This is a list of named geological features on Saturn's moon Titan. Official names for these features have only been announced since the 2000s, as Titan's surface was virtually unknown before the arrival of the Cassini–Huygens probe.[1][2] Some features were known by informal nicknames beforehand; these names are noted where appropriate. Note that some features with a physical size given by "diameter" may not be circular; then the number refers to the length.[note 1]

Global map of Titan – with IAU labels (August 2016).
Titan − the surface under the haze (December 2018)

Albedo features

Titan – infrared views (2004–2017)

Albedo features on Titan are named after sacred or enchanted places in world mythologies and literature.[3]

Bright albedo features

Name Coordinates Diameter (km) Approval Date Named After Ref
Adiri 10°S 210°W / 10°S 210°W / -10; -210 (Adiri) 0 2006 Adiri, Melanesian paradise[4] WGPSN
Dilmun 15°N 175°W / 15°N 175°W / 15; -175 (Dilmun) 0 2006 Dilmun, Sumerian heaven WGPSN
Quivira 0°N 15°W / 0°N 15°W / 0; -15 (Quivira) 0 2006 Quivira, legendary city in southwestern America WGPSN
Tsegihi 40°S 10°W / 40°S 10°W / -40; -10 (Tsegihi) 0 2006 Tsegihi, Navajo sacred place WGPSN
Xanadu 15°S 100°W / 15°S 100°W / -15; -100 (Xanadu) 3400 2006 Xanadu, an imaginary palace in Coleridge's Kubla Khan WGPSN

Dark albedo features

Name Coordinates Diameter (km) Approval Date Named After Informal Name Ref
Aaru 10°N 340°W / 10°N 340°W / 10; -340 (Aaru) 0 2006 Aaru, Egyptian paradise WGPSN
Aztlan 10°S 20°W / 10°S 20°W / -10; -20 (Aztlan) 0 2006 Aztlán, mythical Aztec homeland Southern part of 'Lying H' WGPSN
Belet 5°S 255°W / 5°S 255°W / -5; -255 (Belet) 0 2006 Belet, Malay paradise WGPSN
Ching-tu 30°S 205°W / 30°S 205°W / -30; -205 (Ching-tu) 0 2006 Ching-tu, Chinese Buddhist paradise WGPSN
Fensal 5°N 30°W / 5°N 30°W / 5; -30 (Fensal) 0 2006 Fensalir, Norse heavenly mansion Northern part of 'Lying H' WGPSN
Mezzoramia 70°S 0°W / 70°S -0°E / -70; -0 (Mezzoramia) 0 2006 Mezzoramia, African oasis of happiness from Italian legend WGPSN
Senkyo 5°S 320°W / 5°S 320°W / -5; -320 (Senkyo) 0 2006 Senkyo, Japanese paradise WGPSN
Shangri-La 10°S 165°W / 10°S 165°W / -10; -165 (Shangri-La) 0 2006 Shangri-La, Tibetan paradise WGPSN

Arcūs

Titanean arcūs (arc-shaped features) are named after deities of happiness.[5]

Name Coordinates Diameter (km) Approval Date Named After Ref
Hotei Arcus 28°S 79°W / 28°S 79°W / -28; -79 (Hotei Arcus) 600 2006 Hotei, Japanese god WGPSN

Colles

Colles are small hills or knobs which are named after characters in J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth.[6]

Name Coordinates Diameter (km) Approval Date Named After Ref
Arwen Colles 7°30′S 250°00′W / 7.5°S 250.0°W / -7.5; -250.0 (Arwen) 64 19 December 2012 Arwen, character from Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings trilogy WGPSN
Bilbo Colles 4°12′S 38°36′W / 4.2°S 38.6°W / -4.2; -38.6 (Bilbo) 164 19 December 2012 Bilbo Baggins, titular character of Tolkien's The Hobbit WGPSN
Faramir Colles 4°00′N 153°48′W / 4.0°N 153.8°W / 4.0; -153.8 (Faramir) 82 19 December 2012 Faramir, character from Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings trilogy WGPSN
Gandalf Colles 14°36′N 209°30′W / 14.6°N 209.5°W / 14.6; -209.5 (Gandalf) 102 20 July 2015 Gandalf, character from Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings trilogy WGPSN
Handir Colles 10°00′N 356°42′W / 10.0°N 356.7°W / 10.0; -356.7 (Handir) 100 19 December 2012 Handir, character from Tolkien's The Silmarillion WGPSN
Nimloth Colles 11°54′N 151°18′W / 11.9°N 151.3°W / 11.9; -151.3 (Nimloth) 90 19 December 2012 Nimloth, name of a character and a tree from Tolkien's Middle-Earth WGPSN

Craters

Craters on Titan are named after deities of wisdom.[7]

Name Coordinates Diameter (km) Approval Date Named After Informal Name Ref
Afekan 25°48′N 200°18′W / 25.8°N 200.3°W / 25.8; -200.3 (Afekan) 115.0 4 August 2008 Afekan, New Guinean creator goddess WGPSN
Beag 34°42′S 169°36′W / 34.7°S 169.6°W / -34.7; -169.6 (Beag) 145.0 15 April 2015 Beag, Irish/Celtic goddess WGPSN
Forseti 25°30′N 10°24′W / 25.5°N 10.4°W / 25.5; -10.4 (Forseti) 115.0 15 April 2015 Forseti, Norse god WGPSN
Hano 40°18′N 14°54′E / 40.3°N 14.9°E / 40.3; 14.9 (Hano) 100.0 23 December 2011 Hano, Bella Coola (northwestern USA and western Canada) goddess of education knowledge and magic. She manifested as a shaman so she could teach the people WGPSN
Ksa 14°00′N 65°24′W / 14.0°N 65.4°W / 14.0; -65.4 (Ksa) 29.0 11 October 2006 Ksa, Lakota/Oglala spirit WGPSN
Menrva 20°06′N 87°12′W / 20.1°N 87.2°W / 20.1; -87.2 (Menrva) 392.0 2006 Menrva, Etruscan goddess 'Circus Maximus' WGPSN
Momoy 11°36′N 44°36′W / 11.6°N 44.6°W / 11.6; -44.6 (Momoy) 40.0 23 December 2011 Momoy, Chumash ancestor shaman and goddess of magic WGPSN
Mystis 0°06′N 194°54′W / 0.1°N 194.9°W / 0.1; -194.9 (Mystis) 20.0 20 July 2015 Mystis, Greek nymph WGPSN
Selk 7°00′N 199°00′W / 7.0°N 199.0°W / 7.0; -199.0 (Selk) 80.0 15 February 2008 Selk, Egyptian goddess WGPSN
Sinlap 11°18′N 16°00′W / 11.3°N 16.0°W / 11.3; -16.0 (Sinlap) 80.0 2006 Sinlap, Kachin spirit WGPSN
Soi 24°18′N 140°54′W / 24.3°N 140.9°W / 24.3; -140.9 (Soi) 75.0 3 February 2012 Soi, Melanesian (New Ireland Island Papua New Guinea) god of wisdom WGPSN

Faculae

Faculae (bright spots) are named after islands on Earth that are not politically independent.[8] Groups of faculae are named after archipelagos on Earth.

Facula Coordinates Diameter (km) Approval Date Named after Informal name Ref
Antilia Faculae 11°00′S 187°00′W / 11.0°S 187.0°W / -11.0; -187.0 (Antilia Faculae) 260 2006 Antillia, mythical Atlantic archipelago WGPSN
Bazaruto Facula 11°36′N 16°06′W / 11.6°N 16.1°W / 11.6; -16.1 (Bazaruto Facula) 215 2006 Bazaruto, Mozambique island WGPSN
Coats Facula 11°06′S 29°12′W / 11.1°S 29.2°W / -11.1; -29.2 (Coats Facula) 80 2006 Coats Island, Canada WGPSN
Crete Facula 9°24′N 150°06′W / 9.4°N 150.1°W / 9.4; -150.1 (Crete Facula) 680 2006 Crete, Greek island WGPSN
Elba Facula 10°48′S 1°12′W / 10.8°S 1.2°W / -10.8; -1.2 (Elba Facula) 250 2006 Elba, Italian island WGPSN
Kerguelen Facula 5°24′S 151°00′W / 5.4°S 151.0°W / -5.4; -151.0 (Kerguelen Facula) 135 2006 Kerguelen Islands, French subantarctic island WGPSN
Mindanao Facula 6°36′S 174°12′W / 6.6°S 174.2°W / -6.6; -174.2 (Mindanao Facula) 210 2006 Mindanao, Philippine island 'Ireland' WGPSN
Nicobar Faculae 2°00′N 159°00′W / 2.0°N 159.0°W / 2.0; -159.0 (Nicobar Faculae) 575 2006 Nicobar Islands, Indian archipelago WGPSN
Oahu Facula 5°00′N 166°42′W / 5.0°N 166.7°W / 5.0; -166.7 (Oahu Facula) 465 2006 Oahu, Hawaiian island WGPSN
Santorini Facula 2°24′N 145°36′W / 2.4°N 145.6°W / 2.4; -145.6 (Santorini Facula) 140 2006 Santorini, Greek island WGPSN
Shikoku Facula 10°24′S 164°06′W / 10.4°S 164.1°W / -10.4; -164.1 (Shikoku Facula) 285 2006 Shikoku, Japanese island 'Great Britain' WGPSN
Tasmania Facula 10°25′N 167°22′W / 10.41°N 167.37°W / 10.41; -167.37 (Tasmania Facula) 26 14 April 2022 Tasmania WGPSN
Texel Facula 11°30′S 182°36′W / 11.5°S 182.6°W / -11.5; -182.6 (Texel Facula) 190 2006 Texel, Dutch island 'Manhattan' WGPSN
Tortola Facula 8°48′N 143°06′W / 8.8°N 143.1°W / 8.8; -143.1 (Tortola Facula) 65 2006 Tortola, British Virgin Islands 'The Snail' WGPSN
Vis Facula 7°00′N 138°24′W / 7.0°N 138.4°W / 7.0; -138.4 (Vis Facula) 215 2006 Vis, Croatian island WGPSN

Fluctūs

The term "fluctus" refers to flow terrain. Fluctūs on Titan are named after mythological figures associated with beauty.[9]

Fluctus Coordinates Diameter (km) Approval Date Named after Ref
Ara Fluctus 39°48′N 118°24′W / 39.8°N 118.4°W / 39.8; -118.4 (Ara Fluctus) 70 2 March 2007 Ara the Beautiful, Armenian legendary figure WGPSN
Leilah Fluctus 50°30′N 77°48′W / 50.5°N 77.8°W / 50.5; -77.8 (Leilah Fluctus) 190 2 March 2007 Layla, Persian goddess WGPSN
Mohini Fluctus 11°47′S 38°32′W / 11.78°S 38.53°W / -11.78; -38.53 (Mohini) 347 13 November 2012 Mohini, Indian goddess of beauty and magic WGPSN
Rohe Fluctus 47°18′N 37°45′W / 47.3°N 37.75°W / 47.3; -37.75 (Rohe Fluctus) 103 2 March 2007 Rohe, Māori goddess WGPSN
Winia Fluctus 49°00′N 46°00′W / 49.0°N 46.0°W / 49.0; -46.0 (Winia Fluctus) 300 2 March 2007 Winia, Indonesian first woman WGPSN

Flumina

A flumen is a feature that looks like a channel carved by liquid. Flumina refers to a network of rivers. Some flumina are not found near liquid bodies, which are labelled as "dry valley". They are named after mythical or imaginary rivers.[10]

Flumina Coordinates Liquid Body[note 2] Length (km)[note 1] Approval Date Named after Ref
Apanohuaya Flumen 84°17′N 297°14′W / 84.29°N 297.24°W / 84.29; -297.24 (Apanohuaya Flumen) Punga Mare 64 12 March 2020 Apanohuaya,[11] mythological river in the Aztec Underworld WGPSN
Celadon Flumina 73°42′S 28°48′W / 73.7°S 28.8°W / -73.7; -28.8 (Celadon Flumina) dry valley 160 8 October 2014 Celadon, river in Homer's Iliad WGPSN
Elivagar Flumina 19°18′N 78°30′W / 19.3°N 78.5°W / 19.3; -78.5 (Elivagar Flumina) dry valley 260 27 September 2007 The Élivágar, a group of ice rivers in Norse mythology WGPSN
Gihon Flumen 76°49′N 215°33′W / 76.81°N 215.55°W / 76.81; -215.55 (Gihon Flumen) Ligeia Mare 225 14 December 2020 Gihon, Biblical second river of paradise that flows from Eden WGPSN
Hubur Flumen 70°12′S 192°54′W / 70.2°S 192.9°W / -70.2; -192.9 (Hubur Flumen) Ontario Lacus 84 27 December 2015 Hubur, river of the underworld in Mesopotamian mythology WGPSN
Karesos Flumen 70°54′S 194°48′W / 70.9°S 194.8°W / -70.9; -194.8 (Karesos Flumen) Ontario Lacus 83 27 December 2015 River in Homer's Iliad WGPSN
Kokytos Flumina 72°43′N 255°00′W / 72.71°N 255°W / 72.71; -255 (Kokytos Flumina) Ligeia Mare 305 14 December 2020 Cocytus, river of lamentations in the Greek underworld WGPSN
Sambation Flumina 87°20′N 90°07′W / 87.33°N 90.12°W / 87.33; -90.12 (Sambation Flumina) Punga Mare 210 14 December 2020 Sambation, legendary river in Jewish literature WGPSN
Saraswati Flumen 74°36′S 193°30′W / 74.6°S 193.5°W / -74.6; -193.5 (Saraswati Flumen) Ontario Lacus 2.9 27 December 2015 Saraswati, river in Hindu mythology WGPSN
Vid Flumina 72°54′N 242°30′W / 72.9°N 242.5°W / 72.9; -242.5 (Vid Flumina) Ligeia Mare 158 13 February 2013 One of the rivers in Élivágar. WGPSN
Xanthus Flumen 83°28′N 242°46′W / 83.47°N 242.76°W / 83.47; -242.76 (Xanthus Flumina) Ligeia Mare 78 6 November 2015 Name of the Gods of the river Skamandros in the Iliad. WGPSN

Freta

A fretum (plural freta) is a strait of liquid connecting two larger liquid bodies. They are named after characters from the Foundation series of science fiction novels by Isaac Asimov.[12]

Fretum Coordinates Length (km)[note 1] Approval Date Named after Informal name Ref
Bayta Fretum 73°00′N 311°12′W / 73°N 311.2°W / 73; -311.2 (Bayta Fretum) 165 19 January 2015 Bayta Darell, fictional character in Isaac Asimov's Foundation Series, wife of the Trader Toran Darell and grandmother of famous author Arcadia Darell. WGPSN
Hardin Fretum 57°18′N 317°48′W / 57.3°N 317.8°W / 57.3; -317.8 (Hardin Fretum) 246 19 January 2015 Salvor Hardin, fictional character in Isaac Asimov's Foundation Series, first Mayor of the planet Terminus. WGPSN
Seldon Fretum 66°00′N 316°36′W / 66°N 316.6°W / 66; -316.6 (Seldon Fretum) 67 19 January 2015 Hari Seldon, the fictional, intellectual hero of Isaac Asimov's Foundation Series, First Minister of the Galactic Empire. 'Throat of Kraken'[13] WGPSN
Trevize Fretum 74°24′N 269°54′W / 74.4°N 269.9°W / 74.4; -269.9 (Trevize Fretum) 173 19 January 2015 Golan Trevize, fictional character in Isaac Asimov's Foundation Series, councilman of the planet Terminus. WGPSN

Insulae

Insulae are islands within Titan's seas. They are named after legendary islands.[14]

Insula Coordinates Liquid body Diameter (km) Approval Date Named after Ref
Bermoothes Insula 67°06′N 317°06′W / 67.1°N 317.1°W / 67.1; -317.1 (Bermoothes Insula) Kraken Mare 124 19 January 2015 Bermoothes, an enchanted island in Shakespeare's Tempest WGPSN
Bimini Insula 73°18′N 305°24′W / 73.3°N 305.4°W / 73.3; -305.4 (Bimini Insula) Kraken Mare 39 19 January 2015 Bimini, island in Arawak legend said to contain the fountain of youth. WGPSN
Bralgu Insula 76°12′N 251°30′W / 76.2°N 251.5°W / 76.2; -251.5 (Bralgu Insula) Ligeia Mare 55 19 January 2015 Baralku, in Yolngu culture, the island of the dead and the place where the Djanggawul, the three creator siblings, originated. WGPSN
Buyan Insula 77°18′N 245°06′W / 77.3°N 245.1°W / 77.3; -245.1 (Buyan Insula) Ligeia Mare 48 19 January 2015 Buyan, a rocky island in Russian folk tales located on the south shore of Baltic Sea WGPSN
Hawaiki Insulae 84°19′N 327°04′W / 84.32°N 327.07°W / 84.32; -327.07 (Hawaiki Insulae) Punga Mare 35 14 December 2020 Hawaiki, original home island of the Polynesian people in local mythology WGPSN
Hufaidh Insulae 67°00′N 320°18′W / 67°N 320.3°W / 67; -320.3 (Hufaidh Insulae) Kraken Mare 152 19 January 2015 Hufaidh, legendary island in the marshes of southern Iraq WGPSN
Krocylea Insulae 69°06′N 302°24′W / 69.1°N 302.4°W / 69.1; -302.4 (Kocylea Insulae) Kraken Mare 74 19 January 2015 Crocylea, mythological Greek island in the Ionian Sea, near Ithaca WGPSN
Mayda Insula 79°06′N 312°12′W / 79.1°N 312.2°W / 79.1; -312.2 (Mayda Insula) Kraken Mare 168 11 April 2008 Mayda, legendary island in the northeast Atlantic WGPSN
Meropis Insula 83°51′N 313°41′W / 83.85°N 313.68°W / 83.85; -313.68 (Meropis Insula) Punga Mare 30 14 December 2020 Meropis, fictional island mentioned by ancient Greek writer Theopompus in his work Philippica WGPSN
Onogoro Insula 83°17′N 311°42′W / 83.28°N 311.7°W / 83.28; -311.7 (Onogoro Insula) Punga Mare 15 14 December 2020 Onogoro Island, Japanese mythological island WGPSN
Penglai Insula 72°12′N 308°42′W / 72.2°N 308.7°W / 72.2; -308.7 (Penglai Insula) Kraken Mare 94 19 January 2015 Penglai, mythological Chinese mountain island where immortals and gods lived. WGPSN
Planctae Insulae 77°30′N 251°18′W / 77.5°N 251.3°W / 77.5; -251.3 (Planctae Insulae) Ligeia Mare 64 19 January 2015 Symplegades, the "clashing rocks" in Bosphorus which only Argo was said to have successfully passed. WGPSN
Royllo Insula 68°18′N 297°12′W / 68.3°N 297.2°W / 68.3; -297.2 (Royllo Insula) Kraken Mare 103 19 January 2015 Royllo, legendary island in the Atlantic, on verge of unknown, near Antilla and Saint Brandan. WGPSN

Labyrinthi

Artist's concept of Sikun Labyrinthus

Labyrinthi (complexes of intersecting valleys or ridges)[15] on Titan are named after planets from the fictional Dune universe created by Frank Herbert.[16][17]

Labyrinthus Coordinates Diameter (km) Approval Date Named after Ref
Anbus Labyrinthus 39°12′N 215°00′W / 39.2°N 215°W / 39.2; -215 (Anbus Labyrinthus) 120 1 March 2017 Anbus WGPSN
Corrin Labyrinthus 66°00′S 31°00′W / 66.0°S 31°W / -66.0; -31 (Corrin Labyrinthus) 280 14 September 2017 Corrin WGPSN
Ecaz Labyrinthus 83°00′S 36°42′W / 83.0°S 36.7°W / -83.0; -36.7 (Ecaz Labyrinthus) 360 8 October 2014 Ecaz WGPSN
Gammu Labyrinthus 77°54′S 250°00′W / 77.9°S 250°W / -77.9; -250 (Gammu Labyrinthus) 115 8 March 2017 Gammu WGPSN
Gamont Labyrinthus 56°48′N 75°00′W / 56.8°N 75°W / 56.8; -75 (Gamont Labyrinthus) 130 1 March 2017 Gamont WGPSN
Gansireed Labyrinthus 69°18′S 239°18′W / 69.3°S 239.3°W / -69.3; -239.3 (Gansireed Labyrinthus) 300 8 March 2017 Gansireed WGPSN
Ginaz Labyrinthus 83°00′N 261°42′W / 83°N 261.7°W / 83; -261.7 (Ginaz Labyrinthus) 160 1 March 2017 Ginaz WGPSN
Grumann Labyrinthus 69°18′S 239°18′W / 69.3°S 239.3°W / -69.3; -239.3 (Grumann Labyrinthus) 540 1 March 2017 Grumann WGPSN
Harmonthep Labyrinthus 72°18′S 101°24′W / 72.3°S 101.4°W / -72.3; -101.4 (Harmonthep Labyrinthus) 363 14 September 2017 Harmonthep WGPSN
Ipyr Labyrinthus 86°14′N 289°00′W / 86.24°N 289°W / 86.24; -289 (Ipyr Labyrinthus) 76.97 14 December 2020 Ipyr WGPSN
Junction Labyrinthus 47°42′S 215°18′W / 47.7°S 215.3°W / -47.7; -215.3 (Junction Labyrinthus) 484 1 March 2017 Junction WGPSN
Kaitain Labyrinthus 52°22′N 348°40′W / 52.37°N 348.66°W / 52.37; -348.66 (Kaitain Labyrinthus) 196 8 October 2014 Kaitain WGPSN
Kronin Labyrinthus 35°42′S 96°16′W / 35.7°S 96.27°W / -35.7; -96.27 (Kronin Labyrinthus) 270 1 March 2017 Kronin WGPSN
Lampadas Labyrinthus 81°48′S 124°00′W / 81.8°S 124°W / -81.8; -124 (Lampadas Labyrinthus) 445 8 March 2017 Lampadas WGPSN
Lankiveil Labyrinthus 48°12′S 149°30′W / 48.2°S 149.5°W / -48.2; -149.5 (Lankiveil Labyrinthus) 450 1 March 2017 Lankiveil WGPSN
Lernaeus Labyrinthus 83°24′S 138°00′W / 83.4°S 138°W / -83.4; -138 (Lernaues Labyrinthus) 167 8 March 2017 Lernaeus WGPSN
Muritan Labyrinthus 68°48′S 219°12′W / 68.8°S 219.2°W / -68.8; -219.2 (Muritan Labyrinthus) 200 8 March 2017 Muritan WGPSN
Naraj Labyrinthus 74°12′S 35°48′W / 74.2°S 35.8°W / -74.2; -35.8 (Naraj Labyrinthus) 115 8 March 2017 Naraj WGPSN
Niushe Labyrinthus 75°06′N 88°06′W / 75.1°N 88.1°W / 75.1; -88.1 (Niushe Labyrinthus) 222 14 September 2017 Niushe WGPSN
Palma Labyrinthus 72°24′S 31°00′W / 72.4°S 31°W / -72.4; -31 (Palma Labyrinthus) 69 8 March 2017 Palma WGPSN
Richese Labyrinthus 41°48′N 199°00′W / 41.8°N 199.0°W / 41.8; -199.0 (Richese Labyrinthus) 200 8 October 2014 Richese WGPSN
Salusa Labyrinthus 45°36′N 264°12′W / 45.6°N 264.2°W / 45.6; -264.2 (Salusa Labyrinthus) 126 14 September 2017 Salusa WGPSN
Sikun Labyrinthus 77°54′S 28°54′W / 77.9°S 28.9°W / -77.9; -28.9 (Sikun Labyrinthus) 175 6 January 2010 Sikun WGPSN
Tleilax Labyrinthus 48°S 16°W / 48°S 16°W / -48; -16 (Tleilax Labyrinthus) 207 1 March 2017 Tleilax WGPSN
Tupile Labyrinthus 80°30′S 32°12′W / 80.5°S 32.2°W / -80.5; -32.2 (Tupile Labyrinthus) 84 20 July 2015 Tupile WGPSN

Lacunae

Main article: Lakes of Titan

Lacunae are dark areas with the appearance of dry lake beds, which are named after intermittent lakes on Earth.[18]

Lacunae Coordinates Length (km) Approval Date Named after Ref
Atacama Lacuna 68°12′N 227°36′W / 68.2°N 227.6°W / 68.2; -227.6 (Atacama Lacuna) 35.9 21 December 2010 Salar de Atacama, intermittent lake in Chile WGPSN
Cerknica Lacuna 71°07′N 175°34′W / 71.12°N 175.56°W / 71.12; -175.56 (Cerknica Lacuna) 96 13 April 2022 Intermittent lake in Slovenia WGPSN
Eyre Lacuna 72°36′N 225°06′W / 72.6°N 225.1°W / 72.6; -225.1 (Eyre Lacuna) 25.4 21 December 2010 Lake Eyre, an intermittent lake in Australia WGPSN
Jerid Lacuna 66°42′N 221°00′W / 66.7°N 221°W / 66.7; -221 (Jerid Lacuna) 42.6 21 December 2010 Chott el Djerid, intermittent lake in Tunisia WGPSN
Kutch Lacuna 88°24′N 217°00′W / 88.4°N 217°W / 88.4; -217 (Kutch Lacuna) 175 3 December 2013 Great Rann of Kutch, intermittent lake on Pakistani-Indian border WGPSN
Melrhir Lacuna 64°54′N 212°36′W / 64.9°N 212.6°W / 64.9; -212.6 (Melrhir Lacuna) 23 21 December 2010 Chott Melrhir, intermittent lake in Algeria WGPSN
Nakuru Lacuna 65°49′N 94°00′W / 65.81°N 94°W / 65.81; -94 (Nakuru Lacuna) 188 3 December 2013 Lake Nakuru, intermittent lake in Kenya WGPSN
Ngami Lacuna 66°42′N 213°54′W / 66.7°N 213.9°W / 66.7; -213.9 (Ngami Lacuna) 37.2 21 December 2010 Lake Ngami, in Botswana, and like its terrestrial namesake is considered to be endorheic. WGPSN
Orog Lacuna 70°51′N 172°04′W / 70.85°N 172.06°W / 70.85; -172.06 (Orog Lacuna) 42 13 April 2022 Intermittent lake in Mongolia WGPSN
Racetrack Lacuna 66°06′N 224°54′W / 66.1°N 224.9°W / 66.1; -224.9 (Racetrack Lacuna) 9.9 21 December 2010 Racetrack Playa, intermittent lake in California, USA WGPSN
Uyuni Lacuna 66°18′N 228°24′W / 66.3°N 228.4°W / 66.3; -228.4 (Uyuni Lacuna) 27 21 December 2010 Salar de Uyuni, intermittent lake and world's largest salt flat in Bolivia WGPSN
Veliko Lacuna 76°48′S 33°06′W / 76.8°S 33.1°W / -76.8; -33.1 (Veliko Lacuna) 93 20 July 2015 Veliko Lake, intermittent lake in Bosnia-Herzegovina WGPSN
Woytchugga Lacuna 68°53′N 109°00′W / 68.88°N 109.0°W / 68.88; -109.0 (Woytchugga Lacuna) 449 3 December 2013 Indications are that it is an intermittent lake and so was named in 2013 after Lake Woytchugga near Wilcannia, Australia. WGPSN

Lacūs

Lakes of liquid methane on Titan. View from Bolsena Lacus (lower right) to Mackay Lacus (upper left).

Main article: Lakes of Titan

Lacūs (plural form of lacus used in Titan geological nomenclature) are hydrocarbon lakes.[19]

Large ringed features

Large ring features are named after deities of wisdom in world mythology.[20]

Ring feature Coordinates Diameter (km) Approval Date Named after Ref
Guabonito 10°54′S 150°48′W / 10.9°S 150.8°W / -10.9; -150.8 (Guabonito) 55 2006 Guabonito, Taíno sea goddess WGPSN
Nath 30°30′S 7°42′W / 30.5°S 7.7°W / -30.5; -7.7 (Nath) 95 2006 Irish goddess of wisdom WGPSN
Paxsi 5°00′N 341°12′W / 5.0°N 341.2°W / 5.0; -341.2 (Paxsi) 120 15 October 2010 Aymara goddess of the moon and wisdom WGPSN
Veles 2°00′N 137°18′W / 2.0°N 137.3°W / 2.0; -137.3 (Veles) 45 2006 Veles, Slavic god WGPSN

Maculae

Titanean maculae (dark spots) are named after deities of happiness, peace, and harmony in world mythology.[21]

Macula Coordinates Diameter (km) Approval Date Named after Ref
Eir Macula 24°00′S 114°42′W / 24.0°S 114.7°W / -24.0; -114.7 (Eir Macula) 145 2006 Eir, Norse goddess. WGPSN
Elpis Macula 31°12′N 27°00′W / 31.2°N 27.0°W / 31.2; -27.0 (Elpis Macula) 500 2006 Elpis, Greek god WGPSN
Ganesa Macula 50°00′N 87°18′W / 50.0°N 87.3°W / 50.0; -87.3 (Ganesa Macula) 160 2006 Ganesa, Hindu god WGPSN
Genetaska Macula 23°30′N 196°18′W / 23.5°N 196.3°W / 23.5; -196.3 (Genetaska Macula) 24 20 July 2015 Genetaska, Peace Queen of the Iroquois WGPSN
Omacatl Macula 17°36′N 37°12′W / 17.6°N 37.2°W / 17.6; -37.2 (Omacatl Macula) 225 2006 Omacatl, Aztec god. WGPSN
Polaznik Macula 41°06′S 280°24′W / 41.1°S 280.4°W / -41.1; -280.4 (Polaznik Macula) 346.90 5 April 2010 Polaznik, Slavic god WGPSN
Polelya Macula 50°00′N 56°00′W / 50.0°N 56.0°W / 50.0; -56.0 (Polelya Macula) 175 2 March 2007 Polelya, Slavic god WGPSN

Maria

Main article: Lakes of Titan

Maria (plural of mare) are hydrocarbon seas.[22]

Montes

Mountains are named after mountains from the fictional Middle-Earth created by J.R.R. Tolkien.[23]

Mons Coordinates Diameter (km) Approval Date Named after Ref
Angmar Montes 10°00′S 221°00′W / 10.0°S 221.0°W / -10.0; -221.0 (Angmar Montes) 230 5 December 2011 Mountains of Angmar WGPSN
Dolmed Montes 11°36′S 216°48′W / 11.6°S 216.8°W / -11.6; -216.8 (Dolmed Montes) 400 5 December 2011 Mount Dolmed WGPSN
Doom Mons 14°39′S 40°25′W / 14.65°S 40.42°W / -14.65; -40.42 (Doom Mons) 63 13 November 2012 Mount Doom WGPSN
Echoriat Montes 7°24′S 213°48′W / 7.4°S 213.8°W / -7.4; -213.8 (Echoriat Montes) 930 5 December 2011 Echoriath WGPSN
Erebor Mons 4°58′S 36°14′W / 4.97°S 36.23°W / -4.97; -36.23 (Erebor Mons) 50 13 November 2012 Erebor, the Lonely Mountain WGPSN
Gram Montes 9°54′S 207°54′W / 9.9°S 207.9°W / -9.9; -207.9 (Gram Montes) 260 5 December 2011 Mount Gram WGPSN
Irensaga Montes 5°41′S 212°43′W / 5.68°S 212.71°W / -5.68; -212.71 (Irensaga Montes) 194 13 November 2012 Irensaga WGPSN
Lithui Montes 84°41′N 112°34′W / 84.68°N 112.56°W / 84.68; -112.56 (Lithui Montes) 200 14 December 2020 Ered Lithui, also called Ash Mountains WGPSN
Luin Montes 81°59′N 36°16′W / 81.98°N 36.26°W / 81.98; -36.26 (Luin Montes) 156 13 April 2022 Name of a mountain range from Middle-Earth WGPSN
Merlock Montes 8°54′S 211°48′W / 8.9°S 211.8°W / -8.9; -211.8 (Merlock Montes) 200 5 December 2011 Merlock Mountains WGPSN
Mindolluin Montes 3°18′S 208°58′W / 3.3°S 208.96°W / -3.3; -208.96 (Mindolluin Montes) 340 13 November 2012 Mindolluin WGPSN
Misty Montes 56°48′N 62°26′W / 56.8°N 62.44°W / 56.8; -62.44 (Misty Montes) 73 13 November 2012 Misty Mountains WGPSN
Mithrim Montes 2°10′S 127°25′W / 2.16°S 127.42°W / -2.16; -127.42 (Mithrim Montes) 147 13 November 2012 Mountains of Mithrim WGPSN
Moria Montes 15°06′N 190°30′W / 15.1°N 190.5°W / 15.1; -190.5 (Moria Montes) 107 20 July 2015 Mountains of Moria WGPSN
Rerir Montes 4°48′S 212°06′W / 4.8°S 212.1°W / -4.8; -212.1 (Rerir Montes) 370 5 December 2011 Mount Rerir WGPSN
Taniquetil Montes 3°40′S 213°16′W / 3.67°S 213.26°W / -3.67; -213.26 (Taniquetil Montes) 130 13 November 2012 Taniquetil WGPSN

Paterae

Paterae are caldera or deep-wall craters with a possible volcanic origin. Sotra Patera was formerly named Sotra Facula, which followed the naming theme for Faculae.[24] No nomenclature currently exists for this class of features on Titan.

Patera Coordinates Diameter (km) Approval Date Named after Ref
Sotra Patera 12°30′S 39°48′W / 12.5°S 39.8°W / -12.5; -39.8 (Sotra Facula) 40 19 December 2012 Sotra, Norwegian island WGPSN

Planitiae

Planitiae (low plains) on Titan are named after planets from the fictional Dune universe created by Frank Herbert.[16][25]

Planitia Coordinates Diameter (km) Approval Date Named after Ref
Arrakis Planitia 78°24′S 117°00′W / 78.4°S 117.0°W / -78.4; -117.0 (Arrakis Planitia) 337.40 5 April 2010 Arrakis WGPSN
Buzzell Planitia 66°18′S 262°42′W / 66.3°S 262.7°W / -66.3; -262.7 (Buzzell Planitia) 870 18 March 2016 Buzzell WGPSN
Caladan Planitia 31°00′N 226°00′W / 31.0°N 226.0°W / 31.0; -226.0 (Caladan Planitia) 2800 8 October 2014 Caladan WGPSN
Chusuk Planitia 5°00′S 23°30′W / 5.0°S 23.5°W / -5.0; -23.5 (Chusuk Planitia) 125 4 August 2009 Chusuk WGPSN
Giedi Planitia 5°13′N 357°01′W / 5.22°N 357.02°W / 5.22; -357.02 (Giedi Planitia) 303.25 24 August 2017 Giedi WGPSN
Hagal Planitia 60°36′S 345°00′W / 60.6°S 345.0°W / -60.6; -345.0 (Hagal Planitia) 435 27 December 2015 Hagal WGPSN
Poritrin Planitia 48°00′N 24°00′W / 48.0°N 24.0°W / 48.0; -24.0 (Poritrin Planitia) 1900 8 October 2014 Poritrin WGPSN
Romo Planitia 82°48′S 201°00′W / 82.8°S 201.0°W / -82.8; -201.0 (Romo Planitia) 400 27 December 2015 Romo WGPSN
Rossak Planitia 71°00′S 355°00′W / 71.0°S 355°W / -71.0; -355 (Rossak Planitia) 512 27 December 2015 Rossak WGPSN
Xuttah Planitia 10°36′N 167°41′W / 10.60°N 167.69°W / 10.60; -167.69 (Xuttah Planitia) 18 13 April 2022 Xuttah WGPSN

Regiones

Regiones (regions distinctly different from their surroundings) are named after deities of peace and happiness.[26]

Regio Coordinates Diameter (km) Approval Date Named after Ref
Concordia Regio 20°00′S 241°00′W / 20.0°S 241.0°W / -20.0; -241.0 (Concordia Regio) 1500 5 January 2012 Concordia, the Roman goddess of divinity and harmony WGPSN
Hetpet Regio 22°00′S 292°00′W / 22.0°S 292.0°W / -22.0; -292.0 (Hetpet Regio) 1080 5 January 2012 Hetpet, the Egyptian personification of happiness WGPSN
Hotei Regio 26°00′S 78°00′W / 26.0°S 78.0°W / -26.0; -78.0 (Hotei Regio) 500 7 May 2009 Budai, Chinese/Japanese god WGPSN
Ochumare Regio 10°24′N 348°06′W / 10.4°N 348.1°W / 10.4; -348.1 (Ochumare Regio) 939 14 September 2017 Ochumare, Puertan Rican goddess of happiness and weather WGPSN
Tui Regio 24°30′S 124°54′W / 24.5°S 124.9°W / -24.5; -124.9 (Tui Regio) 1200 2006 Tui, Chinese goddess. WGPSN

Sinūs

Sinus (bays) within seas or lakes are named after terrestrial bays, coves, fjords or inlets.[27]

Name Coordinates Liquid body Length (km)[note 1] Approval Date Source of name Ref
Arnar Sinus 72°36′N 322°00′W / 72.6°N 322°W / 72.6; -322 (Arnar Sinus) Kraken Mare 101 19 January 2015 Arnar, fjord in Iceland WGPSN
Avacha Sinus 82°52′N 335°26′W / 82.87°N 335.43°W / 82.87; -335.43 (Avacha Sinus) Punga Mare 51 12 March 2020 Avacha Bay in Kamchatka, Russia WGPSN
Baffin Sinus 80°21′N 344°37′W / 80.35°N 344.62°W / 80.35; -344.62 (Baffin Sinus) Kraken Mare 110 9 January 2018 Baffin Bay between Canada and Greenland WGPSN
Boni Sinus 78°41′N 345°23′W / 78.69°N 345.38°W / 78.69; -345.38 (Boni Sinus) Kraken Mare 54 9 January 2018 Gulf of Boni in Indonesia WGPSN
Dingle Sinus 81°22′N 336°26′W / 81.36°N 336.44°W / 81.36; -336.44 (Dingle Sinus) Kraken Mare 80 9 January 2018 Dingle Bay in Ireland WGPSN
Fagaloa Sinus 82°54′N 320°30′W / 82.9°N 320.5°W / 82.9; -320.5 (Fagaloa Sinus) Punga Mare 33 14 December 2020 Fagaloa Bay in Upolu Island, Samoa WGPSN
Flensborg Sinus 64°54′N 295°18′W / 64.9°N 295.3°W / 64.9; -295.3 (Flensborg Sinus) Kraken Mare 115 19 January 2015 Flensburg Firth, fjord between Denmark and Germany WGPSN
Fundy Sinus 83°16′N 315°38′W / 83.26°N 315.64°W / 83.26; -315.64 (Fundy Sinus) Punga Mare 91 12 March 2020 Bay of Fundy in Canada that hosts the world's largest tides[28] WGPSN
Gabes Sinus 67°36′N 289°36′W / 67.6°N 289.6°W / 67.6; -289.6 (Gabes Sinus) Kraken Mare 147 19 January 2015 Gabes, or Syrtis minor, a bay in Tunisia WGPSN
Genova Sinus 80°07′N 326°37′W / 80.11°N 326.61°W / 80.11; -326.61 (Genova Sinus) Kraken Mare 125 9 January 2018 Gulf of Genoa in Italy WGPSN
Kumbaru Sinus 56°48′N 303°48′W / 56.8°N 303.8°W / 56.8; -303.8 (Kumbaru Sinus) Kraken Mare 122 19 January 2015 Bay in India WGPSN
Lulworth Sinus 67°11′N 316°53′W / 67.19°N 316.88°W / 67.19; -316.88 (Lulworth Sinus) Kraken Mare 24 12 March 2020 Lulworth Cove in southern England WGPSN
Maizuru Sinus 78°54′N 352°32′W / 78.9°N 352.53°W / 78.9; -352.53 (Maizuru Sinus) Kraken Mare 92 9 January 2018 Maizuru Bay in Japan WGPSN
Manza Sinus 79°17′N 346°06′W / 79.29°N 346.1°W / 79.29; -346.1 (Manza Sinus) Kraken Mare 37 9 January 2018 Manza Bay in Tanzania WGPSN
Montego Sinus 80°46′N 130°55′W / 80.76°N 130.92°W / 80.76; -130.92 (Montego Sinus) 83 13 April 2022 Montego Bay in Jamaica WGPSN
Moray Sinus 76°36′N 281°24′W / 76.6°N 281.4°W / 76.6; -281.4 (Moray Sinus) Kraken Mare 204 19 January 2015 Moray Firth in Scotland WGPSN
Nicoya Sinus 74°48′N 251°12′W / 74.8°N 251.2°W / 74.8; -251.2 (Nicoya Sinus) Ligeia Mare 130 19 January 2015 Gulf of Nicoya in Costa Rica WGPSN
Okahu Sinus 73°42′N 282°00′W / 73.7°N 282°W / 73.7; -282 (Okahu Sinus) Kraken Mare 141 19 January 2015 Okahu Bay near Auckland, New Zealand WGPSN
Patos Sinus 77°12′N 224°48′W / 77.2°N 224.8°W / 77.2; -224.8 (Patos Sinus) Ligeia Mare 103 19 January 2015 Patos, fjord in Chile WGPSN
Puget Sinus 82°24′N 241°06′W / 82.4°N 241.1°W / 82.4; -241.1 (Puget Sinus) Ligeia Mare 93 19 January 2015 Puget Sound in Washington, United States WGPSN
Rombaken Sinus 75°18′N 232°54′W / 75.3°N 232.9°W / 75.3; -232.9 (Rombaken Sinus) Ligeia Mare 92.5 19 January 2015 Rombaken, fjord in Norway WGPSN
Saldanha Sinus 82°25′N 322°30′W / 82.42°N 322.5°W / 82.42; -322.5 (Saldanha Sinus) Punga Mare 18 14 December 2020 Saldanha Bay in South Africa WGPSN
Skelton Sinus 76°48′N 314°54′W / 76.8°N 314.9°W / 76.8; -314.9 (Skelton Sinus) Kraken Mare 73 19 January 2015 Skelton Glacier near Ross Sea, Antarctica WGPSN
Trold Sinus 71°18′N 292°42′W / 71.3°N 292.7°W / 71.3; -292.7 (Trold Sinus) Kraken Mare 118 19 January 2015 Trold Fiord Formation in Nunavut, Canada WGPSN
Tumaco Sinus 82°33′N 315°13′W / 82.55°N 315.22°W / 82.55; -315.22 (Puget Sinus) Punga Mare 31 14 December 2020 Tumaco, port city and bay in Colombia WGPSN
Tunu Sinus 79°12′N 299°48′W / 79.2°N 299.8°W / 79.2; -299.8 (Tunu Sinus) Kraken Mare 134 19 January 2015 Tunu, fjord in Greenland WGPSN
Wakasa Sinus 80°42′N 270°00′W / 80.7°N 270°W / 80.7; -270 (Wakasa Sinus) Ligeia Mare 146 19 January 2015 Wakasa Bay in Japan WGPSN
Walvis Sinus 58°12′N 324°06′W / 58.2°N 324.1°W / 58.2; -324.1 (Walvis Sinus) Kraken Mare 253 19 January 2015 Walvis Bay in Namibia WGPSN

Terrae

Terrae are extensive landmasses. As with the albedo features, they are named after sacred and enchanted locations from cultures across the world.[29]

Terra Coordinates Diameter (km) Approval Date Named after Ref
Garotman Terra 13°30′S 348°00′W / 13.5°S 348.0°W / -13.5; -348.0 (Garotman Terra) 970 5 January 2012 Garotman, the Iranian paradise that the souls of faithful men inhabit WGPSN
Tollan Terra 6°24′N 322°42′W / 6.4°N 322.7°W / 6.4; -322.7 (Tollan Terra) 800 5 January 2012 Tollan, the Aztec paradise where crops never wilt WGPSN
Tsiipiya Terra 2°50′N 340°07′W / 2.83°N 340.12°W / 2.83; -340.12 (Tsiipiya Terra) 573.24 24 August 2017 Tsiipiya, the Hopi name for Mount Taylor in New Mexico, USA WGPSN
Yalaing Terra 19°30′S 324°00′W / 19.5°S 324.0°W / -19.5; -324.0 (Yalaing Terra) 980 5 January 2012 Yalaing, the Australian spirit land for good souls with clean water and game WGPSN

Undae

Undae are dune fields. On Titan they are named after Greek deities of wind.[30]

Undae Coordinates Diameter (km) Approval Date Named after Ref
Aura Undae 13°47′N 226°52′W / 13.79°N 226.86°W / 13.79; -226.86 (Aura Undae) 490 20 July 2015 Aura, goddess of the morning wind. WGPSN
Boreas Undae 6°S 215°W / 6°S 215°W / -6; -215 (Boreas Undae) 260 5 December 2011 Boreas, Greek god of the north wind. WGPSN
Eurus Undae 7°30′S 210°18′W / 7.5°S 210.3°W / -7.5; -210.3 (Eurus Undae) 220 5 December 2011 Eurus, Greek personification of the east wind. WGPSN
Notus Undae 10°00′S 211°06′W / 10°S 211.1°W / -10; -211.1 (Notus Undae) 530 5 December 2011 Notus, Greek god of the south or southwest wind. WGPSN
Zephyrus Undae 8°30′S 217°06′W / 8.5°S 217.1°W / -8.5; -217.1 (Zephyrus Undae) 130 5 December 2011 Zephyrus, Greek personification of the gentle west wind. WGPSN

Virgae

Virgae (streaks of colour) are named after rain gods in world mythologies.[31]

Virga Coordinates Diameter (km) Approval Date Named after Ref
Bacab Virgae 19°00′S 151°00′W / 19.0°S 151.0°W / -19.0; -151.0 (Bacab Virgae) 485 2006 Bacab, Mayan rain god WGPSN
Hobal Virga 35°00′S 166°00′W / 35.0°S 166.0°W / -35.0; -166.0 (Hobal Virga) 1075 2006 Hobal, Arabian rain god. WGPSN
Kalseru Virga 36°00′S 137°00′W / 36.0°S 137.0°W / -36.0; -137.0 (Kalseru Virga) 630 2006 Kalseru, Australian Aborigine rain god. WGPSN
Perkunas Virgae 27°00′S 162°00′W / 27.0°S 162.0°W / -27.0; -162.0 (Perkunas Virgae) 980 2006 Perkūnas, Lithuanian supreme god WGPSN
Shiwanni Virgae 25°00′S 32°00′W / 25.0°S 32.0°W / -25.0; -32.0 (Shiwanni Virgae) 1400 2006 Shiwanni, Zuni rain god WGPSN
Tishtrya Virgae 23°48′N 179°48′W / 23.8°N 179.8°W / 23.8; -179.8 (Tishtrya Virgae) 276 20 July 2015 Tishtrya, Persian rain god WGPSN
Tlaloc Virgae 23°42′N 207°42′W / 23.7°N 207.7°W / 23.7; -207.7 (Tlaloc Virgae) 600 20 July 2015 Tlaloc, Aztec rain god WGPSN
Uanui Virgae 45°12′N 235°18′W / 45.2°N 235.3°W / 45.2; -235.3 (Uanui Virgae) 917 5 April 2010 Uanui, Māori rain god WGPSN

Informal names for previously unnamed features

Because the exact nature of many surface features remain mysterious, a number of features took time to receive formal names and are known by nicknames. In most cases, indications of brightness and darkness refer not to visible light, but to the infrared images used to look through Titan's obscuring haze.[32]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d The USGS web site gives size as a "diameter", but it is actually the length in the longest dimension.
  2. ^ "Dry valleys" apply to rivers that are not directly connected to a known liquid body (Mare or lacus).

References

  1. ^ "Titan Features". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved September 8, 2010.
  2. ^ Overbye, Dennis (3 December 2019). "Go Ahead, Take a Spin on Titan - Saturn's biggest moon has gasoline for rain, soot for snow and a subsurface ocean of ammonia. Now there's a map to help guide the search for possible life there". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 December 2019.
  3. ^ "Titan albedo features". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  4. ^ "Melanesian Mythology | Encyclopedia.com". encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2020-03-15.
  5. ^ "Titan arcus". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  6. ^ "Titan Colles". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
  7. ^ "Titan craters". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  8. ^ "Titan facula, faculae". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  9. ^ "Titan fluctus". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  10. ^ "Titan river, rivers". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  11. ^ "Mythological Journey to the Aztec Underworld | WilderUtopia.com". wilderutopia.com. 2018-10-10. Retrieved 2020-03-15.
  12. ^ "Titan fretum". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  13. ^ a b Lorenz, Ralph D.; Kirk, Randolph L.; Hayes, Alexander G.; Anderson, Yanhua Z.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Tokano, Tetsuya; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Malaska, Michael J.; Soderblom, Jason M.; Lucas, Antoine; Karatekin, Özgür (2014-07-15). "A radar map of Titan Seas: Tidal dissipation and ocean mixing through the throat of Kraken". Icarus. 237: 9–15. Bibcode:2014Icar..237....9L. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2014.04.005. ISSN 0019-1035.
  14. ^ "Titan islands". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  15. ^ Greeley, Ronald (2013). Introduction to Planetary Geomorphology. Cambridge University Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-521-86711-5.
  16. ^ a b Blue, Jennifer (August 4, 2009). "Hot Topics: New Name, Descriptor Term, and Theme Approved for Use on Titan". USGS Astrogeology. Archived from the original on November 1, 2014. Retrieved September 8, 2010.
  17. ^ "Titan Labyrinthi". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved October 25, 2020.
  18. ^ "Titan Lacunae". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
  19. ^ "Titan lakes". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  20. ^ "Titan large ringed feature". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  21. ^ "Titan macula, maculae". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  22. ^ "Titan mare, maria". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  23. ^ "Titan Mons, Montes". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  24. ^ "Planetary Names: Patera, paterae: Sotra Patera on Titan". planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2021-10-08.
  25. ^ "Titan Planitiae". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved January 3, 2015.
  26. ^ "Titan regio, regiones". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  27. ^ "Titan sinus (bays)". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  28. ^ Garrett, Christopher (August 1972). "Tidal Resonance in the Bay of Fundy and Gulf of Maine". Nature. 238 (5365): 441–443. Bibcode:1972Natur.238..441G. doi:10.1038/238441a0. ISSN 1476-4687. S2CID 4288383.
  29. ^ "Titan terra, terrae". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  30. ^ "Titan unde, undae". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  31. ^ "Titan virga, virgae". USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  32. ^ Barnes, Jason W.; Brown, Robert H.; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Janssen, Michael; Schaller, Emily L.; Brown, Michael E.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Sotin, Christophe; Griffith, Caitlin (2005-10-07). "A 5-Micron-Bright Spot on Titan: Evidence for Surface Diversity". Science. 310 (5745): 92–95. Bibcode:2005Sci...310...92B. doi:10.1126/science.1117075. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 16210535. S2CID 34297718.
  33. ^ Tokano, Tetsuya; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Van Hoolst, Tim (2014-11-01). "Numerical simulation of tides and oceanic angular momentum of Titan's hydrocarbon seas". Icarus. 242: 188–201. Bibcode:2014Icar..242..188T. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2014.08.021. ISSN 0019-1035.