvno. Various commissions appointed to investigate the apparitions did not come to a definitive conclusion and left the events open to further study. On March 17, 2010, the Holy See announced it was taking over formal investigation of the alleged apparitions at Medjugorje, with Cardinal Camillo Ruini heading an investigatory commission that ran from 2010 to 2014. Pope Francis authorized official church pilgrimages in 2019, but without making any declaration on the alleged apparitions themselves.|
Apparitions in this category have not received judgment on the apparitions themselves or on associated elements, either because an investigation was never opened, or because an investigation is still in progress.
|Associated Marian titles||Years||Location||Seers|
|Our Lady of the Universe
Our Lady of the Concourse
|1945||Bronx, New York, United States||Joseph Vitolo|
|On October 29, 1945, at 7 pm, 9-year-old Joseph Vitolo was one of a group of children playing outside his home near The Bronx's Grand Concourse. The children saw something floating above a hill behind the house, and when Joseph recited a Hail Mary he immediately saw a young woman whom he identified as the Virgin. He heard her ask him to come back at the same hour for sixteen nights and to pray for world peace. Joseph did so, accompanied by his mother and numerous onlookers. Within a few days, the visitations were receiving worldwide attention and up to 20,000 people attended the nightly vigil. Among those who expressed interest in the events were Frank Sinatra, Lou Costello, and Cardinal Francis Spellman. Revered as a saint by the pilgrims, Joseph was frequently asked to cure the sick and injured and would respond by praying with them. The place where Joseph allegedly saw the visions was bought by a devotee who created a shrine there, but there was never any official investigation or attempt to confirm the reported visitations as legitimate. Joseph struggled throughout his life, taking various menial jobs to support his family. He continued to visit the shrine at 7 p.m. each evening until age and poor health prevented him from climbing the hill. The alleged apparitions were never officially approved, but the nearby St. Philip Neri church holds special Masses at the shrine on the anniversaries of the first and last reported visitations.|
|Our Lady of Soufanieh||1982–1983||Soufanieh, Damascus, Syria||Mary Kourbet "Myrna" (Al-Akhras) Nazzour|
|Myrna Nazzour, a Melkite Catholic woman married to an Orthodox husband, has reported experiencing various mystical phenomena over the years beginning in 1982, including olive oil oozing both from an icon and from her own hands, stigmata wounds on her body, and apparitions of Mary. Mary appeared five times between 1982 and 1983, asking for prayers for Christian unity (especially between Catholics and Orthodox), particularly stressing the importance of a unified date for Easter. Myrna reported continuing to receive locutions even after the alleged apparitions ceased.|
Apparitions in this category have been evaluated, but received neither approval nor rejection. This is known as a "non constat de supernaturalitate" judgment, or "non constat" for short. The apparitions listed here also lack approval for any related public cultus, such as public veneration or pilgrimages.
|Associated Marian titles||Years||Location||Seers||Neutral judgment|
|Our Lady of Mount Carmel of Garabandal||1961–1965||San Sebastián de Garabandal, Cantabria, Spain||Jacinta González
Mari Cruz González
Maria "Conchita" Concepción González
Mari Loli Mazón
|November 7, 2001|
Bishop José Vilaplana Blasco
Diocese of Santander
|Four girls reported seeing apparitions of Saint Michael the Archangel and the Blessed Virgin Mary. The girls heard Mary predict a forthcoming "Warning" from God, apparent to the whole world, that will precede a "Great Miracle." If these do not result in the conversion of the world, a great Chastisement will follow.|
|Our Lady of America
Our Lady of the Divine Indwelling
|1956–1959||Rome City, Indiana, United States||Sister Mildred Mary Neuzil||May 7, 2020|
Bishop Kevin C. Rhoades
Diocese of Fort Wayne–South Bend
|Sister Mildred Mary Ephrem Neuzil of the Sisters of the Most Precious Blood reported seeing multiple apparitions of Mary, Joseph, and angels. In the alleged apparition messages, Mary identified herself as patronness of the United States under the title Our Lady of America, and pleaded for the United States to return to the virtue of purity. She also identified herself as Our Lady of the Divine Indwelling, a title which describes Mary as exemplar of one who possesses sanctifying grace. Saint Joseph reportedly requested a First Wednesday devotion to the Pure Heart of Joseph, to complement the existing First Friday and First Saturday devotions. Archbishop Paul Leibold of the Archdiocese of Cincinnati authorized various aspects of public devotion, but without passing judgement on the supernatural character of the alleged apparitions themselves. The alleged apparitions were also endorsed by Cardinal Raymond Burke. However, in 2020, Bishop Kevin C. Rhoades of Fort Wayne–South Bend concluded an official investigation into the alleged apparitions with a "non constat de supernaturalitate" judgment. He, together with a group of other bishops, determined that they could not approve public devotion or cult, but private devotion could continue without harm to the faith.|
Some apparitions, despite being officially rejected, are notable for continuing to have a substantial following. In rare cases, rejected apparitions are approved at a later date once new evidence becomes available.
|Associated Marian titles||Years||Location||Seers||Rejection|
|Mary, Mediatrix of All Grace||1948||Lipa, Batangas, Philippines||Teresita Castillo||1951|
Pope Pius XII
|A postulant at a Carmelite Monastery reported seeing multiple apparitions of Mary during 1948. In 1951, the alleged apparitions were rejected by a panel of bishops, a decision confirmed by the Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith under Pope Pius XII. Despite the rejection, the apparition continued to receive high-profile support, including from two Presidents of the Philippines (Corazon Aquino and Gloria Macapagal Arroyo). In 2015, the local bishop declared the apparitions to be approved, in what is the only known case of a local bishop attempting to ignore a Vatican decision on the authenticity of an apparition. The Vatican overruled the bishop and reasserted its previous decision later that same year. The apparition is also notable for likely being the only case in which the supernatural nature of the apparitions is denied, but the veneration surrounding the apparition is allowed to continue.|
|Associated Marian titles||Years||Location||Seers||Approval|
|Our Lady of Zeitoun||1968||Zeitoun, Cairo, Egypt||Thousands, including Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser||May 4, 1968|
Patriarchate of Cairo
|According to witnesses, Mary appeared in different forms over the Coptic Orthodox Church of Saint Mary in the Zeitoun district of Cairo, Egypt, for a period of 2–3 years, beginning on April 2, 1968, some ten months after the Six-Day War. It was a mass apparition, reportedly witnessed by many thousands of people, including Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser, and captured by newspaper photographers and Egyptian television. The apparitions each lasted from a few minutes up to several hours and were sometimes accompanied by dove-shaped luminous bodies. There have been conversions to Christianity and claims of miraculous cures associated with the apparitions. A month into the events, the apparitions up to that point were approved by Pope Cyril VI of Alexandria.|
|Our Lady of Assiut||2000–2001||Asyut, Egypt||Thousands||October 13, 2001|
Acknowledged as "apparitions of Virgin Mary" by Coptic priests in Assiut
|The apparitions of Our Lady of Assiut were also mass apparitions in Assiut, Egypt, during 2000 and 2001 and many thousands of witnesses produced photographs of them, which were reprinted in several newspapers. The reports state that during Mass, pictures hung on the wall inside the altar, which show St Mary with a dove above her started to illuminate first, then the light from the dove in the pictures started to flow down. The lights thereafter appeared above the church as well and were seen by thousands of people. The Coptic church approved of the apparitions.|
|Our Lady of Warraq||2009||Warraq al-Hadar, Giza, Egypt||Approximately 3,000 people||December 2009|
Bishop Anba Theodosius
|Early on December 11, 2009, various phenomena began appearing above a church in Warraq al-Hadar. Shortly thereafter, the bishop authenticated the apparitions with a statement describing the events: |
It wasn't until the Council of Trent in the 16th century that a more formal method of approving apparitions was established, which has been further refined during the past century. This has allowed the Church the ability to properly discern which apparitions are supernatural in nature and worthy of belief.
è sorprendente che la Santa Sede abbia evitato nei casi di Beauraing e Banneaux di concedere l'autorizzazione come i vescovi volevano; per questo però diede il permesso, a che essi facessero ciò con la loro autorità episcopale
The church approved the apparition in 1555.
Archbishop de Quelen [decided] to institute a canonical inquiry. He appointed Monseigneur Quentin, Vicar General of Paris, to conduct it. The sessions were opened on 1836 ... The findings of the Canonical Inquiry of Paris completely vindicated Catherine. The court extolled her character and virtue, and placed wholehearted credence in her visions. Two important conclusions were reached: that the Medal was of supernatural origin, and that the wonders worked through it were genuine.
1851 ... Bishop de Bruillard publishes the Doctrinal Statement of September 19: the Apparition is authentic; public worship is authorized; a church will be built on the site of the Apparition.
We judge that the Apparition of the Blessed Virgin to the two cowherds on the 19th of September, 1846, on a mountain of the chain of Alps, situated in the parish of LaSalette, in the archpresbytery of Corps, bears within Itself all the characteristics of truth, and that the faithful have grounds for believing it indubitable and certain.
1862: After questioning Bernadette, Bishop Bertrand-Severe Laurence of the diocese of Tarbes (later Tarbes and Lourdes) confirms the apparitions.
On 8 October 1879, Archbishop Mac Hale of Tuam set up an ecclesiastical Commission of Enquiry to investigate the Apparition. It consisted of Canon Ulick Burke, PP Claremorris, Canon James Waldron of Ballyhaunis, Archdeacon Cavanagh, PP, Knock and 6 local curates. The testimonies of all 15 official witnesses to the Apparition were found to be trustworthy and satisfactory.
Approval has been received from the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments for the following additions to the National Calendar and Proper: 17 August - Our Lady of Knock - memorial
A canonical coronation was bestowed upon the Blessed Mother's image at the Basilica of Our Lady of LaSalette by Pope Leo XIII on August 21, 1879.
[W]e hereby: 1. Declare worthy of belief, the visions of the shepherd children in the Cova da Iria, parish of Fatima, in this diocese, from the 13th May to 13th October, 1917. 2. Permit officially the cult of Our Lady of Fatima.
After years of investigation, the veneration of Our Lady of Fátima was authorized by the bishop of Leiria, Portugal, on October 13, 1930.
Benedicta took the mission she received from Mary seriously and dedicated herself to preparing sinners to receive the sacrament of Penance.
Our Lady told her God was giving her the gift of reading souls, much as what would later be given to Padre Pio, in order to help people to know their sins, remembered or forgotten, repent, confess in the sacrament of Penance, and return to God.
Laus [was to be] a sanctuary in the Alps that would withstand the test of time and last until the very end of the world. ... [T]here is also a prediction which states that the extraordinary events and message of Laus would be forgotten and ignored by the world for a very long time. However, word of Laus would re-surface, the prediction states, at a point in time when the End Times were close at hand.
'I declare with moral certainty and in accord with the norms of the Church that the events, apparitions and locutions given to Adele Brise in October of 1859 do exhibit the substance of supernatural character, and I do hereby approve these apparitions as worthy of belief (although not obligatory) by the Christian faithful.'
Mgr Wicart, évêque de Laval, portait son jugement, le 2 février 1872, sur le prodige de Pontmain ... : «...Nous jugeons que l'Immaculée Vierge Marie, Mère de Diu, a véritablement apparu, le 17 janvier 1871 à Eugène Barbedette, Joseph Barbedette, Françoise Richer et Jeanne-Marie Lebossé, dans le hameau de Pontmain.»
The apparition of Mary at Pontmain was authenticated by the local bishop on February 2, 1872.
On September 1, 1977 ... Bishop Józef Drzazga of Warmia solemnly recognized the veneration of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Gietrzwałd. He issued a decree validating the credibility of the apparitions and proclaiming them as in compliance with Christian faith and morality.
we are able in all serenity and prudence to affirm that the Queen of Heaven appeared to the children of Beauraing during the winter of 1932–1933
Fifty years ago, on 22 August 1949, Bishop Louis-Joseph Kerkhofs, your predecessor in the see of Liège, definitively recognized the reality of the apparitions of Our Lady of the Poor in Banneux.
In 1994, Bishop Robelo gave a diocesan-level approval to the apparitions, saying that they were 'worthy of belief.'
'We now receive between 500,000 and 600,000 pilgrims every year'
...the bishops have approved the apparition messages from 1983-1990, even though the apparition is continuing today.
The apparition was deemed valid by Bishop Pio Bello Ricardo of Los Teques, Venezuela, in 1987.
Unlike every other recorded apparition, this one took place during the earthly life of the Mother of God.
In 1897 by rescript of Pope Leo XIII, the sanctuary of Our Lady of Walsingham was restored with the building of a Holy House as the Lady Chapel of the Catholic Church of the Annunciation, King's Lynn.
The importance of Our Lady of Walsingham is shown through pontifical approbation (recognition), which has been given to it by four popes: Pope Leo XIII, in 1897; Pope Pius XII, in 1954; Pope St. John Paul II, in 1982; and Pope Francis, in 2015.
The history of Marian piety also includes 'devotion' to various scapulars, the most common of which is devotion to the Scapular of Our Lady of Mount Carmel. Its use is truly universal and, undoubtedly, its is one of those pious practices which the Council described as 'recommended by the Magisterium throughout the centuries'.
I too have worn the Scapular of Carmel over my heart for a long time!
The authentic list of indulgences, privileges, and indults of the Scapular Confraternity of Mount Carmel was last approved on 4 July 1908, by the Congregation of Indulgences.
Nel 1915 il papa genovese Benedetto XV (Giacomo Della Chiesa) dà un notevole appoggio all'affermazione del «nuovo» culto, elevando a «basilica minore» il nuovo santuario
Mary appeared in Siluva in 1608 to non-Catholics. Little shepherds saw what they described as a beautiful woman, dressed in white and blue, with a baby in her arms, enveloped in gentle splendor. The Lady wept bitterly and suddenly disappeared. Subsequently, the Virgin, again weeping, appeared to a crowd that had formed at the site where the children indicated. The town's Calvinist pastor was among the group.
Pope Pius VI approved the cult of Our Lady of Siluva and enriched it with indulgences.
Although not formally recognized by the Vatican, Our Lady of La Vang's to the Vietnamese people importance has been widely recognized.
The veneration for Our Lady of La Vang is not limited to Catholics. Buddhists and Protestants also pray to the Virgin Mary for special graces.
The Confraternity of Our Lady of Pellevoisin was established, and Pope Leo XIII gave approbation both to the confraternity and to the scapular.
On 7 May 1956, the Bishop of the Diocese of Haarlem (Netherlands) ... declared that he 'found no evidence of the supernatural nature of the apparitions'. ... [T]he Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith confirms by the present notification the judgment already expressed by the competent ecclesiastical authority
The site was declared an official pilgrimage site of the diocese of Tours on 8 December 2001 by the archbishop Monseigneur André Vingt-Trois. ... The apparitions themselves, however, still await approval
[les] apparitions ... n'ont été officiellement reconnues par l'église qu'en 2001, quand Mgr André Vingt-Trois, alors archevêque de Tours, autorisait officiellement les pèlerinages et le culte public à Notre-Dame-de-la-Prière
Bishop Rhoades came to the conclusion that 'the visions and revelations themselves cannot be said to be of supernatural origin in the sense of objective occurrences (non constat de supernaturalitate); thus further, I cannot approve or support public devotion or cult.' The bishops of the other five dioceses have read and also accept these findings and conclusions.
Sister Mary Ephrem responded that Our Lady of Guadalupe is Empress of all the Americas, whereas "Our Lady of America, The Immaculate Virgin," is the patroness of our nation, the United States of America.
What can be concluded canonically is that the devotion was both approved by Archbishop Leibold and, what is more, was actively promoted by him. In addition, over the years, other Bishops have approved the devotion and have participated in public devotion to the Mother of God, under the title of Our Lady of America.
'This is completely historic that the archbishop flipped over a Vatican confirmation of a previous judgement, and historic that the Vatican has come back over and flipped back a statement of the local bishops; those two things have never happened before'
'I believe it to be the singular case in history where you have a negative judgement, but the devotion is allowed'