Collection of percussion instruments
Collection of percussion instruments

This is a wide-ranging, inclusive list of percussion instruments.

It includes:

These three groups overlap heavily, but inclusion in any one is sufficient for an instrument to be included in this list. However, when only a specific subtype of the instrument qualifies as a percussion instrument, only that subtype is listed here. For example, a samba whistle (or apito) is an unpitched percussion instrument,[contradictory] but a whistle in general is not.

For brevity, synonyms represented in Wikipedia by redirects to a main article are not listed, but may be mentioned as a note. Only the main article names are listed in these cases. For example, apito is listed but samba whistle is merely noted as an alternate name. A distinct instrument or type represented only by a redirect to an article section should however be shown. Instruments represented only by redlinks have no Wikipedia articles as yet but are shown.

See list of percussion instruments by type for some shorter, more focused lists. Use the sorting arrows on the common usage column to group instruments as pitched, unpitched or both. Use the sorting arrows on the Classification column to group instruments according to their Hornbostel–Sachs classification.

Percussion instruments

Name(s) Picture Origin Common usage

Pitched /Unpitched /Both

Hornbostel–Sachs Classification References and notes
Aburukuwa [1] Ghana Unpitched 211 Membranophone
Acme siren
England Unpitched Aerophone
Afoxé
Brazil Unpitched 112.122 Idiophone
Agogô
Yoruba Unpitched 111.242 Idiophone Commonly used in Samba.
Agung
Philippines Unpitched 111.241.2 Idiophone
Agung a tamlang
Philippines 111.24 Idiophone
Alarm device
Both May be electronic or mechanical
Alfaia
Brazil Unpitched 211.212.1 Membranophone
Alligator drum [2] China Unpitched 211.2 Membranophone
Angklung
Indonesia Pitched 111.232 Idiophone [1]
Anvil
Unpitched 111 Idiophone A similar-sounding alternative is often used due to the weight of the blacksmith's anvil[2]
Apito
Brazil Unpitched 421.221.11 Aerophone Also known as samba whistle. Some apitos produce up to three different tones, but none of these is normally used as a pitched note.[3][failed verification]
Ashiko
Yoruba Unpitched 211.251.1 Membranophone
Atabaque
Brazil Unpitched 211.221.1 Membranophone
Babendil
Philippines Unpitched 111.242.1 Idiophone
Bak
Korea Unpitched 111.12 Idiophone
Balafon
Mali Pitched 111.212 Idiophone
Bamboula [3] Unpitched 211.212.1 Membranophone
Bara [4] West Africa Unpitched 211.11 Membranophone
Bass drum
Unpitched 211.212.1 Membranophone
Batá drum
Nigeria Unpitched 211.242.12 Membranophone
Beatboxing
Both 4 Aerophone
Bedug
Indonesia Unpitched 211.212.1 Membranophone
Bell
China Both 111.242 Idiophone
Bell plate
Asia Pitched 111.222 Idiophone
Bell tree
Unpitched 111.242.221 Idiophone Often confused with mark tree
Bendir
North Africa Unpitched 211.311 Membranophone
Berimbau
Brazil Pitched Chordophone
Bianzhong
China Pitched Idiophone
Binzasara
Japan Unpitched Idiophone
Bo
Unpitched Idiophone
Bock-a-da-bock [5] Unpitched 111.1 Idiophone
Bodhrán
Ireland Unpitched 211.321 Membranophone
Body percussion
Unpitched Membranophone
Bombo criollo
Unpitched Membranophone A family of Latin American drums derived from the European bass drum
Bombo legüero
Unpitched Membranophone Argentina
Bonang
Indonesia Pitched 111.241.2 Idiophone
Bones (instrument)
Unpitched 111.11 Idiophone
Bongo drum
Cuba Unpitched 211.251.2 Membranophone
Boobam
United States Unpitched 211.211.1 Membranophone
Boomwhacker
United States Pitched Idiophone Plastic percussion tubes
Bougarabou
West Africa Unpitched 211.261.2 Membranophone
Bubon [6] Ukraine Unpitched 232.311 Membranophone Type of skinned Tambourine
Buk
Korea Unpitched 211.222.1 Membrarophone
Cabasa
Unpitched 112.122 Idiophone
Cajón
Peru Unpitched 111.24 Idiophone Box Drum
Cajón de rumba
Cuba Unpitched 111.24 Idiophone
Calung
Indonesia Pitched 111.232 Idiophone
Carimbo [7] Africa Unpitched Membranophone
Candombe drums
Uruguay Unpitched Membranophone
Cannon
Unpitched Pyrophone Used in 1812 Overture
Cantaro
Mexico
Carillon
Belgium Pitched 111.242.2 Idiophone A type of bell tower inner workings.
Castanets
Unpitched 111.141 Idiophone
Caxirola
Brazil Unpitched Idiophone
Caxixi
West Africa Unpitched 112.13 African basket rattle
Celesta
France Pitched 111.222 Idiophone As a keyboard instrument, not part of the percussion section of the orchestra[4]
Chácaras
Canary Islands Unpitched 111.141 Idiophone
Chenda
India Unpitched 211.212 Membranophone
Chime bar
Pitched 111.221 Idiophone
Chime (bell instrument)
Pitched 111.242.2 Idiophone
China cymbal
Unpitched 111.24 Idiophone
Cimbalom
Hungary Pitched Chordophone
Clapper
Unpitched Idiophone
Clapping
Unpitched Idiophone
Clap stick
Australia Unpitched 111.11 Idiophone
Clash cymbals
Unpitched 111.142 Idiophone Better known as crash cymbals
Claves
Unpitched 111.11 Idiophone
Clavichord
Pitched 314.122-4-8 Chordophone Sound formed by striking the strings, but played as a keyboard instrument
Clay drum
Cocktail drum
Unpitched Membranophone
Conga
Cuba Unpitched 211.221.1 Membranophone
Cowbell
Both 111.242 Idiophone Tuned cowbells are known as almglocken or alpine bells[5]
Crotale
Both 111.24 Idiophone
Crystallophone
Pitched Idiophone
Cuíca
Disputed Pitched 231.11 Friction Membranophone
Cup chime
Pitched 111.24 Idiophone The only pitched cymbal, it is identical to a bell cymbal in all but usage
Cymbal
Unpitched 111 Idiophone
Dabakan
Philippines Unpitched 211 Membranophone, although shape is variously described as goblet, hourglass, conical, or tubular.
Daf
Iran Unpitched 211.311 Membranophone Also known as Dafli, Dap, Def, Tef, Defi, Gaval, Duf, and larger ones defi or daire
Damaru
South Asia Unpitched 212 Membranophone Type of Pellet drum.
Damphu
Nepal Unpitched Membranophone
Đàn tam thập lục [8] Vietnam Pitched Chordophone Type of hammered dulcimer.
Davul
Unpitched 211.212 Membranophone
Daxophone
Germany Pitched 132.1 Friction Idiophone Bowed percussion invented by Hans Reichel
Dayereh
Iran Unpitched 211.311 Membranophone Also known as doyra, dojra, dajre, doira, dajreja
Den-den daiko
Japan Unpitched 212 Membranophone Type of Pellet drum.
Derkach Ukraine Unpitched 112.24 Idiophone Type of ratchett
Dhaa Nepal Unpitched 211.212 Membranophone
Dhimay Nepal Unpitched 211.212 Membranophone
Dholak
South Asia Both 211.222.1 Membranophone Also known as dholki, similar to dohl
Dhol
India Both 211.212.1 Membranophone The bass head is pitched, the treble often unpitched, see pitched percussion instruments easily mistaken for unpitched
Dimdi India Unpitched 211.311 Membranophone
Djembe
Mandinka Unpitched 211.261.1 Membranophone
Dohol Middle East Both 211.212.1 Membranophone
Dollu
India Unpitched 211.222.1 Membranophone
Đông Sơn drums
Vietnam Bronze drums
Drum
Membranophone
Drum stick
Unpitched 111.11 Idiophone
Dunun
Mandé Both 211.212.1 Membranophone In ballet style playing, a repeating melody is played on three pitched drums
Egg shaker
Unpitched 112.13 Idiophone
Ekwe
Nigeria Unitched[clarification needed] 111.24 Idiophone A type of slit drum
Electronic drum
England Both 53 Electrophone
Esterilla Colombia Unpitched Idiophone
Ferrinho
Cape Verde Unpitched Idiophone
Fiddlesticks
Chordophone
Finger snapping
Unpitched Idiophone
Flexatone
Pitched 112.12 Idiophone
Flower drum China Unpitched Idiophone
Fontomfrom Ghana Membranophone
Found object
Frame drum
Unpitched 211.3 Membranophone
Friction drum
Both Membranophone A drum where a stick or chord is drawn through a hole in the membrane to make a sound.
Galgo Korea Unpitched 211.242.1 Membranophone
Gandingan
Philippines Unpitched 111.241.2 Idiophone
Ganzá
Brazil Unpitched 112.13
Gbedu Yoruba Unpitched Membranophone
Gendèr
Indonesia Pitched 111.222 Idiophone
Geophone
France Unpitched Membranophone
Ghatam
India Unpitched Idiophone
Glasschord
Glass harmonica
United States Pitched 133.2 Idiophone Specifically a friction Idiophone
Glass harp
Ireland Pitched 133.2 Idiophone Specifically a friction Idiophone
Glockenspiel
Pitched 111.212 Idiophone
Goblet drum
Unpitched 211.261 Membranophone Generic type by construction, see also individual instrument names
Goema South Africa Unpitched Membranophone
Gong
Brunei, China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Tibet Pitched 111.241.1 Idiophone
Gong bass drum
Japan Unpitched 211.311 Membranophone
Gonguê
Brazil Unpitched 111.242 Idiophone
Gudugudu Yoruba Pitched 211.11 Membranophone
Güira
Dominican Republic Unpitched 112.23 Idiophone
Güiro
Cuba, Panama Unpitched 112.23 Idiophone Also known as scraper
Hammered dulcimer
Pitched Chordophone Listed as a stringed instrument in some classifications
Handbell
England Both 111.242 Idiophone
Handchime
Pitched 111.231 Idiophone
Hand-repique
Brazil 211.211.1 Membranophone
Handpan
Pitched 111.24 Idiophone
Hang
Pitched 111.24 Idiophone
Hi-hat
Unpitched 111.142 Idiophone
Hosho
Zimbabwe Unpitched 112.13 Idiophone
Huiringua Type of slit drum
Hydraulophone
Hyoshigi
Japan Unpitched 111.11 Idiophone
Igba Unpitched Membranophone
Ikembe
Africa Pitched 122.1 Idiophone Lamellophone
Ikoro
Nigeria Unpitched 111.24 Idiophone
Ilimba Zimbabwe Unpitched 211.11 Membranophone
Jam block
Unpitched 111.2 Idiophone
Janggu / Janggo / Changgo
Korea Pitched 211.242.1 Membranophone
Jawbone
Peru Unpitched 112.211 Idiophone
Jew's harp
China Pitched 121.22 Lamellophone
Jhallari
India Pitched Chordophone
Jingle
Junjung
Serer Unpitched Membranophone
Kakko
Japan Unpitched 211.212.1 Membranophone
Kanjira
India Unpitched 211.311 Membranophone
Karyenda
Kebero
Ethiopia Unpitched Membranophone
Kecer
Indonesia Unpitched 111.142 Idiophone
Kemanak
Indonesia Pitched 111.24 Idiophone
Kempyang and ketuk
Indonesia 111.241.1 Idiophone
Kendang
Southeast Asia Unpitched 211.222.1 Membranophone
Kenong
Indonesia Pitched 111.241.2 Idiophone
Kepyak Indonesia Unpitched 111 Idiophone
Keyboard glockenspiel Pitched 111.222 Idiophone A keyboard instrument, not normally part of a percussion section
Khim
South Asia Pitched Chordophone Type of hammered dulcimer
Khol
India Unpitched Membranophone
Kirikoketa
Basque Idiophone
Kiringi
Kisanji
Congo Pitched Lamellaphone
Klong khaek
Thailand Unpitched Membranophone
Klong yao Thailand Unpitched Membranophone
Kouxian
China Both 121.2 Idiophone
Kpanlogo
Ghana Unpitched 211.221.1 Membranophone
Kulintang
Southeast Asia Pitched 111.241.2 Idiophone
Kundu
,
Papua Unpitched 211.222.1 Membranophone Papuan musical instrument
Kus Persia Membranophone Ancient Persian kettledrum
Lambeg
Ireland Unpitched 211.212 Membranophone
Lion's roar Unpitched 232.11 Membranophone Has also been referred to as a Chordophone or a Friction drum
Lithophone
Global Pitched Idiophone Either natural or placed rock formations which produce differing tones when struck.
Lujon
United States Pitched 111.222 Idiophone Bass Metalophone
Lummi stick Native American Unpitched 111.11 Idiophone
Madal
Nepal Unpitched Membranophone
Maddale
India Unpitched 211.222 Membranophonre
Madhalam
India Unpitched Mambranophone
Maktoum Unpitched Membranophone
Makuta Cuba Unpitched Membranophone
Malimbe Congo Pitched 111.212 Idiophone
Mangey Middle East Unpitched Membranophone
Maraca
Venezuela Unpitched 112.13 Idiophone
Maram (drum)
India Membranophone
Marching machine Unpitched 111.212 Idiophone [6]
Marfa
Marimba
Africa, Guatemala, Mexico, Honduras, Nicaragua, & Costa Rica Pitched 111.212 Idiophone
Marímbula
Caribbean Pitched 122.1 Idiophone
Mark tree
United States Unpitched 111.232 Idiophone Also known as a chime tree or bar chimes
Mbira
Africa Pitched 122.1 Idiophone African musical instrument, a type of plucked idiophone (lamellophone)
Metallophone
Asia Pitched 111.222 Idiophone
Mirwas
Bahrain, Brunei, Indonesia, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Yemen Both Membranophone
Monkey stick
England Unpitched 112.12 Idiophone Also known as mendoza or lagerphone
Mridangam
India Pitched 211.222.1 Membranophone
Musical saw
Pitched 132.1 Friction Idiophone
Nagara
Asia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan, Iran, Turkey, Turkmenistan Unpitched Membranophone
Naqara
Mongolia Unpitched Membranophone Large battle drum
Naqareh
Azerbaijan, India, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan Unpitched Membranophone
Naqus Morocco Idiophone
Ngoma drums
Africa Unpitched Membranophone
North Drums
United States Unpitched Membranophone
Ocean drum Unpitched
Octa-Vibraphone Pitched Idiophone
Octoban
Japan Both 211.211.1 Membranophone
Omele Nigeria
Onavillu
India Pitched Chordophone
Ōtsuzumi
Japan Pitched 211.242.1 Membranophone
Padayani thappu
India Unpitched Membranophone
Pahu
Hawaii Unpitched Membranophone
Pahū pounamu
New Zealand Unpitched Idiophone Traditional Maori gong.
Paiban
China Unpitched 111.11 Idiophone
Paila criolla Cuba Unpitched Membranophone
Pakhavaj
India pitched 211.222.1 Membranophone
Pambai
India Unpitched Membranophone
Pandeiro
Brazil Unpitched 211.311 Membranophone
Pandero jarocho Mexico Unpitched 211.311 Membranophone Octagonal Tambourine
Pantalon
Europe Pitched Chordophone A type of hammered dulcimer.
Pellet drum
Unpitched 212 Membranophone
Pixiphone
England Pitched 111.212 Idiophone
Practice pad
Unpitched
Plasmaphone
United States
Pyrophone
Quadrangularis Reversum
United States Pitched 111.212 Idiophone
Quintephone
Rainstick
Mexico Unpitched 112.13 Idiophone Subclassed as a combination Shaken Idiophone and Individual friction vessel
Rakatak Ghana
Ranat ek
Thailand Pitched Idiophone
Ranat ek lek
Thailand Pitched Idiophone
Ranat thum
Thailand Pitched Idiophone
Ranat thum lek
Thailand Pitched Idiophone
Ratchet
Unpitched 112.24 Idiophone
Rattle
Unpitched 112.13 Idiophone
Ravanne Mauritias Unpitched
Rebana
Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia Both 211.311 Membranophone
Repique
Brazil Unpitched 211.212.1 Membranophone
Ring of bells
Pitched Idiophone
Ring-repique Brazil Unpitched 211.212.1 Membranophone
Ringing rocks
Idiophone
Riq
Middle East Unpitched Membranophone
Rock gong
Both 111.22 Idiophone A type of constructed Lithophone
Rototom
United States Both 211.311 Membranophone classified it as no handle although it is usually mounted
Sabar
Senegal, The Gambia Unpitched Membranophone
Sakara Yoruba Unpitched Membranophone
Salterio
Europe Pitched Chordophone
Sambal
India Unpitched Membranophone
Samphor Cambodia Unpitched 211.222.1 Membranophone
Sand blocks
Unpitched 13 Idiophone
Santoor
South Asia Pitched Chordophone
Santur
Iran Pitched Chordophone Type of hammered dulcimer.
Saron
Indonesia Pitched 111.222 Idiophone Size from smallest to largest is Saron panerus, Saron barung,

Saron demung.

Scabellum
Ancient Rome Unpitched Often used by the aulos players
Semantron
Both Idiophone Used to summon monastics to prayer
Shekere
Brazil, Burkina Faso, Cuba, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, Senegal Unpitched 112.122 Idiophone
Shime-daiko
Japan Unpitched 211.222.1 Membranophone
Shishi-odoshi
Japan
Shōko
Japan Unpitched Idiophone
Sikulu Congo
Silex Piano Pitched Idiophone Lithophone
Singing bowl
Himalayas Pitched 111.242.11 Idiophone
Siren (alarm)
Scotland Both Electrophone
Skrabalai
Lithuania Pitched 111.242.222 Idiophone
Skull Idiophone
Sleigh bells
Unpitched 112.112 Idiophone Jingle bells
Slenthem
Indonesia Pitched 111.222 Idiophone
Slit drum
Both 111.24 Idiophone
Snare drum
Unpitched 211.212.1 Membranophone
Song bells
Pitched Idiophone
Sounding stone
China Idiophone
Spoon
Greece, Russia, Turkey Unpitched 111.14 Idiophone
Steelpan
Trinidad & Tobago Pitched 111.241.12 and 111.241.22 Idiophone[7] Also known as steel drum
Stomp box
Unpitched 111.24 Idiophone
Stone marimba
Pitched Idiophone Lithophone
Suikinkutsu
Japan
Surdo
Brazil Unpitched 211.212.1 Membranophone
Suspended cymbal
Unpitched 111.24 Idiophone
Taal India Unpitched 111 Also: manjira, karatalas
Tabla
India Pitched 211.221.2 Membranophone See pitched percussion instruments easily mistaken for unpitched
Tabla tarang India Pitched Membranophone
Taiko
Japan Unpitched 211 Membranophone Refers to traditional Japanese drums in general.
Talempong
Indonesia Pitched Idiophone
Talking drum
West Africa Pitched 211.242.11 Membranophone Has a sound that mimics the human voice
Tambora
Dominican Republic Unpitched 211.212.1 Membranophone
Tamborim
Brazil Unpitched 211.311 Membranophone
Tamborita calentana Mexico Unpitched Membranophone
Tambourine
Unpitched 211.311 Membranophone But the headless tambourine is an idiophone
Tan-tan
Brazil Unpitched 211.211.1 Membranophone
Tap shoe
Unpitched 111.222 Idiophone
Taphon
Thailand Unpitched 211.222.1 Membranophone
Tar (drum)
Saudi Arabia Unpitched 211.311 Membranophone
Tassa India Unpitched Membranophone Type of kettle drum
Taxi Horn
Both Aerophone
Tbilat
Morocco, Saudi Arabia Unpitched Membranophone
Teponaztli
El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico Both 111.24 Idiophone
Thappu
India Unpitched Membranophone
Thavil
India Unpitched 211.222.1 Membranophone
Thunder machine (instrument) Unpitched
Thunder sheet Unpitched 111.221 Idiophone
Tifa (drum)
Maluku Islands New Guinea Unpitched 211.221 Membranophone

211.231 Membranophone

211.251 Membranophone

Three kinds: a barrel drum, an hourglass drum and a goblet drum. Not pitched but tone can be changed with wax on drumhead
Timbal
Brazil Unpitched 211.251.1 Membranophone
Timbales
Cuba Unpitched 211.212.2 Membranophone
Timpani
Pitched 211.11-922 Membranophone Also called kettle drums
Tingsha
Tibet Unpitched 111.142 Idiophone
Tom-tom drum
Pitched 211.211.1 Membranophone
Tombak
Iran Unpitched 211.261.1 Membranophone Persian, also known as tombak, donbak and dombak, and as Tombakh Naar in Kashmir
Triangle
Cajuns Unpitched 111 Idiophone
Triccaballacca Italy Unpitched Idiophone
Tsuzumi
Japan Pitched 211.242.1 Membranophone
Tsymbaly Ukraine Pitched Chordophone Type of hammer dulcimer.
Tubular bells
Pitched 111.232 Idiophone
Tumba Unpitched Membranophone
Turntable
Both 53 Electrophone
Tumdak'
India Unpitched Membranophone
Turkish crescent
Unpitched Idiophone
Txalaparta
Basque Pitched 111.222 Idiophone
Udu
Nigeria Unpitched Idiophone Also classed as an implosive Aerophone.
Vibraphone
United States Pitched 111.222 Idiophone
Vibraslap
United States Unpitched 112 Idiophone
Washboard
Cajuns, United States Unpitched 132.1 Idiophone
Whip
Unpitched 111.11 Idiophone Also known as slapstick
Whistle
Unpitched Aerophone
Wind chime
Unpitched 111.232 Idiophone Borderline as pitched or unpitched, as a melody can sometimes be perceived
Wind machine
Unpitched 13 Idiophone
Wobble board Australia
Wood block
Unpitched 111.24 Idiophone
Wooden fish
China Both 111.24 Idiophone [5][8]
Xylophone
Ghana, Uganda, Zambia Pitched 111.212 Idiophone The xylophone is a musical instrument in the percussion family that consists of wooden bars struck by mallets
Xylorimba
Pitched 111.212 Idiophone
Yangqin
China Pitched Chordophone Type of hammered dulcimer.
Yuka Congo Unpitched Membranophone Made from a hollowed out avocado trunk with a leather membrane.
Zabumba
Brazil Unpitched 211.212.1 Membranophone
Zatula Ukraine Unpitched 112.2 Idiophone
Zill
Asia, Saudi Arabia, Turkey Unpitched 111.142 Idiophone Also known as finger cymbal

See also

Top-level articles

Subgroups of percussion instruments

Categories

Only the more significant subcategories are shown

References

  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-09-28. Retrieved 2014-10-02.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) retrieved March 13, 2012: The tubes are carefully whittled and cut by a master craftsperson to produce certain notes when the bamboo frame is shaken or tapped.
  2. ^ Blades, James; Holland, James (2001). "Anvil : Grove Music Online - oi". doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.01068. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. ^ "Brazilian Samba". prezi.com. Retrieved 2015-09-07.
  4. ^ http://usa.yamaha.com/products/musical-instruments/percussions/celesta/an_overview_of_yamaha_celestas/?mode=model retrieved March 13, 2012: Although treated as a member of the percussion section in orchestral terms, the celesta is played by a pianist, the part being normally written on two bracketed staves.
  5. ^ a b http://www.soundjunction.org/profiletunedpercussion.aspa?NodeID=2 Archived 2014-09-08 at the Wayback Machine retrieved 13 March 2012 There are lots of tuned percussion instruments. Among the most common are the xylophone, marimba, the glockenspiel, the cowbells and the temple blocks. Other suthorities cited here however say that temple blocks are not considered pitched instruments.
  6. ^ http://www.music.vt.edu/musicdictionary/textm/Marchingmachine.html retrieved 16 March 2012
  7. ^ Revision of the Hornbostel-Sachs Classification of Musical Instruments by the MIMO Consortium
  8. ^ http://www.music.vt.edu/musicdictionary/textt/Templeblocks.html retrieved 13 March 2012: Although temple blocks are not considered pitched instruments, they can produce discernable pitches, and some temple blocks are actually tuned to the pentatonic scale. Other authorities cited here however say that temple blocks are tuned percussion.